Battle of the Plains of Abraham

The Battle of the Plains of Abraham, also known as the Battle of Quebec (French: Bataille des Plaines d'Abraham, Première bataille de Québec), was a pivotal battle in the Seven Years' War (referred to as the French and Indian War to describe the North American theatre). The battle, which began on 13 September 1759, was fought on a plateau by the British Army and Navy against the French Army, just outside the walls of Quebec City on land that was originally owned by a farmer named Abraham Martin, hence the name of the battle. The battle involved fewer than 10,000 troops between both sides, but proved to be a deciding moment in the conflict between France and Britain over the fate of New France, influencing the later creation of Canada.[4]

The culmination of a three-month siege by the British, the battle lasted about an hour. British troops commanded by General James Wolfe successfully resisted the column advance of French troops and Canadien militia under General Louis-Joseph, Marquis de Montcalm, employing new tactics that proved extremely effective against standard military formations used in most large European conflicts. Both generals were mortally wounded during the battle; Wolfe received three gunshot wounds that ended his life within minutes of the beginning of the engagement and Montcalm died the next morning after receiving a musket ball wound just below his ribs. In the wake of the battle, the French evacuated the city; their remaining military force in Canada and the rest of North America came under increasing pressure from British forces.

France ceded most of its possessions in eastern North America to Great Britain in the Treaty of Paris.

The decisive success of the British forces and the subsequent capture of Quebec City formed part of what became known as the "Annus Mirabilis" in Great Britain.

Overview

General-james-wolfe
A portrait of Wolfe printed circa 1776

As the Seven Years' War entered its later stages through 1758 and 1759, French forces and colonies in northeastern North America came under renewed attacks from British armies. In 1758 after defeat in July at the Battle of Carillon, the British took Louisbourg in August, causing Atlantic Canada to fall into British hands, and opening the sea route to attack Quebec. Fort Frontenac fell to the British in the same month, costing the French supplies for the Ohio Valley campaign. When some of the Indian supporters of the French made peace with the British, France was forced to draw its troops back. French leadership, specifically Governor de Vaudreuil and General Montcalm, were unsettled by the British successes. However, Quebec was still able to protect itself as the British prepared a three-pronged attack for 1759.[5]

James Wolfe expected to lead 12,000 men, but was greeted by only approximately 7,000 regular troops, 400 officers, and 300 gunners.[6] Wolfe's troops were supported by a fleet of 49 ships and 140 smaller craft led by Admiral Charles Saunders.

The Defeat of the French Fireships attacking the British Fleet at Anchor before Quebec
French fire ships sent downriver to block the British advance by Dominic Serres

In preparation for the fleet's approach to Quebec, James Cook surveyed a large portion of the river, including a dangerous channel known as The Traverse. Cook's ship was one of the first ships up the river, sounding the channel and guiding the fleet as it moved up, eventually landing Wolfe and his men on the Île d'Orléans on 28 June.[7] The French attempted to attack the fleet by sending seven fire ships downriver to disrupt the landing, but the ships fired too early and British sailors in longboats were able to pull the flaming craft clear of the fleet.[8] The following day, Wolfe's troops landed on the south bank of the river at Point Levis, nearly directly across the river from Quebec; an artillery battery was established there in early July that nearly levelled the lower town by bombardment.[9]

Despite an air of defeatism among the leadership,[10] the professional French troops and New French militia defenders focused preparations for the British attacks on the Beauport Shore. Montcalm and his staff, Major-General François de Gaston, Chevalier de Lévis, Colonel Louis Antoine de Bougainville, and Lieutenant-Colonel de Sennezergue,[11] distributed some 12,000 troops in a nine-kilometre-long collection of fortified redoubts and batteries from the Saint-Charles River to the Montmorency Falls, along the shallows of the river in areas that had previously been targeted by British attempts to land.[12] Before the British arrived, a small fleet of supply ships had arrived in Quebec with much needed supplies.[10] Those supplies, along with 500 reinforcements, were likely behind the lengthened siege.[13]

Siege of Quebec
Initial British landing, claiming the Point Levis and the unsuccessful attack on 31 August

Wolfe, on surveying the town of Beauport, found that the houses there had been barricaded and organized to allow for musket fire from within; they were built in an unbroken line along the road, providing a formidable barrier. In addition, a screen of trees along the Montmorency River made an approach on that route dangerous.[14] On 31 July, the first serious attempt by Wolfe's troops to land on the northern shore led to the Battle of Beauport, also known as the Battle of Montmorency. Approximately 3,500 troops, supported by a heavy bombardment, attempted to land, but were caught under fire in the river shallows. Members of the Louisbourg Grenadiers, who reached the beach, attempted a generally undisciplined charge on the French positions, but came under heavy fire; a thunderstorm ended the fight and allowed Wolfe to pull his troops back after taking some 450 casualties to Montcalm's 60.[15]

Some French officers felt the Montmorency defeat would be the last British attack; Vaudreuil wrote afterwards that "I have no more anxiety about Quebec. Wolfe, I assure you, will make no progress… He contented himself with losing about five hundred of his best soldiers." He predicted another attack would come within days.[16] Others in the French camp felt the campaign was over.[17]

