Battles of Saratoga

The Battles of Saratoga (September 19 and October 7, 1777) marked the climax of the Saratoga campaign, giving a decisive victory to the Americans over the British in the American Revolutionary War. British General John Burgoyne led a large invasion army southward from Canada in the Champlain Valley, hoping to meet a similar British force marching northward from New York City and another British force marching eastward from Lake Ontario; the southern and western forces never arrived, and Burgoyne was surrounded by American forces in upstate New York. He fought two small battles to break out which took place 18 days apart on the same ground, 9 miles (14 km) south of Saratoga, New York. They both failed.

Burgoyne found himself trapped by superior American forces with no relief, so he retreated to Saratoga (now Schuylerville) and surrendered his entire army there on October 17. His surrender, says historian Edmund Morgan, "was a great turning point of the war because it won for Americans the foreign assistance which was the last element needed for victory."[8]

Burgoyne's strategy to divide New England from the southern colonies had started well but slowed due to logistical problems. He won a small tactical victory over General Horatio Gates and the Continental Army in the September 19 Battle of Freeman's Farm at the cost of significant casualties. His gains were erased when he again attacked the Americans in the October 7 Battle of Bemis Heights and the Americans captured a portion of the British defenses. Burgoyne was therefore compelled to retreat, and his army was surrounded by the much larger American force at Saratoga, forcing him to surrender on October 17. News of Burgoyne's surrender was instrumental in formally bringing France into the war as an American ally, although it had previously given supplies, ammunition, and guns, notably the de Valliere cannon which played an important role in Saratoga.[9] This battle also resulted in Spain joining France in the war against Britain.

The battle on September 19 began when Burgoyne moved some of his troops in an attempt to flank the entrenched American position on Bemis Heights. Benedict Arnold anticipated the maneuver and placed significant forces in his way. Burgoyne did gain control of Freeman's Farm, but it came at the cost of significant casualties. Skirmishing continued in the days following the battle, while Burgoyne waited in the hope that reinforcements would arrive from New York City. Patriot militia forces continued to arrive, meanwhile, swelling the size of the American army. Disputes within the American camp led Gates to strip Arnold of his command.

British General Sir Henry Clinton moved up from New York City and attempted to divert American attention by capturing Forts Clinton and Montgomery in the Hudson River highlands on October 6, but his efforts were too late to help Burgoyne. Burgoyne attacked Bemis Heights again on October 7 after it became apparent that he would not receive relieving aid in time. This battle culminated in heavy fighting marked by Arnold's spirited rallying of the American troops. Burgoyne's forces were thrown back to the positions that they held before the September 19 battle, and the Americans captured a portion of the entrenched British defenses.

Background

The American Revolutionary War was approaching the two-year point, and the British changed their plans. They decided to split the Thirteen Colonies and isolate New England from what they believed to be the more Loyalist middle and southern colonies. The British command devised a plan to divide the colonies with a three-way pincer movement in 1777.[10] The western pincer under the command of Barry St. Leger was to progress from Ontario through western New York, following the Mohawk River,[11] and the southern pincer was to progress up the Hudson River valley from New York City.[12] The northern pincer was to proceed southward from Montreal, and the three forces were to meet in the vicinity of Albany, New York, severing New England from the other colonies.[13]

British situation

BurgoyneByReynolds
General John Burgoyne was referred to by some as "Gentleman Johnny" for his manners (portrait by Sir Joshua Reynolds, c. 1760)

British General John Burgoyne moved south from the province of Quebec in June 1777 to gain control of the upper Hudson River valley. His campaign had become bogged down in difficulties following a victory at Fort Ticonderoga.[13] Elements of the army had reached the upper Hudson as early as the end of July, but logistical and supply difficulties delayed the main army at Fort Edward. One attempt to alleviate these difficulties failed when nearly 1,000 men were killed or captured at the August 16 Battle of Bennington.[14] Furthermore, news reached Burgoyne on August 28 that St. Leger's expedition down the Mohawk River valley had turned back after the failed Siege of Fort Stanwix.[15]

General William Howe had taken his army from New York City by sea on a campaign to capture Philadelphia instead of moving north to meet Burgoyne.[16] Most of Burgoyne's Indian support had fled following the loss at Bennington, and his situation was becoming difficult.[17] He needed to reach defensible winter quarters, requiring either retreat back to Ticonderoga or advance to Albany, and he decided to advance. He then deliberately cut communications to the north so that he would not need to maintain a chain of heavily fortified outposts between his position and Ticonderoga, and he decided to cross the Hudson River while he was in a relatively strong position.[18] He ordered Baron Riedesel, who commanded the rear of the army, to abandon outposts from Skenesboro south, and then had the army cross the Hudson just north of Saratoga between September 13 and 15.[19]

American situation

HoratioGatesByStuart.jpeg
General Horatio Gates, portrait by Gilbert Stuart

The Continental Army had been in a slow retreat since Burgoyne's capture of Ticonderoga early in July, under the command of Major General Philip Schuyler, and was encamped south of Stillwater, New York. On August 19, Major General Horatio Gates assumed command from Schuyler, whose political fortunes had fallen over the loss of Ticonderoga and the ensuing retreat.[20] Gates and Schuyler were from very different backgrounds and did not get along with each other; they had previously argued over command issues in the army's Northern Department.[21] The army was growing in size because of increased militia turnout following calls by state governors, the success at Bennington, and widespread outrage over the slaying of Jane McCrea, the fiancée of a Loyalist in Burgoyne's army by Indians under Burgoyne's command.[22]

General George Washington's strategic decisions also improved the situation for Gates' army. Washington was most concerned about the movements of General Howe. He was aware that Burgoyne was also moving, and he took some risks in July. He sent aid north in the form of Major General Benedict Arnold, his most aggressive field commander, and Major General Benjamin Lincoln, a Massachusetts man noted for his influence with the New England militia.[23] He ordered 750 men from Israel Putnam's forces defending the New York highlands to join Gates' army in August, before he was certain that Howe had indeed sailed south. He also sent some of the best forces from his own army: Colonel Daniel Morgan and the newly formed Provisional Rifle Corps, which comprised about 500 specially selected riflemen from Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia, chosen for their sharpshooting ability.[24] This unit came to be known as Morgan's Riflemen.

