Battle of Valdejunquera

The Battle of Valdejunquera took place in a valley called Iuncaria (val de Junquera) on 26 July 920 between the Islamic emirate of Córdoba and the Christian armies of the kingdoms of León and Navarre. The battle, a victory for the Córdobans, was part of the "campaign of Muez" (campaña de Muez), which was directed primarily against León's southern line of defence, the county of Castile along the Duero river.

The earliest reference to the battle is found in the Chronicon of Sampiro, a Leonese cleric writing probably in the late 980s. According to Sampiro, the "Agarenes" (descendants of Hagar, i.e. the Muslims) arrived at Mois (Muez), threatening the kingdom of Navarre, whose king, Sancho Garcés I requested the aid of Ordoño II of León. The Leonese king encountered the Muslims—whom we know from other sources to have been under the command of their emir, ‘Abdarrahmān III—in the Valdejunquera and was routed. Two of his bishops, Dulcidio and Ermogio, were taken captive to Córdoba. In exchange for his uncle's freedom, Ermogio's nephew Pelagius, later a martyr, went into captivity instead, while Ordoño ransomed Dulcidio. As a further result of the battle, the fortified site of Clunia, which had been repopulated by the Castilian count Gonzalo Fernández in 912, had to be abandoned. It was in Muslim hands as late as 1007–10.[1]

The exact location of Valdejunquera is unknown. The seventeenth-century Navarrese historian José de Moret located it north of Irujo and south of the sierra of Andía.[2] He claimed that even in his day the Basques called the region "Iuncadia" in their language. The late eleventh-century Historia Silense placed the battle in the territory of Sancho Garcés, somewhere between Estella and Pamplona.[3]

The assignment of the bishops Dulcidio and Ermogio to known dioceses has also been problematic. While Sampiro's continuator, Pelayo of Oviedo, writing in the twelfth century, believed them to be bishops of Salamanca and Tuy, respectively, neither is possible. In 920 the see of Salamanca lay in the depopulated "Desert of the Duero" and that of Tuy had as its bishop a certain Nausto. In studying the texts of Sampiro and Pelayo, historian Justo Pérez de Urbel concluded that Dulcidio was Bishop of Zamora and Ermogio of Oporto, but with roots in the region of Tuy.

References

Notes

  1. ^ Bishko 1984, 354.
  2. ^ Martínez Díez, 254, accepts this location.
  3. ^ Bishko 1948, 560.
920

Year 920 (CMXX) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

920s

The 920s decade ran from January 1, 920, to December 31, 929.

== Events ==

=== 920 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

December 17 – Romanos I has himself crowned co-emperor of the Byzantine Empire. He shares the throne with the 15-year-old Constantine VII (his son-in-law), and constructs an alternative palace at Constantinople with an adjoining monastery near the Great Palace. Though Constantine retain his formal position as first on the protocol list, Romanos becomes the sole ruler.

====== Europe ======

The nobles of Lotharingia under Gilbert, duke of Lorraine, revolt against King Charles III ("the Simple"). They recognize King Henry I ("the Fowler") as their sovereign. Charles invades Lotharingia as far as Pfeddersheim (near Worms), but retreats when he learns that Henry is mobilizing an army to attack the West Frankish Kingdom.

Henry I conquers Utrecht (modern-day Netherlands), which has been in possession of the Vikings for 70 years. Balderic, bishop of Utrecht, moves his seat back from Deventer to Utrecht (approximate date).

====== Britain ======

High-Reeve Ealdred I, ruler of the former kingdom of Bernicia (Northumbria), and his brother Uhtred, submit to the overlordship of King Edward the Elder (approximate date).

The Welsh ruler Hywel Dda ("the Good") merges Dyfed and Seisyllwg, establishing a new kingdom known as Deheubarth.

====== Iberian Peninsula ======

July 26 — At the Battle of Valdejunquera, the Muslim forces of the Emir Abd-ar-Rahman III of Córdoba, defeat the Christian armies of King Ordoño II of León and King Sancho I of Pamplona. The decisive battle at the Val de Junquera takes place following the Emir's pre-emptive strike and his invasion of the upper Douro valley and the capture of Osma. The Arab army proceeds on to the upper Ebro, restoring and replenishing Umayyad garrisons in the region.

====== Africa ======

The Golden Age of the Ghana Empire begins in Africa (approximate date).