For the remainder of the summer, Wolfe's focus changed, possibly due to frustration with Montcalm's tactics. Wolfe's troops, along with American Rangers, attacked and destroyed small French settlements along the St. Lawrence. An estimated 1,400 stone houses and manors were destroyed, and many colonists killed. The effort was likely an attempt to force Montcalm's army out of its fortifications, but was unsuccessful.[18] However, the attacks did reduce the amount of supplies available to the French, especially as the British navy, unable to control the St. Lawrence entirely, was successfully blockading the ports in France.[19]

Preparations

Plains2009
The Battle of the Plains of Abraham

Through the summer siege, illness spread through the British camps. In August, Wolfe himself was bedridden, causing already low morale to slump even further among the British troops.[20] With many men in camp hospitals, British fighting numbers were thinned, and Wolfe personally felt that a new attack was needed by the end of September, or Britain's opportunity would be lost.[21] In addition, his frustration with Montcalm's defensive stance continued to grow. In a letter to his mother, Wolfe wrote, "The Marquis of Montcalm is at the head of a great number of bad soldiers, and I am at the head of a small number of good ones that wish for nothing so much as to fight him; but the wary old fellow avoids an action, doubtful of the behaviour of his army." Montcalm also expressed frustration over the long siege, relating that he and his troops slept clothed and booted, and his horse was always saddled in preparation for an attack.[22]

After considering and rejecting a number of plans for landings on the north shore, a decision was made in late August by Wolfe and his brigadiers to land upriver of the city. If successful, such a landing would force Montcalm to fight, as a British force on the north shore of the St. Lawrence would cut his supply lines to Montreal.[23] Initial suggestions for landing sites ranged as far as 32 kilometres (20 mi) up the St. Lawrence, which would have given the French troops one or two days to prepare for the attack.[24] Following the failed British assault on Montmorency, Montcalm altered his deployment, sending Bougainville and a column of approximately 1,500 regular troops, 200 cavalry, and a group of New French militia—some 3,000 men in all—upriver to Cap-Rouge to monitor the British ships upstream. He further strengthened his defences of the Beauport shore following the abandonment of the British camp at Montmorency, which he regarded as preparations for a descent (amphibious attack) on Beauport. In spite of warnings from local commanders, he did not view an upstream landing as a serious possibility.[25]

Fleuve Saint-Laurent a Quebec
Anse au Foulon.

The British, meanwhile, prepared for their risky deployment upstream. Troops had already been aboard landing ships and drifting up and down the river for several days[26] when Wolfe on 12 September, made a final decision on the British landing site, selecting L'Anse-au-Foulon. L'Anse-au-Foulon is a cove situated west of the city, three kilometres upstream from Cap Diamant. It lies at the bottom of a 53-metre (174 ft) high cliff leading to the plateau above, and was protected by a battery of guns. It is not known why Wolfe selected Foulon, as the original landing site was to be further up the river, in a position where the British would be able to develop a foothold and strike at Bougainville's force to draw Montcalm out of Quebec and onto the plains. Brigadier-General George Townshend wrote that "by some intelligence the General had, he has changed his mind as to the place he intended to land."[27] In his final letter, dated HMS Sutherland, 8:30 p.m. 12 September, Wolfe wrote:

I had the honour to inform you today that it is my duty to attack the French army. To the best of my knowledge and ability, I have fixed upon that spot where we can act with most force and are most likely to succeed. If I am mistaken I am sorry for it and must be answerable to His Majesty and the public for the consequences.[28]

Wolfe's plan of attack depended on secrecy and surprise. His plan required that a small party of men should land by night on the north shore, climb the Promontory of Quebec, seize a small road, and overpower the garrison that protected it, allowing the bulk of his army (5,000 men) to ascend the cliff by the small road and then deploy for battle on the plateau. Even if the first landing party succeeded in their mission and the army was able to follow, such a deployment would still leave his forces inside the French line of defense with no immediate retreat but the river. It is possible that Wolfe's decision to change the landing site was owing less to a desire for secrecy and more to his general disdain for his brigadiers (a feeling that was reciprocated); it is also possible that he was still suffering the effects of his illness and the opiates he used as painkillers.[29] Anderson believes Wolfe ordered the attack believing the advanced guard would be repulsed, and anticipated dying gallantly with his men rather than returning home in disgrace.[30]

Landing

Battle of the Plains of Abraham 1
Landing of the British troops on 12 September

Bougainville, tasked with the defence of the large area between Cap Diamant and Cap Rouge, was upstream with his troops at Cap Rouge on the night of 12 September, and missed seeing numerous British ships moving downstream. A camp of approximately 100 militia led by Captain Louis Du Pont Duchambon de Vergor, who had unsuccessfully faced the British four years previously at Fort Beauséjour, had been assigned to watch the narrow road at L'Anse-au-Foulon which followed a streambank, the Coulée Saint-Denis. On the night of 12 September and morning of 13 September, however, the camp may have contained as few as 40 men, as others were off harvesting.[17] Vaudreuil and others had expressed their concern at the possibility of L'Anse-au-Foulon being vulnerable, but Montcalm dismissed them, saying 100 men would hold off the army until daylight, remarking, "It is not to be supposed that the enemies have wings so that they can in the same night cross the river, disembark, climb the obstructed acclivity, and scale the walls, for which last operation they would have to carry ladders."[31]