Burgoyne's March on Albany, 1777
Map showing the movements of the opposing armies in the Saratoga campaign, and plan of the Battles of Saratoga (inset)

On September 7, Gates ordered his army to march north. A site was selected for its defensive potential that was known as Bemis Heights, just north of Stillwater and about 10 miles (16 km) south of Saratoga; the army spent about a week constructing defensive works designed by Polish engineer Tadeusz Kościuszko. The heights had a clear view of the area and commanded the only road to Albany, where it passed through a defile between the heights and the Hudson River. To the west of the heights lay more heavily forested bluffs that would present a significant challenge to any heavily equipped army.[25]

First Saratoga: Battle of Freeman's Farm (September 19)

Prelude

Moving cautiously, since the departure of his Native American support had deprived him of reliable reports on the American position, Burgoyne advanced to the south after crossing the Hudson.[26] On September 18 the vanguard of his army had reached a position just north of Saratoga, about 4 miles (6.4 km) from the American defensive line, and skirmishes occurred between American scouting parties and the leading elements of his army.[27]

The American camp had become a bed of festering intrigue ever since Arnold's return from Fort Stanwix. While he and Gates had previously been on reasonably good terms in spite of their prickly egos, Arnold managed to turn Gates against him by taking on officers friendly to Schuyler as staff, dragging him into the ongoing feud between the two.[28] These conditions had not yet reached a boil on September 19, but the day's events contributed to the situation. Gates had assigned the left wing of the defenses to Arnold, and assumed command himself of the right, which was nominally assigned to General Lincoln, whom Gates had detached in August with some troops to harass the British positions behind Burgoyne's army.[29]

First Battle of Saratoga.USMA.edu.history
Initial dispositions and movements at the Battle of Freeman's Farm, 19 September 1777

Both Burgoyne and Arnold understood the importance of the American left, and the need to control the heights there. After the morning fog lifted around 10 am, Burgoyne ordered the army to advance in three columns. Baron Riedesel led the left column, consisting of the German troops and the 47th Foot, on the river road, bringing the main artillery and guarding supplies and the boats on the river. General James Inglis Hamilton commanded the center column, consisting of the 9th, 20th, 21st, and 62nd regiments, which would attack the heights, and General Simon Fraser led the right wing with the 24th Regiment and the light infantry and grenadier companies, to turn the American left flank by negotiating the heavily wooded high ground north and west of Bemis Heights.[30]

Arnold also realized such a flanking maneuver was likely, and petitioned Gates for permission to move his forces from the heights to meet potential movements, where the American skill at woodlands combat would be at an advantage.[31] Gates, whose preferred strategy was to sit and wait for the expected frontal assault, grudgingly permitted a reconnaissance in force consisting of Daniel Morgan's men and Henry Dearborn's light infantry.[32] When Morgan's men reached an open field northwest of Bemis Heights belonging to Loyalist John Freeman, they spotted British advance troops in the field. Fraser's column was slightly delayed and had not yet reached the field, while Hamilton's column had also made its way across a ravine and was approaching the field from the east through dense forest and difficult terrain. Riedesel's force, while it was on the road, was delayed by obstacles thrown down by the Americans. The sound of gunfire to the west prompted Riedesel to send some of his artillery down a track in that direction. The troops Morgan's men saw were an advance company from Hamilton's column.[33]

Battle

First Battle of Saratoga 1300 Hours.USMA.edu.history
Map depicting the positions at 1:00 pm

Morgan placed marksmen at strategic positions, who then picked off virtually every officer in the advance company. Morgan and his men then charged, unaware that they were headed directly for Burgoyne's main army. While they succeeded in driving back the advance company, Fraser's leading edge arrived just in time to attack Morgan's left, scattering his men back into the woods.[34] James Wilkinson, who had ridden forward to observe the fire, returned to the American camp for reinforcements. As the British company fell back toward the main column, the leading edge of that column opened fire, killing a number of their own men.[35]

Saratoga-freeman
Modern view of the battleground of Freeman's Farm

There was then a lull in the fighting around 1:00 pm as Hamilton's men began to form up on the north side of the field, and American reinforcements began to arrive from the south. Learning that Morgan was in trouble, Gates ordered out two more regiments (1st and 3rd New Hampshire) to support him,[36] with additional regiments (2nd New York, 4th New York, the 1st Canadian, and Connecticut militia) from the brigade of Enoch Poor to follow.[37] Burgoyne arrayed Hamilton's men with the 21st on the right, the 20th on the left, and the 62nd in the center, with the 9th held in reserve.[38]

First Battle of Saratoga 1500 Hours.USMA.edu.history
Map depicting the positions at 3:00 pm

The battle then went through phases alternating between intense fighting and breaks in the action. Morgan's men had regrouped in the woods, and picked off officers and artillerymen. They were so effective at reducing the latter that the Americans several times gained brief control of British field pieces, only to lose them in the next British charge. At one point it was believed that Burgoyne himself had been taken down by a sharpshooter; it was instead one of Burgoyne's aides, riding a richly dressed horse, who was the victim. The center of the British line was very nearly broken at one point, and only the intervention of General Phillips, leading the 20th, made it possible for the 62nd to reform.[39] In Roger Lamb's memoir, (a British soldier present at the battle), he wrote ''In this battle an unusual number of officers fell, as our army abounded with young men of respectability at this time, who after several years of general peace anterior to the American revolution, were attracted to the profession of arms. Three sulbalterns (officers) of the 20th regiment on this occasion, the oldest of whom did not exceed the age of seventeen years, were buried together''[40]

The final stroke of the battle belonged to the British. Around 3 pm, Riedesel sent a messenger to Burgoyne for instructions. He returned two hours later with orders to guard the baggage train, but also to send as many men as he could spare toward the American right flank. In a calculated risk, Riedesel left 500 men to guard the vital supply train and marched off toward the action with the rest of his column. Two of his companies advanced on the double and opened vicious fire on the American right,[41] and Fraser's force threatened to turn the American left flank. In response to the latter threat, Arnold requested more forces, and Gates allowed him to dispatch Ebenezer Learned's brigade (2nd, 8th and 9th Massachusetts). (If Arnold had been on the field, these forces might have instead faced the larger danger posed by Riedesel's force.)[42] Fortunately for the American right, darkness set in, bringing an end to the battle. The Americans retreated back to their defenses, leaving the British on the field.[7]

First Battle of Saratoga 1700 Hours.USMA.edu.history
Map depicting the positions at 5:00 pm

Burgoyne had gained the field of battle, but suffered nearly 600 casualties. Most of these were to Hamilton's center column, where the 62nd was reduced to the size of a single company, and three quarters of the artillerymen were killed or wounded.[43] American losses were nearly 300 killed and seriously wounded.[44]