====== Asia ======

Emperor Taizu of the Khitan Empire orders the adoption of a written script by the Khitan, resulting in the creation of Khitan "Large Script."

==== By topic ====

====== Climate ======

Muslim chroniclers in Baghdad record an unusually cold summer.

=== 921 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

March – Battle of Pegae: Bulgarian forces under kavhan (first minister) Theodore Sigritsa defeat the Byzantine army at the outskirts of Constantinople. After the battle the Bulgarians burn the palaces in Pegae ("the Spring") and devastate the area north of the Golden Horn.

====== Europe ======

Summer – King Henry I (the Fowler) defeats his rival Arnulf I (the Bad), duke of Bavaria, in two campaigns. Arnulf is besieged at Regensburg and forced to accept peace negotiations, recognising Henry as sole sovereign of the East Frankish Kingdom (Germany).

Landulf I, prince of Benevento, supports an anti-Greek Apulian rebellion, ravaging several Byzantine strongpoints as far as Ascoli. The Apulian nobility, professing loyalty to the Byzantine Empire, appoints Landulf as stratego of the Theme of Longobardia.

September 15 – Ludmila, Bohemian duchess and widow of Bořivoj I, is murdered by her daughter-in-law Drahomíra at Tetín (modern Czech Republic). Ludmila will be canonised and become the patron saint of the Orthodox and the Catholic Church.

November 7 – Treaty of Bonn: King Charles III (the Simple) and Henry I sign a peace treaty or 'pact of friendship' (amicitia) at a ceremony aboard a ship in the middle of the Rhine, recognising the border between their two Frankish kingdoms.

A Hungarian mercenary force led by Dursac and Bogát defeats an army of insurgents, who plans to overthrow their ally, Emperor Berengar I, at Brescia. He appoints Giselbert I as count palatine of Bergamo (Northern Italy).

====== Arabian Empire ======

June 21 – A diplomatic delegation is sent from Baghdad to establish trade routes between the Abbasid Caliphate towards Bukhara (modern Uzbekistan). Ahmad ibn Fadlan, an Arab diplomat and traveller, makes contact with Almış, the İltäbär (vassal-king under the Khazars) of Volga Bulgaria, on behalf of Caliph al-Muqtadir.

Battle of Sevan: Sajid forces under Yusuf Beshir invade Armenia and besiege King Ashot II near Lake Sevan. After gathering a small force he attacks Beshir's camps and drives the enemy out of the country. Ashot starts a counter-offensive to rebuild the ruined cities and fortresses.

====== Africa ======

The Fatimid Caliphate crushes Idrisid forces in battle, capturing the cities of Tlemcen and Fez.

The Fatimid Caliphate creates a new capital in Ifriqiya, al-Mahdiya on the Tunisian coast.

====== China ======

The Later Liang Dynasty reports that all "barbarian" tribes have been pacified by the Khitan Empire.

=== 922 ===

==== By place ====

=== 923 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

June 15 – Battle of Soissons: King Robert I is killed, the Frankish army led by Charles the Simple is defeated and routed near Soissons. Charles is captured and imprisoned at Péronne. The nobles elect Robert's son-in-law Rudolph, duke of Burgundy, as king of the West Frankish Kingdom (until 936).

July 29 – Battle of Fiorenzuola: Lombard forces led by King Rudolph II and Adalbert I, margrave of Ivrea, defeat the deposed Emperor Berengar I at Firenzuola (Tuscany). A pact is reached between Rudolph and Berengar, who abdicates the imperial throne and cedes sovereignty over the rest of Italy.

====== Asia ======

May 13 – The Later Liang, one of the Five Dynasties in China, falls to Later Tang (founded by Li Cunxu). Li proclaims himself emperor and moves his residence back to the old Tang capital of Luoyang.

=== 924 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

Byzantine–Bulgarian War: Forces led by Simeon I, ruler (knyaz) of the Bulgarian Empire, arrive before the walls of Constantinople, after they have pillaged the suburbs of the capital. Simeon meets Emperor Romanos I on the Golden Horn to arrange a truce, according to which he pays the Bulgarians an annual tax. Simeon in return cedes back some cities on the Black Sea coast.