Sentries did detect boats moving along the river that morning, but they were expecting a French supply convoy to pass that night—a plan that had been changed without Vergor being notified.[32] When the boats, loaded with the first wave of British troops, were challenged, a French-speaking officer, either a Captain Fraser or Captain Donald McDonald of the 78th Fraser Highlanders, was able to answer the challenge in excellent French, allaying suspicion.[33]

The boats, however, had drifted slightly off course: instead of landing at the base of the road, many soldiers found themselves at the base of a slope. A group of 24 volunteers led by Colonel William Howe with fixed bayonets were sent to clear the picket along the road, and climbed the slope, a manoeuvre that allowed them to come up behind Vergor's camp and capture it quickly. Wolfe followed an hour later when he could use an easy access road to climb to the plain. Thus, by the time the sun rose over the Plains of Abraham, Wolfe's army had a solid foothold at the top of the cliffs of the promontory of Quebec.[34]

Battle

NSRW Siege of Quebec
Map of the Quebec City area showing disposition of French and British forces. The Plains of Abraham are to the left.

The plateau was undefended save for Vergor's camp, as Vaudreuil had ordered one of the French regiments to relocate to the east of the city not long before the landing. Had the immediate defenders been more numerous, the British might have been unable to deploy or even been pushed back. An officer who would normally have patrolled the cliffs regularly through the night was unable to on the night of the 12th because one of his horses had been stolen and his two others were lame.[35] The first notice of the landing came from a runner who had fled from Vergor's camp, but one of Montcalm's aides felt the man was mad and sent him away, then went back to bed.[36] Saunders had staged a diversionary action off Montmorency, firing on the shore emplacements through the night and loading boats with troops, many of them taken from field hospitals; this preoccupied Montcalm.[37]

SLIPPING AND STUMBLING, THE MEN WENT ON
The British under General Wolfe attacking the heights of Quebec, 1759

Montcalm was taken aback to learn of the British deployment, and his response has been regarded as precipitate.[38] Though he might have awaited reinforcement by Bougainville's column (allowing simultaneous frontal and rear attacks on the British position) or avoided battle while he concentrated his forces, or even yielded the city to Wolfe, he instead elected to confront Wolfe's force directly. Had he waited, the British would have been entirely cut off—they had nowhere to go but back down the Foulon, and would have been under fire the entire way.[39] To an artillery officer named Montbelliard, Montcalm explained his decision thus: "We cannot avoid action; the enemy is entrenching, he already has two pieces of cannon. If we give him time to establish himself, we shall never be able to attack him with the troops we have."[40]

First engagements

Battle of the Plains of Abraham 2
First phase of the battle

In total, Montcalm had 13,390 regular troops, Troupes de la Marine, and militia available in Quebec City and along the Beauport shore, as well as 200 cavalry, 200 artillery (including the guns of Quebec), 300 native warriors (including many Odawa under Charles de Langlade[41]), and 140 Acadian volunteers, but most of these troops did not participate in the action. Many of the militia were inexperienced; the Acadian, Canadian, and indigenous irregulars were more used to guerilla warfare. By contrast, the British 7,700 troops were almost all regulars.

On the morning of 13 September, Wolfe's army formed a line first with their backs to the river, then spread out across the Plains with its right anchored by the bluff along the St. Lawrence and its left by a bluff and thick wood above the St. Charles River. While the regular French forces were approaching from Beauport and Quebec, the Canadian militia and native sharpshooters engaged the British left flank, sheltering in the trees and scrub; the militia held these positions throughout the battle and fell back on this line during the general retreat, eventually holding the bridge over the St. Charles River.[42]

Of the British troops, approximately 3,300 formed into a shallow horseshoe formation that stretched across the width of the Plains, the main firing line being roughly one kilometre long. Two battalions were deployed, facing north, to cover the left flank and a further two formed a reserve. In order to cover the entire plain, Wolfe was forced to array his soldiers two ranks deep, rather than the more conventional three ranks. On the left wing, regiments under Townshend exchanged fire with the militia in the scrub and captured a small collection of houses and gristmill to anchor the line. The defenders pushed the British from one house, but were repelled and, in retreat, lit several houses on fire to keep them out of enemy hands. Smoke from these fires wound up masking the British left, and may have confused Montcalm as to the width of the lines.[43] As Wolfe's men waited for the defenders, the steady fire became intense enough that Wolfe ordered his men to lie down amid the high grass and brush.[44]

Montcalm leading his troops at the Plains of Abraham
Montcalm leading his troops into battle. Watercolour by Charles William Jefferys (1869–1951)

As French troops arrived from Beauport, Montcalm, one of few mounted men on the field, decided that a swift assault was the only way to dislodge the British from their position. Accordingly, he deployed the forces immediately available in and near Quebec City and prepared an immediate attack, without waiting for further reinforcements from the Beauport shore. He arrayed his approximately 3,500 soldiers into place, his best regulars three deep, others six deep and his poorest regiment in column. At approximately 10 a.m., Montcalm, riding his dark horse and waving his sword to encourage his men,[45] ordered a general advance on the British line.