It has been widely recounted in histories of this battle that General Arnold was on the field, directing some of the action. However, John Luzader, a former park historian at the Saratoga National Historical Park, carefully documents the evolution of this story and believes it is without foundation in contemporary materials, and that Arnold remained at Gates' headquarters, receiving news and dispatching orders through messengers.[45][46] Arnold biographer James Kirby Martin, however, disagrees with Luzader, arguing that Arnold played a more active role at Freeman's Farm by directing patriot troops into position and possibly leading some charges before being ordered back to headquarters by Gates.[47]

Interlude

Burgoyne's council discussed whether to attack the next day, and a decision was reached to delay further action at least one day, to September 21. The army moved to consolidate the position closer to the American line while some men collected their dead. The attack on the 21st was called off when Burgoyne received a letter dated September 12 from Henry Clinton, who was commanding the British garrison in New York City. Clinton suggested that he could "make a push at [Fort] Montgomery in about ten days." (Fort Montgomery was an American post on the Hudson River, in the New York Highlands south of West Point). If Clinton left New York on September 22, "about ten days" after he wrote the letter, he still could not hope to arrive in the vicinity of Saratoga before the end of the month. Burgoyne, running low on men and food, was still in a very difficult position, but he decided to wait in the hope that Clinton would arrive to save his army.[49] Burgoyne wrote to Clinton on September 23, requesting some sort of assistance or diversion to draw Gates' army away.[48] Clinton sailed from New York on October 3, and captured Forts Montgomery and Clinton on October 6.[50] The furthest north any of his troops reached was Clermont, where they raided the estate of the prominent Patriot Livingston family on October 16.[51]

John Neilson House, Bemis Heights, Stillwater, Saratoga County, NY
Plan of battlefield of Saratoga, and views of John Neilson's house (which served as headquarters for Enoch Poor and Benedict Arnold) from south, east and inside

Unknown to either side at Saratoga, General Lincoln and Colonel John Brown had staged an attack against the British position at Fort Ticonderoga. Lincoln had collected 2,000 men at Bennington by early September.[52] Brown and a detachment of 500 men captured poorly defended positions between Ticonderoga and Lake George, and then spent several days ineffectually bombarding the fort. These men, and some of the prisoners they freed along the way, were back in the American camp by September 29.[53][54]

In the American camp, the mutual resentment between Horatio Gates and Benedict Arnold finally exploded into open hostility. Gates quickly reported the action of September 19 to the Congress and Governor George Clinton of New York, but he failed to mention Arnold at all. The field commanders and men universally credited Arnold for their success. Almost all the troops involved were from Arnold's command and Arnold was the one directing the battle while Gates sat in his tent. Arnold protested, and the dispute escalated into a shouting match that ended with Gates relieving Arnold of his command and giving it to Benjamin Lincoln. Arnold asked for a transfer to Washington's command, which Gates granted, but instead of leaving he remained in his tent.[55] There is no documentary evidence for a commonly recounted anecdote that a petition signed by line officers convinced Arnold to stay in camp.[56]

During this period there were almost daily clashes between pickets and patrols of the two armies. Morgan's sharpshooters, familiar with the strategy and tactics of woodland warfare, constantly harassed British patrols on the western flank.[57]

As September passed into October it became clear that Clinton was not coming to help Burgoyne, who put the army on short rations on October 3.[58] The next day, Burgoyne called a war council in which several options were discussed, but no conclusive decisions were made. When the council resumed the next day, Riedesel proposed retreat, in which he was supported by Fraser. Burgoyne refused to consider it, insisting that retreat would be disgraceful. They finally agreed to conduct an assault on the American left flank with two thousand men, more than one-third of the army, on October 7.[59] The army he was attacking, however, had grown in the interval. In addition to the return of Lincoln's detachment, militiamen and supplies continued to pour into the American camp, including critical increases in ammunition, which had been severely depleted in the first battle.[60] The army Burgoyne faced on October 7 was more than 12,000 men strong[2] and was led by a man who knew how much trouble Burgoyne was in. Gates had received consistent intelligence from the stream of deserters leaving the British lines and had also intercepted Clinton's response to Burgoyne's plea for help.[61]

Second Saratoga: Battle of Bemis Heights (October 7)

British foray

Arnold at Saratoga
Benedict Arnold at Battle of Bemis Heights

While Burgoyne's troop strength was nominally higher, he likely had only about 5,000 effective, battle-ready troops on October 7, as losses from the earlier battles in the campaign and desertions following the September 19 battle had reduced his forces.[62] General Riedesel advised that the army retreat. Burgoyne decided to reconnoiter the American left flank to see if an attack was possible. As an escort, the generals took Fraser's Advanced Corps, with light troops and the 24th Foot on the right and the combined British grenadiers on the left, and a force drawn from all the German regiments in the army in the center. There were eight British cannon under Major Williams and two Hesse-Hanau cannon under Captain Pausch.[63] Leaving their camp between 10 and 11 am, they advanced about three-quarters of a mile (1 km) to Barber's wheat field on a rise above Mill Brook, where they stopped to observe the American position. While the field afforded some room for artillery to work, the flanks were dangerously close to the surrounding woods.[64]

Gates, following the removal of Arnold from the field command, assumed command of the American left and gave the right to General Lincoln. When American scouts brought news of Burgoyne's movement to Gates, he ordered Morgan's riflemen out to the far left, with Poor's men (1st, 2nd, and 3rd New Hampshire on the left; the 2nd and 4th New York Regiments) on the right, and Learned's (1st New York, 1st Canadian, 2nd, 8th and 9th Massachusetts Regiments, plus militia companies) in the center. A force of 1,200 New York militia under Brigadier General Abraham Ten Broeck was held in reserve behind Learned's line.[65] In all, more than 8,000 Americans took the field that day,[66] including about 1,400 men from Lincoln's command that were deployed when the action became particularly fierce.[67]