====== Europe ======

Spring – King Berengar I makes a new alliance with the Hungarians who, following his death, sack and burn the city of Pavia. They cross the Alps via the St. Bernard Pass, where Provence and Septimania (Southern France) are pillaged. Hungarian forces penetrate as far as the Pyrenees.

Summer – King Ordoño II of Galicia dies after a 14-year reign. He is succeeded by his brother Fruela II, reuniting Asturias now known as the Kingdom of León. Fruela, who is not popular with the nobles, has assassinated the sons of Olmundo, possible descendants of the Visigothic king Wittiza.

Fall – Bulgarian–Serbian War: Tsar Simeon I sends a punitive expedition force against Serbia, led by Theodore Sigritsa and Marmais, but they are ambushed and defeated. Zaharija, prince of the Serbs, sends their heads and armour later to Constantinople (approximate date).

Winter – The Hungarians invade Saxony and force King Henry I (the Fowler) to retreat into the Castle of Werla. He makes a pact and agrees to pay them tribute for 9 years. They return to the Po Valley and sack the cities of Bergamo, Brescia and Mantua (Northern Italy).

====== Britain ======

July 17 – King Edward the Elder dies at Farndon after a 25-year reign in which he has gained direct control over Mercia, including the Danish-occupied areas. He is succeeded by his eldest son Æthelstan, who will reign as King of England (see 927). He continues his father's conquest of the Danelaw north of the Thames-Lea line from the Vikings.

====== Asia ======

Emperor Taizu of the Liao Dynasty leads a campaign to the West. He reaches the former capital of the Uyghur Kingdom on the Orkhon River. The Zubu begin to pay tribute to the Khitan Empire.

Emperor Zhuang Zong of Later Tang bestows the chancellor title on Gao Jixing (Prince of Nanping) and creates the Nanping State (Central China). The Qi State falls to Later Tang.

=== 925 ===

==== By place ====

====== Byzantine Empire ======

May 15 – Nicholas I Mystikos, twice the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople and having reigned a second time since 912, dies at the age of 73

June 29 — Stephen II becomes the new Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople and head of the Eastern Orthodox Church, succeeding Nicholas I.

Fall – John Mystikos, chief minister (paradynasteuon), is deposed and sent into exile in a monastery. He is replaced by the chamberlain (protovestiarios) Theophanes who becomes the closest adviser of Emperor Romanos I. At this time the Byzantine Empire has been embroiled in a protracted and disastrous war with Tsar Simeon I of Bulgaria.

====== Europe ======

Summer – King Fruela II dies after a reign of only 14 months. He is succeeded by his son Alfonso Fróilaz who ascends the throne. With the support of King Jimeno II of Pamplona (later Navarra), Sancho Ordóñez, Alfonso, and Ramiro (the sons of the late King Ordoño II) revolt and drive their cousin Alfonso to the eastern marches of Asturias, then divide the kingdom amongst themselves. Alfonso IV (the Monk) receives the crown of León, and Sancho I is acclaimed king of Galicia.

Alberic I, duke of Spoleto, attempts to seize Rome on his own account. Pope John X organizes an uprising and expels him. Alberic flees to Orte, where he sends out messengers calling on the Magyars for assistance. But a mob in Orte, informed by papal agents, rises up and murders Alberic (approximate date).

King Rudolph II of Burgundy (who also rules Italy) and his father-in-law, Burchard II of Swabia, lead a Burgundian expeditionary force over the Great St. Bernard Pass to confront Hugh of Provence. They head to the city of Ivrea where Rudolph's forces begin a civil war against Lombard partisans.

Tomislav, duke of the Croatian duchies of Pannonia and Dalmatia, is crowned as king of Croatia. He forges an alliance with the Byzantines during the struggle with the Bulgarian Empire (approximate date).

====== Africa ======

A Fatimid expeditionary force led by Jafar ibn Obeid lands in Abruzzo (Southern Italy). They overrun Apulia all the way to the city of Otranto. After defeating the Byzantine garrisons, the Arabs lay siege to the castle of Oria (which shortly after is destroyed). The defenders are massacred and the remainder (mostly woman and children) are taken as slaves back to North Africa.

====== Asia ======

Winter – Former Shu, one of the Ten Kingdoms in China, is invaded by Later Tang forces of Emperor Zhuang Zong, who incorporates the kingdom into his domains.

A visiting Uyghur delegation spurs the development of Khitan small script, based on alphabetic principles (approximate date).