As a European-trained military leader, Montcalm's instinct was for large, set-piece battles in which regiments and soldiers moved in precise order. Such actions required a disciplined soldiery, painstakingly drilled for as long as 18 months on the parade ground, trained to march in time, change formation at a word, and retain cohesion in the face of bayonet charges and musket volleys.[10] Though his regular regiments (the "troupes de terre" or "metropolitans") were adept at such formal warfare, in the course of the campaign their ranks had been replenished by less professional militiamen, whose talents at forest warfare emphasised the individual: they tended to fire early and then drop to the ground to reload, thus reducing the effect of concentrated fire at close range.[46]

Battle

Battle of the Plains of Abraham 3
French forces in retreat

As the French approached, the British lines held their fire. Wolfe had devised a firing method for stopping French column advances in 1755 that called for the centre—in this case, the 43rd and 47th Foot regiments—to hold fire while waiting for the advancing force to approach within 30 yards (27 m), then open fire at close range.

The French held their fire and both armies waited for two or three minutes. The French finally fired two disorganized volleys.[47]

Wolfe had ordered his soldiers to charge their muskets with two balls each in preparation for the engagement.[48] Captain John Knox, serving with the 43rd Foot, wrote in his journal that as the French came within range, the regiments "gave them, with great calmness, as remarkable a close and heavy discharge as I ever saw." After the first volley, the British lines marched forward a few paces towards the shocked French force and fired a second general volley that shattered the attackers and sent them into retreat.[49]

PlainsOfAbraham2007
Drawing by a soldier of Wolfe's army depicting the easy climbing of Wolfe's soldiers

Wolfe, positioned with the 28th Foot and the Louisbourg Grenadiers, had moved to a rise to observe the battle; he had been struck in the wrist early in the fight, but had wrapped the injury and continued on. Volunteer James Henderson, with the Louisbourg Grenadiers, had been tasked with holding the hill, and reported afterwards that within moments of the command to fire, Wolfe was struck with two shots, one low in the stomach and the second, a mortal wound in the chest.[50][51] Knox wrote that one of the soldiers near Wolfe shouted "They run, see how they run." Wolfe, on the ground, opened his eyes and asked who was running. Upon being told that the French had broken, he gave several orders, then turned on his side and said "Now, God be praised, I will die in peace", and died.[52]

With Wolfe dead and several other key officers injured, British troops fell into a disorganised pursuit of the retreating French troops. The 78th Fraser Highlanders were ordered by Brigadier-General James Murray to pursue the French with their swords, but were met near the city by a heavy fire from a floating battery covering the bridge over the St. Charles River as well as militia that remained in the trees. The 78th took the highest number of casualties of all British units in the battle.[53]

An eyewitness with the 78th Highlanders (Dr. Robert Macpherson) wrote three days after the battle:

The Highlanders pursued them to the very Sally Port of the town. The Highlanders returned towards the main body. When the highlanders were gathered together, they lay'd on a separate attack against a large body of Canadians on our flank that were posted in a small village and a Bush of woods. Here, after a wonderful escape all day, we suffered great loss both in Officers and men but at last drove them under the cover of their cannon which likeways did us considerable loss.[54]

Townshend took charge of the British forces and realised that Bougainville's column was approaching from the British rear, having taken some time to arrive from Cap Rouge. He quickly formed up two battalions from the confused troops on the field and turned them to meet the oncoming French, a day-saving manoeuvre; instead of attacking with a well rested and ready force, Bougainville retreated while the rest of Montcalm's army slipped back across the St. Charles.[55]

Sketch for The Death of Montcalm
The Death of Montcalm

During the retreat, Montcalm, still mounted, was struck by either canister shot from the British artillery or repeated musket fire, suffering injuries to the lower abdomen and thigh. He was able to make it back into the city, but his wounds were mortal and he died at the wee hours the next morning.[56] A few moments before he drew his last breath, Montcalm asked his surgeon how much time he had to live. "A few hours," he was answered. "All the better," he said, "I will not see the British in Quebec."[57] He was buried in a shell crater left in the floor of the Ursuline chapel by a British shell.[58] The battle resulted in similar numbers of casualties on both sides of the field; the French had 644 men killed or injured, while the British were left with 658 killed or wounded.[59]

Aftermath

Death of General Montcalm
General Montcalm, mortally wounded on the Plains of Abraham, is taken to Quebec. Watercolour by Louis Bombled (1862–1927)

In the wake of the battle, a state of confusion spread through the French troops. Governor de Vaudreuil, who later wrote to his government and put the full blame for the French rout on the deceased Montcalm,[60] decided to abandon Quebec and the Beauport shore, ordering all of his forces to march west and eventually join up with Bougainville, leaving the garrison in Quebec under the command of Jean-Baptiste Nicolas Roch de Ramezay.[61]

Meanwhile, the British, first under the command of Townshend and later with Murray in charge, settled in to besiege the city in conjunction with Saunders' fleet. Within days, on 18 September, de Ramezay, Townshend and Saunders signed the Articles of Capitulation of Quebec and the city was turned over to British control.[62] The remaining French forces positioned themselves on the Jacques-Cartier River west of the city. The British Navy was forced to leave the St. Lawrence shortly after the capture of Quebec, lest pack ice close the mouth of the river.