Benedict Arnold 1color
Benedict Arnold
portrait by Thomas Hart

The opening fire came between 2 and 2:30 pm from the British grenadiers. Poor's men held their fire, and the terrain made the British shooting largely ineffective. When Major Acland led the British grenadiers in a bayonet charge, the Americans finally began shooting at close range. Acland fell, shot in both legs, and many of the grenadiers also went down. Their column was a total rout, and Poor's men advanced to take Acland and Williams prisoner and capture their artillery.[68] On the American left, things were also not going well for the British. Morgan's men swept aside the Canadians and Native Americans to engage Fraser's regulars. Although slightly outnumbered, Morgan managed to break up several British attempts to move west.[68] While General Fraser was mortally wounded in this phase of the battle,[69] a frequently told story claiming it to be the work of Timothy Murphy, one of Morgan's men, appears to be a 19th-century fabrication.[70] The fall of Fraser and the arrival of Ten Broeck's large militia brigade (which roughly equaled the entire British reconnaissance force in size), broke the British will, and they began a disorganized retreat toward their entrenchments. Burgoyne was also very nearly killed by one of Morgan's marksmen; three shots hit his horse, hat, and waistcoat.[71]

The first phase of the battle lasted about one hour and cost Burgoyne nearly 400 men, including the capture of most of the grenadiers' command, and six of the ten field pieces brought to the action.[71]

American attack

Second Battle of Saratoga.USMA.edu.history
Troop dispositions and initial movements at the Battle of Bemis Heights

At this point, the Americans were joined by an unexpected participant. General Arnold, who was "betraying great agitation and wrath" in the American camp, and may have been drinking, rode out to join the action.[72][73] Gates immediately sent Major Armstrong after him with orders to return; Armstrong did not catch up with Arnold until the action was effectively over.[73] (A letter, written by a witness to proceedings in the camp, suggests that Arnold did in fact have authorization from Gates to engage in this action.)[74]

The defenses on the right side of the British camp were anchored by two redoubts. The outermost one was defended by about 300 men under the command of the Hessian Heinrich von Breymann, while the other was under the command of Lord Balcarres. A small contingent of Canadians occupied the ground between these two fortifications. Most of the retreating force headed for Balcarres' position, as Breymann's was slightly north and further away from the early action.[75]

Arnold led the American chase, and then led Poor's men in an attack on the Balcarres redoubt. Balcarres had set up his defenses well, and the redoubt was held, in action so fierce that Burgoyne afterwards wrote, "A more determined perseverance than they showed … is not in any officer's experience".[76] Seeing that the advance was checked, and that Learned was preparing to attack the Breymann redoubt, Arnold moved toward that action, recklessly riding between the lines and remarkably emerging unhurt. He led the charge of Learned's men through the gap between the redoubts, which exposed the rear of Breymann's position, where Morgan's men had circled around from the far side.[77] In furious battle, the redoubt was taken and Breymann was killed.[78] Arnold's horse was hit in one of the final volleys, and Arnold's leg was broken by both shot and the falling horse. Major Armstrong finally caught up with Arnold to officially order him back to headquarters; he was carried back in a litter.[79]

The capture of Breymann's redoubt exposed the British camp, but darkness was setting in. An attempt by some Germans to retake the redoubt ended in capture as darkness fell and an unreliable guide led them to the American line.[80]

Surrender

Burgoyne had lost 1,000 men in the two battles, leaving him outnumbered by roughly 3 to 1; American losses came to about 500 killed and wounded. Burgoyne had also lost several of his most effective leaders, his attempts to capture the American position had failed, and his forward line was now breached. After the second battle, Burgoyne lit fires at his remaining forward positions and withdrew under the cover of darkness. He withdrew his men 10–15 miles north, near present-day Schuylerville, New York. By the morning of October 8, he was back in the fortified positions he had held on September 16.

On October 13, with his army surrounded, Burgoyne held a council of war to propose terms of surrender. Riedesel suggested that they be paroled and allowed to march back to Canada without their weapons. Burgoyne felt that Gates would not even consider such terms, asking instead to be conveyed to Boston, where they would sail back to Europe. After several days of negotiations, the two sides signed the capitulation.[81]

On October 17, Burgoyne surrendered his army to Gates. The British and German troops were accorded the traditional honors of war as they marched out to surrender. The troops formed the Convention Army, named after the convention that granted them safe passage back to Europe. However, the Continental Congress revoked the convention, and the Convention Army was kept in captivity until the end of the war.[82]

Aftermath

Arnold-boot
Boot Monument, depicting Arnold's injured leg

Burgoyne's failed campaign marked a major turning point in the war.[83] General Burgoyne returned to England and was never given another commanding position in the British Army.[84] The British learned that the Americans would fight bravely and effectively. Said one British officer:

The courage and obstinacy with which the Americans fought were the astonishment of everyone, and we now became fully convinced that they are not that contemptible enemy we had hitherto imagined them, incapable of standing a regular engagement and that they would only fight behind strong and powerful works.[85]

In recognition of his contribution to the battles at Saratoga, General Arnold had his seniority restored (he had lost it after being passed over for promotion earlier in 1777).[86] His leg wound left Arnold bedridden for five months.[87] Later, while still unfit for field service but serving as military governor of Philadelphia, Arnold entered into treasonous correspondence with the British. He received command of the fort at West Point and plotted to hand it over to the British, only to flee into the British lines when the capture of his contact John Andre led to the exposure of the plot. Arnold went on to serve under William Phillips, the commander of Burgoyne's right wing, in a 1781 expedition into Virginia.[88]

Although he left the direction of the battle to subordinates, General Gates received a great deal of credit as the commanding general for the greatest American victory of the war to date. He may have conspired with others to replace George Washington as the commander-in-chief.[89] Instead, he received the command of the main American army in the South. He led it to a disastrous defeat at the 1780 Battle of Camden, where he was at the forefront of a panicked retreat.[90][91] Gates never commanded troops in the field again.