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Ha-Mim proclaims himself a prophet and a messenger of Islam, among the Ghomara Berbers near the city of Tétouan (modern Morocco).

=== 926 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

Spring – The Italian nobles turn against King Rudolph II of Burgundy and request that Hugh of Provence, the effective ruler of Lower Burgundy, is elected as king of Italy. Rudolph's father-in-law Duke Burchard II of Swabia is ambushed and killed near Novara by the henchmen of Archbishop Lambert of Milan. Rudolph, disillusioned by the news, returns to Burgundy to protect himself. Hugh has himself crowned King of Italy.

Battle of the Bosnian Highlands: Bulgarian forces under Duke Alogobotur, are ambushed and defeated by a Croatian army of King Tomislav in the mountainous area of Eastern Bosnia. Tsar Simeon I (the Great) meets his first defeat against Croatia, but overruns the Western Balkans several times.

The Hungarians besiege Augsburg in Bavaria, then conquer the monastery of St. Gallen (modern Switzerland). After an unsuccessful battle with the locals, they burn the suburbs of Konstanz, then they cross westwards and defeat a Frankish army led by Duke Liutfred of Alsace.

====== Britain ======

King Æthelstan of Wessex and Mercia annexes Northumbria, and forces Wales and Strathclyde to accept his sovereignty along with the Picts and the Scots (approximate date).

====== Asia ======

May 15 – Emperor Zhuang Zong is killed during an officer's rebellion led by Guo Congqian at the old Tang capital of Luoyang. He is succeeded by his adoptive brother Li Siyuan (Ming Zong) as ruler of Later Tang. Li sends Yao Kun, as an emissary, to create a friendly relationship with the Khitan Empire.

September 6 – Emperor Taizu dies after a 10-year reign. He is succeeded by his second son Tai Zong (Yaogu) as ruler of the Chinese Liao Dynasty. Taizu's eldest son Yelü Bei (designated heir apparent) becomes ruler of the Dongdan Kingdom (former Balhae), a puppet state of the Khitan Empire.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Pope John X allies himself with Hugh of Provence provoking the ire of Marozia, daughter of the Roman consul Theophylact I, who is married to Hugh's rival Guy of Tuscany.

=== 927 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

May 27 – Simeon I, emperor (tsar) of the Bulgarian Empire, dies of heart failure in his palace at Preslav after a 34-year reign. He is survived by four sons and succeeded by his second son Peter I, who signs a peace treaty with the Byzantine Empire. The peace is confirmed by Peter's marrying Maria Lekapene (the daughter of Christopher Lekapenos, son and co-emperor of Romanos I). The treaty restores the borders to those established by several treaties (thus recognizing Bulgaria's possession of Macedonia).

July 12 – King Æthelstan of Wessex claims his kingdom and receives the submission of High-Reeve Ealdred I of Bamburgh and probably also of Owain ap Dyfnwal, King of Strathclyde, at Eamont Bridge. He unifies the various small kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy, creating the Kingdom of England, and also secures a pledge from King Constantine II of Scotland, that he will not ally with the Viking kings. This summer also Kings Hywel Dda of Deheubarth and Owain of Glywysing and Gwent submit to the overlordship of Æthelstan at Hereford. The borders between England and Wales are set at the River Wye.

Summer – The Hungarians fight in Rome, helping Margrave Peter against Pope John X. They then go to southern Italy, and conquer the cities of Taranto and Oria.

August 15 – The Saracens led by the Slavic Sabir, in conjunction with the Fatimids from Sicily, capture and destroy Taranto. They enslave much of the population.

====== Asia ======

Hubaekje, one of the Later Three Kingdoms of Korea, sacks the Silla capital at Gyeongju. King Gyeongae commits suicide and Gyeongsun is placed on the throne by the Hubaekje king Gyeon Hwon.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

The Bulgarian Orthodox Church is recognised as autocephalous, by the Patriarchate of Constantinople.

September 14 – Cele Dabhaill mac Scannal, Irish preacher and abbot, dies on his pilgrimage at Rome.

=== 928 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

King Rudolph I loses the support of Herbert II, count of Vermandois, who controls the prison at Péronne in which former King Charles III (the Simple) is imprisoned. Herbert brings him before William I (Longsword), count of Rouen, for homage and then to Rheims as leverage to blackmail Rudolph to make him cede sovereignty over Laon (Northern France).