The next April, before the ice left the rivers, the Chevalier de Lévis, Montcalm's successor as French commander, marched his 7,000 troops to Quebec. James Murray, the British commander, had experienced a terrible winter, in which scurvy had reduced his garrison to only 4,000. On 28 April 1760, Lévis' forces met and defeated the British at the Battle of Sainte-Foy, immediately west of the city (near the site of Université Laval today). This battle proved bloodier than that of the Plains of Abraham, with about 850 casualties on the French side and 1,100 on the British side. The British were defeated in the battle, but were able to withdraw within the walls of Quebec, which was now under siege. A lack of artillery and ammunition, combined with British improvements to the fortifications, meant that the French were unable to take the city by storm. Both sides awaited reinforcements from Europe. The first ships to arrive, in mid-May, were part of a British fleet which had defeated Levis' support ships.[46][63] A naval battle fought at Quiberon Bay, just off the coast of France, proved the decisive battle for this part of New France. The Royal Navy destroyed the French fleet, meaning France could not send a reserve force to save New France.[64] The success of the French army's offensive against Quebec in the spring of 1760 had depended on the dispatch of a French armada, with fresh troops and supplies.[64]

At Montréal that September, Lévis and 2,000 troops were confronted with 17,000 British and American troops. The French capitulated on 8 September 1760, and the British took possession of Montreal. The Treaty of Paris was signed in 1763 to end the war and gave possession of parts of New France to Great Britain, including Canada and the eastern half of French Louisiana—lying between the Mississippi River and the Appalachian Mountains.

Legacy

Battlefields Park Tables and Martello Tower
Martello Tower (constructed by the British 1808–1812) in The Battlefields Park, Quebec City

The Canadian rock group, The Band, made reference to the Battle of the Plains of Abraham in their 1975 song "Acadian Driftwood".[65]

In 2009, a number of activities were proposed to commemorate the 250th anniversary of the Battle of the Plains of Abraham.[66] A plan to hold a reenactment of the battle itself (as well as a reenactment of the subsequent French victory of 1760 at the Battle of Sainte-Foy) was cancelled due to threats of public disorder. Leaders of separatist parties described the event as a slap in the face for Quebecers of French ancestry and as an insult for the francophone majority. Some sovereigntist groups threatened or made indirect threats by stating that if the event took place, there could be violence. The movement against re-enactment and these threats of violence led the National Battlefields Commission to cancel the event.[67]

Another commemorative event was proposed for the anniversary, the Moulin à paroles. Thousands gathered on the Plains of Abraham to listen to recitations of 140 significant texts from Quebec history, including the 1970 FLQ Manifesto. The inclusion of that document in the event led to condemnations and a boycott from federalist politicians and the withdrawal of some government funding for the event. The Moulin à paroles took place without incident.[68]

During building within the Old city of Quebec, a cannonball was found which is believed to have been fired during the siege.[69]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Macleod p 230
  2. ^ a b Macleod p 228
  3. ^ Borneman 2007, p. 223 differs from the traditional numbers, reported 1,200 French casualties.
  4. ^ "Battle of Quebec". 2007. Archived from the original on 8 December 2008.
  5. ^ Eccles 1969, pp. 178–179.
  6. ^ Reid 2003, p. 25.
  7. ^ Hayes 2002, p. 106.
  8. ^ Eccles 1972, p. 199.
  9. ^ Chartrand 1999, p. 69.
  10. ^ a b c Eccles 1972, p. 197.
  11. ^ Chartrand 1999, p. 16.
  12. ^ Chartrand 1999, pp. 10–11.
  13. ^ Anderson 2000, p. 345.
  14. ^ Casgrain 1964, p. 114.
  15. ^ Reid 2003, pp. 35–42.
  16. ^ Hibbert 1964, p. 98.
  17. ^ a b Lloyd 1959, p. 103.
  18. ^ Eccles 1969, p. 180.
  19. ^ Reid 2003, p. 44.
  20. ^ Hibbert 1959, pp. 104–107.
  21. ^ Eccles 1969, p. 201.
  22. ^ Casgrain 1964, p. 160.
  23. ^ Eccles 1969, p. 181.
  24. ^ Reid 2003, p. 50.
  25. ^ Chartrand 1999, p. 78.
  26. ^ Hibbert 1959, p. 125.
  27. ^ Hibbert 1959, p. 121.
  28. ^ Lloyd 1959, p. 117.
  29. ^ Anderson 2000, p. 353.
  30. ^ Anderson 2000, pp. 354, 789.
  31. ^ Casgrain 1964, p. 164.
  32. ^ Reid 2003, p. 55.
  33. ^ Reid 2003, p. 37; Lloyd 1959, p. 125.
  34. ^ Reid 2003, pp. 58–61.
  35. ^ Eccles 1972, p. 123.
  36. ^ Anderson 2000, p. 356.
  37. ^ Anderson 2000, p. 355.
  38. ^ Anderson 2000, p. 359.
  39. ^ Eccles 1972, pp. 203–204.
  40. ^ Reid 2003, pp. 72–73.
  41. ^ Casgrain 1964, p. 117.
  42. ^ Reid 2003, p. 61.
  43. ^ Hibbert 1959, p. 148.
  44. ^ Reid 2003, p. 69.
  45. ^ Chartrand 1999, p. 86.
  46. ^ a b Eccles 1969, p. 182.
  47. ^ Ian Macpherson Mcculloch, "Son of the Mountains", pp. 186–187.
  48. ^ Reid 2003, pp. 74–75.
  49. ^ Chartrand 1999, p. 88.
  50. ^ Hibbert 1959, p. 151.
  51. ^ Lloyd 1959, p. 139.
  52. ^ Reid 2003, pp. 76–77.
  53. ^ Reid 2003, p. 82.
  54. ^ Ian Macpherson Mcculloch, "Son of the Mountains", pp. 186
  55. ^ Anderson 2000, p. 363.
  56. ^ Chartrand 1999, p. 90.
  57. ^ "13-14 septembre 1759 - Mort de Montcalm et Wolfe - Herodote.net". www.herodote.net (in French). Retrieved 2018-10-12.
  58. ^ Chartrand 1999, p. 94. In 2001, his remains were moved to the military cemetery at the Hôpital-Général, near the St. Charles River, where they were placed in a mausoleum. Press release, Commission de la capitale nationale du Québec, retrieved 26 April 2007
  59. ^ Reid 2003, p. 83.
  60. ^ Lloyd 1959, p. 149.
  61. ^ Lloyd 1959, p. 142.
  62. ^ Reid 2003, p. 84.
  63. ^ Francis, Jones & Smith 2000, pp. 142–143.
  64. ^ a b Francis, Jones & Smith2000, p. 142.
  65. ^ Revue D'études Canadiennes. 21. Trent University. 1986. p. 125.
  66. ^ Official reenactors' website for the event Archived 14 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine. This website is not the official website of the event.
  67. ^ CBC News: Organizers cancel mock Battle of the Plains of Abraham
  68. ^ CBC News: Plains of Abraham reading attracts thousands
  69. ^ "Canada: Workers find live British cannonball in Quebec". BBC News. 2017-07-15. Retrieved 2017-07-15.