In response to Burgoyne's surrender, Congress declared December 18, 1777, as a national day "for solemn Thanksgiving and praise"; it was the nation's first official observance of a holiday with that name.[92][93]

French aid

Once news of Burgoyne's surrender reached France, King Louis XVI decided to enter into negotiations with the Americans that resulted in a formal Franco-American alliance and French entry into the war. This moved the conflict onto a global stage.[94] As a consequence, Britain was forced to divert resources used to fight the war in North America to theaters in the West Indies and Europe, and rely on what turned out to be the chimera of Loyalist support in its North American operations.[95] Being defeated by the British in the French and Indian War more than a decade earlier, France found an opportunity to undercut British power and ultimately of revenge by aiding the colonists throughout the Revolutionary War. Prior to the Battle of Saratoga, France didn't fully aid the colonists. However, after the Battles of Saratoga were conclusively won by the colonists, France realized that the Americans had the hope of winning the war, and began fully aiding the colonists by sending soldiers, donations, loans, military arms, and supplies.[96]

Legacy

The battlefield and the site of Burgoyne's surrender have been preserved, and are now administered by the National Park Service as the Saratoga National Historical Park, which was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1966. The park preserves a number of the buildings in the area and contains a variety of monuments.[97] The Saratoga Monument obelisk has four niches, three of which hold statues of American commanders: Gates and Schuyler and of Colonel Daniel Morgan. The fourth niche, where Arnold's statue would go, is empty.[98] A more dramatic memorial to Arnold's heroism, that does not name him, is the Boot Monument. Donated by Civil War General John Watts de Peyster, it shows a boot with spurs and the stars of a major general. It stands at the spot where Arnold was shot on October 7 charging Breymann's redoubt and is dedicated to "the most brilliant soldier of the Continental Army".[99]

Six Army National Guard units (101st Eng Bn,[100] 102nd Inf,[101] 125th QM Co,[102] 181st Inf,[103] 182nd Inf[104] and 192nd MP Bn[105]) are derived from American units that participated in the Battle of Saratoga. There are now only thirty units in the U.S. Army with lineages that go back to the colonial era.

There are a number of ships named after the battles including USS Saratoga (1842), USS Saratoga (CV-3), and USS Saratoga (CV-60)[106]

15 23 801 saratoga
Saratoga Monument obelisk
Saratoga Battlefied
View of the battlefield from the visitor center of Saratoga National Historic Park
Libertas Americana silver medallion 1783
Benjamin Franklin honored the victory in Saratoga by commissioning and designing an Augustin Dupré medallion. It was minted in Paris in 1783.[107]
Saratoga 1777 Oriskany 1927 Issue-2c
The Surrender of General Burgoyne depicted on a 1927 US Postage Stamp

References in popular culture

In an episode of The Brady Bunch titled "Everyone Can't be George Washington", which originally aired on December 22, 1972, Peter (Christopher Knight) is assigned the part of Benedict Arnold in a school play about the American Revolution. His teacher Miss Bailey incorrectly states that Benedict Arnold was wounded at the Battle of Saratoga when there was, in fact no SINGLE Battle of Saratoga. She also fails to mention that Arnold was wounded during the assault on Quebec City in the same leg.

See also

References

  1. ^ Ketchum (1997), p. 355
  2. ^ a b c Ketchum (1997), p. 395
  3. ^ Nickerson (1967), p. 436
  4. ^ Luzader (2008), p. 230
  5. ^ a b Ketchum (1997), p. 405
  6. ^ Ketchum (1997), p. 371
  7. ^ a b Ketchum (1997), p. 368
  8. ^ Morgan, Edmund (1956). The Birth of the Republic: 1763–1789. pp. 82–83.
  9. ^ Springfield Armory
  10. ^ Ketchum (1997), pp. 84–85
  11. ^ Ketchum (1997), p. 335
  12. ^ Ketchum (1997), p. 82
  13. ^ a b Ketchum (1997), p. 348
  14. ^ Ketchum (1997), p. 320
  15. ^ Ketchum (1997), p. 332
  16. ^ Nickerson (1967), p. 189
  17. ^ Nickerson (1967), p. 265
  18. ^ Nickerson (1967), pp. 290–95
  19. ^ Nickerson (1967), p. 296
  20. ^ Ketchum (1997), p. 337
  21. ^ Ketchum (1997), pp. 52–53
  22. ^ Nickerson (1967), p. 288
  23. ^ Nickerson (1967), p. 180
  24. ^ Nickerson (1967), p. 216
  25. ^ Ketchum (1997), pp. 347–48
  26. ^ Nickerson (1967), p. 299
  27. ^ Nickerson (1967), p. 300
  28. ^ Ketchum (1997), pp. 351–52
  29. ^ Ketchum (1997), pp. 352, 355
  30. ^ Ketchum (1997), p. 357
  31. ^ Ketchum (1997), p. 356
  32. ^ Nickerson (1967), pp. 307–08
  33. ^ Ketchum (1997), pp. 358–60
  34. ^ Ketchum (1997), p. 360
  35. ^ Nickerson (1967), p. 309
  36. ^ Ketchum (1997), p. 362
  37. ^ Luzader (2008), p. 240
  38. ^ Nickerson (1967), p. 310
  39. ^ Nickerson (1967), pp. 310–12
  40. ^ Hagist, Don (2004). A British Soldier's Story: Roger Lamb's narrative of the American Revolution. p. 48.
  41. ^ Ketchum (1997), p. 367
  42. ^ Luzader (2008), pp. 391–92
  43. ^ Ketchum (1997), pp. 368–69
  44. ^ Nickerson (1967), p. 319
  45. ^ Ketchum (1997), p. 515
  46. ^ Luzader (2008), pp. 388–90, describes the relevant primary sources, and shows how early historians, including Lossing and Stone, gave rise to the story, and its propagation by later historians, including Nickerson.
  47. ^ Martin, James Kirby (1997). Benedict Arnold, Revolutionary Hero: An American Warrior Reconsidered. New York University Press. pp. 378–81, 514. ISBN 0-8147-5560-7.
  48. ^ a b Nickerson (1967), p. 343
  49. ^ Ketchum (1997), pp. 375–76
  50. ^ Nickerson (1967), pp. 345–51
  51. ^ Nickerson (1967), p. 405
  52. ^ Ketchum (1997), p. 376
  53. ^ Ketchum (1997), pp. 377–79
  54. ^ Nickerson (1967), pp. 324–26
  55. ^ Ketchum (1997), pp. 385–88
  56. ^ Luzader (2008), p. 271
  57. ^ Charles Kuralt, narrator (2009-07-03). "Misfortunes of War". The Revolutionary War. The Military Channel.
  58. ^ Nickerson (1967), p. 333
  59. ^ Nickerson (1967), pp. 356–57
  60. ^ Nickerson (1967), p. 326–27
  61. ^ Nickerson (1967), p. 353
  62. ^ Nickerson (1967), p. 358
  63. ^ Bird p. 223
  64. ^ Nickerson (1967), pp. 359–60
  65. ^ Nickerson (1967), p. 360
  66. ^ Luzader (2008), pp. 284–85
  67. ^ Luzader (2008), p. 286
  68. ^ a b Nickerson (1967), p. 361
  69. ^ Ketchum (1997), p. 400
  70. ^ Luzader (2008), p. xxii
  71. ^ a b Nickerson (1967), p. 364
  72. ^ Luzader (2008), p. 285
  73. ^ a b Nickerson (1967), p. 362
  74. ^ Williams, Stephen (March 26, 2016). "Letters change view of Benedict Arnold, Gen. Gates". The Daily Gazette. Retrieved 2016-03-28.
  75. ^ Nickerson (1967), p. 365
  76. ^ Luzader (2008), p. 287
  77. ^ Luzader (2008), pp. 291–95
  78. ^ Nickerson (1967), p. 366
  79. ^ Nickerson (1967), p. 367
  80. ^ Nickerson (1967), p. 368
  81. ^ Riedesel, Frederika Charlotte (1867). Letters and Journals Relating to the War of the American Revolution. Translated by Stone, William L. Albany: Joel Munsell.
  82. ^ Morrissey, Brendan (2000). Saratoga 1777: Turning Point of a Revolution. Oxford: Osprey. p. 87. ISBN 978-1-85532-862-4.
  83. ^ See Ketchum, Morrissey, and Nickerson.
  84. ^ "The Battle of Saratoga – A Major Turning Point of The Revolutionary War". Saratoga.com. Retrieved 29 June 2013.
  85. ^ Victor Brooks; Robert Hohwald (1999). How America Fought Its Wars: Military Strategy from the American Revolution to the Civil War. Da Capo Press. p. 78.
  86. ^ Randall (1990), p. 372
  87. ^ Murphy (2007), p. 168
  88. ^ Pancake (1985), pp. 147–51
  89. ^ Historic Society of Pennsylvania (1896), p. 90
  90. ^ Luzader (2008), p. xxiii
  91. ^ Pancake (1985), pp. 106–07
  92. ^ "States give thanks". History.com. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
  93. ^ Washington, George (2002). Grizzard, Jr., Frank E.; Hoth, David R. (eds.). General Orders, 17 December 1777. The Original Papers of George Washington, Revolutionary War Series. 12. Charlottesville, Va.: Univ Press of Virginia. pp. 620–621. Archived from the original on 2017-10-21.
  94. ^ Ketchum (1997), pp. 405–48
  95. ^ Ketchum (1997), p. 447
  96. ^ Perkins, James. "France in the Revolution". Retrieved 2013-06-29.
  97. ^ Saratoga National Historical Park
  98. ^ Saratoga activities Archived November 6, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  99. ^ Saratoga National Historical Park Tour Stop 7
  100. ^ Department of the Army, Lineage and Honors, 101st Engineer Battalion
  101. ^ Department of the Army, Lineage and Honors, 102nd Infantry. Reproduced in Sawicki 1981, pp. 195–96.
  102. ^ Department of the Army, Lineage and Honors, 125th Quartermaster Company. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-08-19. Retrieved 2012-02-29.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  103. ^ Department of the Army, Lineage and Honors, 181st Infantry. Reproduced in Sawicki 1981, pp. 354–55.
  104. ^ Department of the Army, Lineage and Honors, 182nd Infantry. Reproduced in Sawicki 1981, pp. 355–57.
  105. ^ Department of the Army, Lineage and Honors, 192nd Military Police Battalion.
  106. ^ Petty, Dan. "The US Navy Aircraft Carriers". www.navy.mil. Retrieved 2016-06-06.
  107. ^ Bennett (2008), p. 456

