The Battle of Volochayevka was an important battle of the Far Eastern Front in the latter part of the Russian Civil War. It occurred on February 10 through 12, 1922, near Volochayevka station on the Amur Railway, on the outskirts of the city of Khabarovsk.
|Battle of Volochayevka|
|Part of Russian Civil War|
The hill on which the battle took place.
|Far Eastern Republic||White movement|
|Commanders and leaders|
|Vasily Blyukher||Viktorin Molchanov|
|Casualties and losses|
In November 1921 the Far Eastern White Army launched an offensive against the Far Eastern Republic, supported by Japan, which wanted a foothold in the Russian Far East. The White army, based on Vladivostok, advanced into the north of Primorskaya Oblast, following the railroad and the Ussuri River, occupying cities, towns and villages, and capturing Khabarovsk.
On December 28, 1921, the Whites suffered their first check at a battle 110 kilometres (68 mi) west of Khabarovsk and retreated to Volochayevka and fortified themselves in a position based on Ju-Quran hill. Throughout January 1922 the two armies skirmished and fought in this area.
At dawn on February 10, 1922, in severe cold and deep snow, Blyukher's Red Army attacked the White positions. The Reds had 7,600 soldiers with hundreds of machine guns and 30 field guns, and two light machine-gun tanks. The White Army had 4,950 soldiers equipped with 13 guns and many fewer automatic weapons.
The Red attack of February 10 was repulsed with heavy losses. One of the Red tanks was knocked out and the other broke down. Wounded died quickly in the −30 °C (−22 °F) temperatures. Blyukher regrouped on February 11, then attacked again on February 12. This time, the 3rd and 6th Regiments broke through the wire and after fierce fighting the Reds captured Ju-Quran hill around noon. This rendered the White position untenable, and Molchanov retreated.
On February 13, Molchanov's White forces retreated past Khabarovsk and the Red Army entered the city.
The Red Army was too exhausted to effectively pursue the White Army, which escaped encirclement. However, White military fortunes continued on a downward path after this battle, and the last remnants of White and Japanese forces in the Far East surrendered or evacuated by October 25, 1922.
The following lists events that happened during 1922 in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.Jewish Autonomous Oblast
The Jewish Autonomous Oblast (JAO; Russian: Евре́йская автоно́мная о́бласть, Yevreyskaya avtonomnaya oblast; Yiddish: ייִדישע אװטאָנאָמע געגנט, yidishe avtonome Gegnt) is a federal subject of Russia in the Russian Far East, bordering Khabarovsk Krai and Amur Oblast in Russia and Heilongjiang province in China. Its administrative center is the town of Birobidzhan.
At its height in the late 1940s, the Jewish population in the region peaked at around 46,000–50,000, around 25% of the entire population. As of the 2010 Census, JAO's population was 176,558 people, or 0.1% of the total population of Russia. By 2010, according to data provided by the Russian Census Bureau, there were only 1,628 Jews remaining in the JAO (less than 1% of the population), while ethnic Russians made up 92.7% of the JAO population.Judaism is practiced by only 0.2% of the population of the JAO.Article 65 of the Constitution of Russia provides that the JAO is Russia's only autonomous oblast. It is one of two official Jewish territories in the world, the other being Israel.Po dolinam i po vzgoriam
Po dolinam i po vzgoriam (Russian: По долинам и по взгорьям, Serbo-Croatian: Po šumama i gorama, По шумама и горама, English: Through valleys and over hills) is a popular Red Army song from Russian Civil War and World War I. It is believed that original song melody was composed by Yuri Cherniavsky in 1915 for recruits, but it is possible that it circulated in Russia even before. Vladimir Gilyarovsky wrote text for the song named "March of the Siberian Regiment". His text has three versions. Peter Parfenov wrote the latest version of the song after the Battle of Volochayevka in 1922.Po dolinam i po vzgoriam has many versions in other languages, including Serbo-Croatian, Greek, German, French, Hungarian, Hebrew, Kurdish and others. The song was adapted by the Yugoslav Partisans and used in World War II.
In the Middle East, this Russian song got also Hebrew texts written by the poets Avraham Shlonsky - Halokh halkha hevraya - a translation after Alexander Blok) which in several mobilizing versions served the Zionist Socialist Hashomer Hatzair movement and the Palestinian Communist Youth (now BANKI) movement in the Mandatory Palestine and then in Israel - and Didi Manussi - Mul gesher hanahar - which is known in the interpretation by the Israeli Gevatron ensemble. The music was used also as the first melody for the anthem of Palmakh Jewish shock units in Palestine.Viktorin Molchanov
Viktorin Mikhailovich Molchanov (Russian: Викторин Михайлович Молчанов) (January 11, 1886 in Chistopol, Governorate of Kazan – January 10, 1975 in San Francisco) was a Russian Major-General and a participant in the White movement.
Molchanov was born in 1886 to parents who were members of the Russian nobility. He graduated from the Elabuga Comprehensive School and Alexey's Military Institute in Moscow in 1906. Early in life Molchanov served in Primorsky Krai and fought in World War I as the captain of a field company. After he finished his tour, he returned to the Urals in time for the start of the Russian Revolution, in which he fought against the bolsheviks. During the Revolution, Molchanov was promoted and put in charge of the Izhevsk brigade and eventually an entire division in 1918.
After the defeat of Admiral Kolchak's armies and the subsequent retreat to Transbaikal, Molchanov was appointed the head of the 3rd Separate Rifle Corps of the Far Eastern Army by Ataman Grigory Semyonov. In October 1920 the Ataman was defeated and the surviving units evacuated to China. General Molchanov moved to Primorye and established Vladivostok as his base on May 31, 1921. Under his command the Whites launched an offensive and captured Khabarovsk in November 1921 but his troops were smashed at the Battle of Volochayevka on February 12, 1922 by Vasily Blyukher. General Molchanov moved to China and then settled down in the United States where he wrote his memoirs.