Bibliography

External links

Coordinates: 46°48′11″N 71°12′54″W / 46.803°N 71.215°W

Bar of Montreal

The Bar of Montreal (French: Barreau de Montréal) is the section of the Bar of Quebec for lawyers in the city of Montreal, Quebec, Canada. It has it beginnings in 1693 when, as a Royal Province of the French colonial empire, Canadien lawyers first tried to obtain official recognition but were refused by Governor General of New France Louis de Buade de Frontenac who upheld the 1678 edict by the Sovereign Council that denied recognition of the legal profession.

For nearly a century, the Canadien lawyers would not be given recognition until after the Battle of the Plains of Abraham they became British colonial subjects. In the new British Province of Quebec, in 1765 Governor James Murray authorized the creation of the "Community of Lawyers" (Communauté des avocats) which granted commissions to its members that allowed them to practice law in the triple capacity of lawyer, notary and land surveyor. The precursor of the present-day Bar of Montreal, the Community of Lawyers adopted the first-ever code of ethics and conduct.

The Bar of Montreal became an independent corporation alongside the Bar of Lower Canada in 1849 through the Act to incorporate the Bar of Lower Canada (11-12 Vict. (1849), c.46.).

Battle of Quebec

Battle of Quebec may refer to:

Battle of Quebec (1690), a failed English assault during the War of the Grand Alliance

Battle of Quebec (1759) or Battle of the Plains of Abraham, a battle in the Seven Years' War

Battle of Quebec (1760) or Battle of Sainte-Foy, a battle outside the city during the Seven Years' War

Battle of Quebec (1775), a failed American assault during the American Revolutionary War

Battle of Quebec (ice hockey), a sports rivalry between the Montreal Canadiens and Quebec Nordiques

Battle of Sainte-Foy

The Battle of Sainte-Foy, sometimes called the Battle of Quebec, was fought on April 28, 1760 near the British-held town of Quebec in the French province of Canada during the Seven Years' War (called the French and Indian War in the United States). It was a victory for the French under the Chevalier de Lévis over the British army under General Murray. The battle was notably bloodier than the Battle of the Plains of Abraham of the previous September, with 833 French casualties to 1,124 British casualties. It was the last French victory in North America.

At first the British had some success, but the advance masked their artillery, while the infantry became bogged down in the mud and melting snowdrifts of the late spring. The battle turned into a two-hour fight at close range; eventually, as more French soldiers joined the fray, the French turned the British flanks, forcing Murray to realize his mistake and to recall the British back to Quebec without their guns, which Lévis then turned on the city.

Charles Saunders (Royal Navy officer)

Admiral Sir Charles Saunders, KB (c. 1715 – 7 December 1775) was a Royal Navy officer. He commanded the fourth-rate HMS Gloucester and led her in action at the Second Battle of Cape Finisterre in October 1747 during the War of the Austrian Succession. After serving as Commander-in-Chief, Mediterranean Fleet, he was appointed Commander-in-Chief, English Channel in charge of the Western Squadron between October 1758 and May 1759). He took command of the fleet tasked with carrying James Wolfe to Quebec in January 1759 and consolidated the dead general's victory after the Battle of the Plains of Abraham in September 1759 by devoting great energy to keeping the British Army, now under the command of Colonel George Townshend, well supplied during the Seven Years' War. He later became Senior Naval Lord and then First Lord of the Admiralty.