Bibliography

Further reading

  • Creasy, Sir Edward (1908). The Fifteen Decisive Battles of the World.
  • Furneaux, Rupert (1971). The Battle of Saratoga. New York: Stein and Day.
  • Mintz, Max M (1990). The Generals of Saratoga: John Burgoyne and Horatio Gates. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-04778-9.
  • Patterson, Samuel White (1941). Horatio Gates: Defender of American Liberties. Columbia University Press.
  • Savas, Theodore P; Dameron, J. David (2005). A Guide to the Battles of the American Revolution. Savas Beatie. ISBN 1-932714-12-X.
  • Ward, Christopher (1952). War of the Revolution, 2 Volumes. MacMillan.

External links

25th Continental Regiment

The 25th Continental Regiment, also known as Gardner's and Bond's Regiment, was raised April 23, 1775, as a Massachusetts militia Regiment at Cambridge, Massachusetts, under Colonel William Bond. The regiment would join the Continental Army in June 1775. The regiment saw action during the Siege of Boston, Invasion of Canada and the Battle of Valcour Island. The regiment was put into the 3rd Massachusetts brigade. It fought at the Battles of Saratoga on the extreme right of the American right flank, close to the river fortifications next to the hudson river. The regiment was disbanded on January 1, 1777, at Morristown, New Jersey.

The regiment traces its beginning to 1632 "North Regiment"; the 25th Continental Regiment lineage is by the 182nd Infantry Regiment (United States)-now 182nd Cavalry Regiment {Massachusetts National Guard}

3rd New Hampshire Regiment

The 3rd New Hampshire Regiment, also known as the 2nd Continental Regiment, was authorized on 22 May 1775, organized 1–8 June 1775, and adopted into the Continental Army on 14 June 1775, as the third of three regiments raised by the state of New Hampshire during the American Revolution. The enlistment dates for officers and rank and file soldiers extended to 23 April 1775, based on their response to the alarm for the Battles of Lexington and Concord.The regiment saw action at the Battle of Bunker Hill, the Battles of Saratoga, and the Battle of Newtown. In addition, the 3rd participated in or was present at the Siege of Boston, the Invasion of Canada, Valley Forge, and Sullivan's Expedition.The 3rd Regiment was ordered disbanded on 1 January 1781, based on Congress prescribing a new arrangement for the Continental Army on 3 October 1780, that dictated there be just two regiments from New Hampshire, rather than three. Washington's general orders of 1 November 1780, conveyed this arrangement to the army. The officers of the three New Hampshire regiments met and agreed on who would continue to serve and who would agreeably retire based on this new arrangement; this resulted in several officers from the 3rd Regiment continuing service by moving to the 1st or 2nd regiments.

7th Massachusetts Regiment

The 7th Massachusetts Regiment was an infantry regiment of the Continental Army. It was constituted on 16 September 1776, and was originally known as Alden's Regiment after its first colonel, Ichabod Alden. It was organized as seven companies of volunteers from across Massachusetts, and Mayhew's company from the 25th Continental Regiment during the later months of 1776. The regiment was assigned to the Northern Department on 9 February 1777. It was reassigned to the Highland's Department on 13 March 1777. On 12 June 1777 it was assigned to 2nd Massachusetts Brigade and three days later, 15 June 1777, it was reassigned to the 1st Massachusetts Brigade. The brigade was reassigned to the Northern Department on 1 July 1777 and the regiment was relieved from the brigade on 31 March 1778. The regiment re-organized to nine companies on 25 September 1778 and reassigned to the Northern Department on 14 June 1779. The regiment was reassigned to the New Hampshire Brigade of the main army on 23 August 1779. On 14 November 1779, the regiment was reassigned to the 3d Massachusetts Brigade in the Highland Department. On 1 January 1781, the regiment was reassigned to the 1st Massachusetts Brigade. The regiment was furloughed on 12 June 1783 at West Point, New York and disbanded on 15 November 1783.

The regiment saw action at the Battles of Saratoga, the Cherry Valley massacre (in which Colonel Alden was killed and Lt. Col. William Stacy was captured), and the Sullivan Expedition.

Benedict Arnold

Benedict Arnold (January 14, 1741 [O.S. January 3, 1740] – June 14, 1801) was an American military officer who served as a general during the American Revolutionary War, fighting for the American Continental Army before defecting to the British in 1780. George Washington had given him his fullest trust and placed him in command of the fortifications at West Point, New York. Arnold planned to surrender the fort to British forces, but the plot was discovered in September 1780 and he fled to the British. His name quickly became a byword in the United States for treason and betrayal because he led the British army in battle against the very men whom he had once commanded.Arnold was born in the Connecticut Colony and was a merchant operating ships on the Atlantic Ocean when the war began in 1775. He joined the growing army outside Boston and distinguished himself through acts of intelligence and bravery. His actions included the Capture of Fort Ticonderoga in 1775, defensive and delaying tactics at the Battle of Valcour Island on Lake Champlain in 1776 which allowed American forces time to prepare New York's defenses, the Battle of Ridgefield, Connecticut (after which he was promoted to major general), operations in relief of the Siege of Fort Stanwix, and key actions during the pivotal Battles of Saratoga in 1777, in which he suffered leg injuries that halted his combat career for several years.

Arnold repeatedly claimed that he was passed over for promotion by the Continental Congress, while other officers obtained credit for some of his accomplishments. Others in his military and political circles brought charges against him of corruption or other malfeasance, but most often he was acquitted in formal inquiries. Congress investigated his accounts, however, and concluded that he was indebted to Congress, and he borrowed heavily to maintain a lavish lifestyle.

Arnold mingled with Loyalist sympathizers in Philadelphia and married into one such family by marrying Peggy Shippen. She was a close friend of British Major John André and kept in contact with him when he became head of the British espionage system in New York. Many historians point to her as facilitating Arnold's plans to switch sides; he opened secret negotiations with André, and Peggy relayed the messages. The British promised £20,000 for the capture of West Point, a major American stronghold; Washington greatly admired Arnold and gave him command of that fort in July 1780. His scheme was to surrender the fort to the British, but it was exposed in September 1780 when Patriot militia captured André carrying papers which revealed the plot. Arnold escaped and André was hanged.

Arnold received a commission as a brigadier general in the British Army, an annual pension of £360, and a lump sum of over £6,000. He led British forces in the Raid of Richmond and nearby areas, and they burned much of New London, Connecticut, to the ground and slaughtered surrendering forces after the Battle of Groton Heights—just a few miles downriver from the town where he had grown up. In the winter of 1782, he and Peggy moved to London, England. He was well received by King George III and the Tories but frowned upon by the Whigs and most Army officers. In 1787, he moved to Canada to a merchant business with his sons Richard and Henry. He was extremely unpopular there and returned to London permanently in 1791.

Benjamin Lincoln

Benjamin Lincoln (January 24, 1733 (O.S. January 13, 1732) – May 9, 1810) was an American army officer. He served as a major general in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. Lincoln was involved in three major surrenders during the war: his participation in the Battles of Saratoga (sustaining a wound shortly afterward) contributed to John Burgoyne's surrender of a British army, he oversaw the largest American surrender of the war at the 1780 Siege of Charleston, and, as George Washington's second in command, he formally accepted the British surrender at Yorktown.

After the war Lincoln was active in politics in his native Massachusetts, running several times for lieutenant governor but only winning one term in that office. He served from 1781 to 1783 as the United States Secretary of War. In 1787, Lincoln led a militia army (privately funded by Massachusetts merchants) in the suppression of Shays' Rebellion, and was a strong supporter of the new United States Constitution. He was for many of his later years the politically influential customs collector of the Port of Boston.

Boot Monument

The Boot Monument is an American Revolutionary War memorial located in Saratoga National Historical Park, New York. It commemorates Major General Benedict Arnold's service at the Battles of Saratoga in the Continental Army, but does not name him.

Brunswick Troops in the American Revolutionary War

Brunswick Troops in the American Revolutionary War served as auxiliaries to the British Army during the American Revolutionary War, in accordance with the treaty of 1776 between Great Britain and the Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. Four regiments of foot, one regiment of dragoons, one grenadier battalion, and one light battalion with a Jäger company were dispatched to British America. Most of the Brunswick troops fought at the Battles of Saratoga, where they were forced to surrender as part of British General John Burgoyne's army. A total of 5,723 soldiers were sent overseas, and 2,708 returned to Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. Part of the difference can be attributed to casualties, but the rest chose to remain in the United States or Canada instead of returning to Europe. Over the course of the war, the British government paid the Prince of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel a total of ₤750,000 for the use of his army.

Convention Army

The Convention Army (1777–1783) was an army of British and allied troops captured after the Battles of Saratoga in the American Revolutionary War.

Dwight–Henderson House

The Dwight–Henderson House is a historic house at 390 Main Street in Great Barrington, Massachusetts. It is the second oldest house in Great Barrington, built in 1759 for Joseph Dwight, a brigadier in the colonial militia, by local builder Daniel Allen. The saltbox home was originally built into a slope, and had three stories on the front and one in the rear. The house as been moved twice, but remains within 200 feet (61 m) of its original site. The second move, the foundation that formed the wall for the original first floor, so it now presents only two stories in front.The house is notable for several historical associations. In addition to General Dwight, who was also town moderator and selectman, and a county judge, the houses notable guests include British General John Burgoyne, who surrendered his army after the Battles of Saratoga in 1777, and spent several days here while en route to the Boston area as a prisoner. It is also the house where poet and newspaper editor William Cullen Bryant was married; he was a guest of the owner, Allen Henderson.Since then, the house has seen a variety of uses. It served for a time as housing for the nearby Berkshire Motor Inn, and now houses professional offices. The house was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1976, and included as a contributing property to the Taconic and West Avenues Historic District in 1998.