French ironclad Montcalm

The French ironclad Montcalm was a wooden-hulled armored corvette built for the French Navy in the mid-1860s. She was named after Major General Montcalm who lost the Battle of the Plains of Abraham in 1759. She played a minor role in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870 where she captured one Prussian sailing ship. Montcalm spent most of her later career abroad, either in Chinese waters or the Pacific Ocean. The ship was condemned in 1891.

HMS Wolfe

Three ships of the Royal Navy have borne the name HMS Wolfe, after General James Wolfe, victor of the Battle of the Plains of Abraham in 1759. A fourth was laid down but never launched:

HMS Wolfe (1813) was a 20-gun sloop on the Great Lakes. She was launched in 1813, renamed HMS Montreal in 1814 and was sold in 1832.

HMS Wolfe was to have been a 104-gun first rate. She was laid down in 1814 but was cancelled in 1831, with the hull being destroyed on the stocks in a storm in 1832.

HMS Wolfe was a Lord Clive-class monitor, built as Sir James Wolfe and Wolfe before being named HMS General Wolfe before her launch in 1915. She was sold in 1921.

HMS Wolfe (F37) was an armed merchant cruiser requisioned in August 1939, formerly the passenger ship SS Montcalm. She was purchased and converted into a submarine depot ship in 1942 and was broken up in 1952.

John Knox (British Army officer)

John Knox (died 8 February 1778) was an officer in the British Army who took part in the Austrian War of Succession and the Seven Years' War. He served in North America between 1757 and 1760 and is notable for providing historians with the most complete account of these campaigns. Knox narrowly avoided being killed in 1759 when a French soldier's musket twice misfired, and he went on to fight in the Battle of the Plains of Abraham, where he performed in one of the most devastating volleys in military history. Knox also took part in the Battle of Sainte Foy and was present when Montreal surrendered on the 8 September 1760.

Joseph Pernette

Joseph Pernette (1728–1807) was a German-born merchant and political figure in Nova Scotia. He represented Lunenburg County in the Nova Scotia House of Assembly from 1761 to 1770.

He was born in Strasbourg, served in the Breton Volunteers and then came to Nova Scotia as a Foreign Protestants with Edward Cornwallis in 1751. Pernette served as an aide-de-camp during the taking of Quebec City in the Battle of the Plains of Abraham. He first settled at Halifax but later moved to the New Dublin area. He built a gristmill and a sawmill on the LaHave River and also built the first ship on the river. Pernette served as justice of the peace, deputy surveyor and was colonel in the local militia, participating in the defense of Lunenburg during the Raid on Lunenburg, Nova Scotia (1782). He also conducted a census of the area and constructed a road to Lunenburg. Pernette also operated a ferry connecting that road to the road to Liverpool.

His daughter Charlotte married Charles Morris and his daughter Catherine married Garrett Miller.

Lot 11, Prince Edward Island

Lot 11 is a township in Prince County, Prince Edward Island, Canada. It is part of Halifax Parish. Following the Seven Years' War, Lot 11 was awarded in the land lottery of 1767 to Colonel Hunt Walsh, the commanding officer of 28th Regiment of Foot at the capture of Louisbourg and the Battle of the Plains of Abraham. While ownership remained with the heirs of Colonel Walsh, portions of the lot were leased to settlers under sequential administration by land agents James Bardin Palmer, John Large and James Warburton. In 1856, the Walsh heirs sold the lot to the colonial government for resale to leaseholders in accordance with the Land Purchase Act of 1853.

Lot 56, Prince Edward Island

Lot 56 is a township in Kings County, Prince Edward Island, Canada. It is part of St. George's Parish. Lot 56 was awarded to George Townshend, 1st Marquess Townshend in the 1767 Lottery. General Townshend had assumed command of the British forces after General James Wolfe fell at the Battle of the Plains of Abraham during the Seven Years' War. Townshend later became Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. One quarter of the lot was granted to Loyalists in 1783.

Louisbourg Grenadiers

The Louisbourg Grenadiers was a temporary unit of grenadiers formed by General James Wolfe in 1759 to serve with British Army forces in the Quebec campaign of the Seven Years' War.

Grenadiers from the 22nd, 40th, and 45th regiments were brought together by Wolfe at the Fortress of Louisbourg in Nova Scotia in preparation for action along the St. Lawrence River. The unit was involved in numerous battles during the months-long prelude to the Battle of the Plains of Abraham, including the ill-fated Battle of Beauport on July 31, 1759. After Quebec City's capture, the Grenadiers went on to be involved in the fall of Montreal the next year. After the end of the Seven Years' War, the unit was disbanded and its members returned to their original regiments.