Heinrich von Breymann

Heinrich von Breymann (died 1777) was a German Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel lieutenant colonel who fought as an officer in the service of Great Britain during the American Revolutionary War. He was commander of the Breymann Grenadiers, a Brunswick battalion hired into British service, and served under the command of John Burgoyne. During the Battles of Saratoga, Breymann's unit was driven behind a redoubt, where he grew frustrated at the poor performance of his men, attacking four with his saber before he was killed by one of his own men.

Horatio Gates

Horatio Lloyd Gates (July 26, 1727 – April 10, 1806) was a retired British soldier who served as an American general during the Revolutionary War. He took credit for the American victory in the Battles of Saratoga (1777) – a matter of contemporary and historical controversy – and was blamed for the defeat at the Battle of Camden in 1780. Gates has been described as "one of the Revolution's most controversial military figures" because of his role in the Conway Cabal, which attempted to discredit and replace General George Washington; the battle at Saratoga; and his actions during and after his defeat at Camden.Born in the town of Maldon in Essex, Gates served in the British Army during the War of the Austrian Succession and the French and Indian War. Frustrated by his inability to advance in the army, Gates sold his commission and established a small plantation in Virginia. On Washington's recommendation, the Continental Congress made Gates the Adjutant General of the Continental Army in 1775. He was assigned command of Fort Ticonderoga in 1776 and command of the Northern Department in 1777. Shortly after Gates took charge of the Northern Department, the Continental Army defeated the British at the crucial Battles of Saratoga. After the battle, some members of Congress considered replacing Washington with Gates, but Washington ultimately retained his position as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army.

Gates took command of the Southern Department in 1780, but was removed from command later that year after the disastrous Battle of Camden. Gates's military reputation was destroyed by the battle and he did not hold another command for the remainder of the war. Gates retired to his Virginia estate after the war, but eventually decided to free his slaves and move to New York. He was elected to a single term in the New York State Legislature and died in 1806.

Kingston, New York

Kingston is a city in and the county seat of Ulster County, New York, United States. It is 91 miles (146 km) north of New York City and 59 miles (95 km) south of Albany. The city's metropolitan area is grouped with the New York metropolitan area by the United States Census Bureau,

It became New York's first capital in 1777, and was burned by the British on October 13, 1777, after the Battles of Saratoga. In the 19th century, the city became an important transport hub after the discovery of natural cement in the region, and had both railroad and canal connections. Passenger rail service has since ceased, and many of the older buildings are part of three historic districts, including the Stockade District uptown, the Midtown Neighborhood Broadway Corridor, and the Rondout-West Strand Historic District downtown.

Marshall House (Schuylerville, New York)

The Marshall House is a house in Schuylerville, New York listed on the National Register of Historic Places for both its place in American history and its architectural significance.

Robert Troup

Robert Troup (1757 – January 14, 1832) was a soldier in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War and a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the District of New York. He participated in the Battles of Saratoga and was present at the surrender of British General John Burgoyne.

Saratoga, New York

Saratoga is a town in Saratoga County, New York, United States. The population was 5,141 at the 2000 census. It is also the commonly used, but not official, name for the neighboring and much more populous city, Saratoga Springs. The major village in the town of Saratoga is Schuylerville which is often, but not officially, called Old Saratoga. Saratoga contains a second village named Victory.

Saratoga is an adaptation of a Native American word from the Mohawk language. It was the name of Indian hunting grounds located along both sides of the Hudson River. According to unnamed sources, it derives from 'Se-rach-ta-gue' meaning 'the hillside country of the quiet river'; however, according to linguist Marianne Mithun, it is derived from sharató:ken, which means "where you get a blister on your heels."Saratoga is located on the eastern border of the county and is located east of Saratoga Springs, and is bordered by Saratoga Lake and the Hudson River.

The town sends students to Saratoga Springs City School District, Schuylerville Central School District, and Stillwater Central School District.

Saratoga (Boyce, Virginia)

Saratoga, also known as the General Daniel Morgan House, is a historic plantation house near Boyce, Virginia. It was built in 1779 by Daniel Morgan, a general in the Continental Army best known for his victory over the British at the Battle of Cowpens in 1781. He named his estate after the American victory in the 1777 Battles of Saratoga, in which he also participated. The estate was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1970 and was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1973. Privately owned, it is located about .5 miles south of Boyce on the west side of County Route 723, and is not open to the public.

Saratoga National Historical Park

Saratoga National Historical Park is a United States National Historical Park located in the Town of Stillwater in eastern New York, forty miles (64 km) north of Albany.

The park preserves the site of the Battles of Saratoga.

Schuylerville, New York

Schuylerville is a village in Saratoga County, New York, United States. The village is located in the northeast part of the Town of Saratoga, east of Saratoga Springs. The Village of Victory is adjacent to Schuylerville to the southwest and the Hudson River forms the village's eastern border. The population was 1,386 at the 2010 census. The village was incorporated in 1831 and is named after the Schuyler family, a prominent family of Dutch descent in colonial America.

Schuylerville was the site of the surrender of the British Army under General John Burgoyne following the Battles of Saratoga (1777) in the nearby Town of Stillwater. Schuylerville contains several historic buildings, including the General Schuyler House, part of the Saratoga National Historical Park, and Old Saratoga Reformed Church. The schools of the Schuylerville Central School District are located in the village as are the offices of the Town of Saratoga. The village is served by a public library, Fort Hardy Park, a visitor's center, Schuyler Hose Company volunteer fire department and several churches. Village government consists of a mayor and four trustees.

Nearby cultural attractions include the Saratoga Performing Arts Center, Saratoga Race Course, Saratoga National Historical Park and Glens Falls Civic Center. Skidmore College, SUNY Empire State College and Adirondack Community College are also nearby.

USS Saratoga (1814)

USS Saratoga was a corvette built in Vergennes, Vermont, for service on Lake Champlain in the War of 1812. She was named for the Battles of Saratoga.

Military career
Revolutionary War
Other U.S.
founding events
Presidency
Views and
public image
Life and homes
Memorials and
depictions
Related
Ancestry
and family
1765
1770
1775
1776
1777
1778
1779
1780
1781
1782
1783

Languages

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.