Mamongazeda

Ma-mong-a-ze-da (Ojibwe: Mamaangĕzide "[Have Very] Big Foot") was an 18th-century Ojibwa chief from Shagawamikong. He was a member of the Caribou doodem "Adik Reindeer Clan" and his ancestors came from Grand Portage on the north shore of Lake Superior. His father was his mother's second husband as she had been married to a chief of the Dakota people previously during a period of peace between the Ojibwa and Dakota. When war resumed the couple was obliged to divorce with the husband and children joining the Dakota and the wife marrying an Ojibwa man. In this way, Mamongazeda's older half-brother Wapasha became a chief of the Dakota while he became a chief of the Ojibwa. In addition to being an accomplished war leader, Mamongazeda was persuasive diplomat and strong ally of the French. During the French and Indian War, Mamongazeda raised a party of Lake Superior Ojibwa to fight with the French, and were part of Montcalm's army at the Battle of the Plains of Abraham. He lived to a very old age and was succeeded by his son, the famous chief and warrior, Waubojeeg. Mamongazeda Reindeer Clan principle Anishinaabeg-Dakota bloodline is found at Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians, Siipiising Reindeer Clan, Bottineau-Brunelle-Desjarlais family lines.

Montcalm (provincial electoral district)

Montcalm was a provincial electoral district in the Lanaudière region of Quebec, Canada that elected members to the National Assembly of Quebec.

It was created for the 1867 election (and an electoral district of that name existed earlier in the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada). Its final election was in 1970. It disappeared in the 1973 election and its successor electoral district was Joliette-Montcalm.

Montcalm was named in honour of Louis-Joseph de Montcalm, a French general who led the French side at the Battle of the Plains of Abraham.

Peter Adolphus McIntyre

Peter Adolphus McIntyre (July 19, 1840 – July 16, 1910) was a Canadian politician, public servant, physician and coroner.Born at Peterville in Kings County, Prince Edward Island, McIntyre's paternal grandfather came to Canada from Scotland around 1785 and settled at Cable Head, PEI. McIntyre's great-grandfather on his mother's side fought under General Wolfe at the Battle of the Plains of Abraham in 1759.McIntyre was educated at the Quebec Seminary, Laval University and McGill University where he earned his medical degree in 1867. He returned to Prince Edward Island to begin his practice. He served as Kings County coroner for several years.In 1872 he was appointed one of the commissioners overlooking the construction of the Prince Edward Island Railway and was railway commander.Following Prince Edward Island's entry into Canadian confederation which occurred, in part, as a result of the debt incurred by the colony for the railway's construction, McIntyre was elected in the 1874 federal election to the House of Commons of Canada as a Liberal Member of Parliament for Kings County. He was defeated in the 1878 federal election but regained his seat in 1882 and was re-elected in 1887. After being defeated in the next two elections, McIntyre was appointed the seventh Lieutenant Governor of Prince Edward Island by the Laurier government in 1899. He served in office until 1904 and died six years later in Souris, P.E.I.

Pierre Langlois (politician)

Pierre Langlois (June 14, 1750 – January 2, 1830) was a merchant and political figure in Lower Canada. He represented Dorchester in the Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada from 1808 to 1814.

He was born in Saint-Laurent on the île d'Orléans, the son of Jean Langlois and Éléonore Nolin. His father was captured at the Battle of the Plains of Abraham and sent to England where he later died. He was in business at Quebec City. Langlois was an unsuccessful candidate for the Buckingham seat in 1795. He did not run for reelection to the assembly in 1814. Langlois died in Quebec City at the age of 79.

Plains of Abraham

See also Heights of Abraham (disambiguation).

The Plains of Abraham (French: Plaines d'Abraham) is a historic area within The Battlefields Park in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada. The land is the site of the Battle of the Plains of Abraham, which took place on 13 September 1759, but hundreds of acres of the fields became used for grazing, housing, and minor industrial structures. Only in 1908 was the land ceded to Quebec City, though administered by the specifically created and federally-run National Battlefields Commission. The park is today used by 4 million visitors and tourists annually for sports, relaxation, outdoor concerts, and festivals.

Ramparts of Quebec City

Located in Canada, the Ramparts of Quebec City are the only remaining fortified city walls in North America north of Mexico. The British began refortifying the existing walls, after they took Quebec City from the French in the Battle of the Plains of Abraham in 1759.

The wall, which runs on the eastern extremity on the Promontory of Quebec, surrounds most of Old Quebec, which was declared a World Heritage site by UNESCO in 1985. The fortifications were designated a National Historic Site of Canada in 1948.

The Battlefields Park

The Battlefields Park includes the Plains of Abraham with the nearby and smaller Des Braves park, both within the district of Montcalm in Quebec City, and forms one of the few Canadian national urban parks. Its significance lies in the Battle of the Plains of Abraham (1759) and the Battle of Sainte-Foy, fought six months later on today's Des Braves park.

It was established as a park by law on March 17, 1908, it features an interpretive centre and walking trails, and is sometimes used for outdoor concerts, especially during the national festival events. The park contains a collection of about 50 historical artillery pieces scattered about its grounds. It is managed by the National Battlefields Commission, a federal government agency under the Minister of Canadian Heritage with members appointed by the Queen in her Canadian, Ontarian, and Québécois Councils. The commission also oversees its own police service since 1948.

Wolfe (provincial electoral district)

Wolfe was a former provincial electoral district in the Estrie region of Quebec, Canada.

It was created for the 1890 election from part of Richmond-Wolfe electoral district. Its final election was in 1970. It disappeared in the 1973 election and its successor electoral districts were Frontenac, Mégantic-Compton and Richmond.

Wolfe was named in honour of General James Wolfe, who led the English side in the Battle of the Plains of Abraham.

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