June 5 – Louis III (the Blind), former king of Provence (Lower Burgundy), dies at Arles after a 27-year reign (of which 23 are sightless). He is succeeded by his brother-in-law Hugh I who is King of Italy. With the approval of his kinsman Rudolph I, Hugh strips Louis's son and heir, Charles Constantine, of his inheritance and proclaims himself as ruler of Provence.

Winter – King Henry I (the Fowler) subdues the Polabian Slavs who live on the eastern borders. He then marches against the Slavic Hevelli tribes and seizes their capital, Brandenburg. Henry invades the Glomacze lands in the middle Elbe valley, where he besieges and destroys the main castle called Gana (the later Albrechtsburg) at Meissen (Saxony).

====== England ======

King Hywel Dda (the Good) of Deheubarth makes a pilgrimage to Rome, he becomes the first Welsh ruler to undertake such a trip. Hywel begins the codification of English customary law and mints his own coinage.

====== Arabian Empire ======

Summer – An Arab expeditionary force led by the Slavic Sabir returns and seizes Otranto (Southern Italy). Although pressed by an epidemic, they withdraw their forces. After capturing some enclaves on the Tyrrhenian coast, Sabir sails into the harbors of Naples and Salerno, and forces the dukes (dux) to pay an enormous sum of tribute to go away.

====== Asia ======

Ishanavarman II dies after a 5-year reign and is succeeded by his uncle Jayavarman IV as king of the Khmer Empire (modern Cambodia). He moves the capital north from Angkor to Koh Ker.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Summer – Pope John X is deposed and imprisoned in Castel Sant'Angelo at Rome by order of the Roman senatrix Marozia after a 14-year reign. He is succeeded by Leo VI as the 123rd pope of the Catholic Church.

Leo VI abolishes the Nin Bishopric and transfers bishop Gregory (Croatian: Grgur Ninski) to Skradin. This ends the long running dispute between the Split and Nin Bishoprics in the Croatian kingdom.

July 18 – Tryphon succeeds Stephen II as patriarch of Constantinople (until 931).

=== 929 ===

==== By place ====

====== Europe ======

January 16 – Emir Abd-al-Rahman III of Córdoba proclaims himself caliph and creates the Caliphate of Córdoba. He breaks his allegiance to, and ties with, the Fatimid and Abbasid caliphs.

February 3 – Guy (the Philosopher) of Tuscany, second husband (third lover) of the Roman noblewoman Marozia, dies. He is succeeded by his brother Lambert as margrave of Tuscany.

Early 929 – Siege of Gana: German king Henry I (the Fowler) besieges Gana with an East Frankish army and conquers the stronghold. He establishes the fort of Meissen nearby.

Early 929 –Henry the Fowler invades Bohemia from the north and marches on Prague. Duke Arnulf I of Bavaria invades Bohemia from the south. The Bohemians capitulate.

Summer – The Slavic-Arab leader Sabir defeats a small Byzantine fleet and seizes Termoli (in Molise, on the Adriatic coast). He returns to Africa laden with booty and slaves.

September 4 – Battle of Lenzen: Slavic forces (the Redarii and the Obotrites) are defeated by a Saxon army near the fortified stronghold of Lenzen (modern Germany).

October 7 – Former king Charles III (the Simple) of dies in prison at Péronne, leaving Rudolph with no opposition except that of Herbert II, count of Vermandois.

====== Asia ======

Mpu Sindok, ruler of the Mataram Kingdom, moves his court from Central Java to East Java (modern Indonesia). Probably after the eruption of Mount Merapi and/or invasion from Srivijaya.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Pope Leo VI dies at Rome after a 7-month reign. He is succeeded (probably handpicked–by Marozia from the Tusculani family) by Stephen VII as the 124th pope of the Catholic Church.

Fernando Ansúrez I

Fernando Ansúrez I (died in or shortly after 929) was the Count of Castile in 929 and the earliest known member of the Beni Ansúrez family; his father, Ansur, is known only through his patronymic. He was also count of the Tierra de Campos, which was later formed into the County of Monzón for his son.

A certain Fernando is first mentioned in a charter to the monastery of San Pedro de Cardeña dated 13 November 917 as "count of Castile", possibly Fernando Ansúrez. According to Sampiro, Fernando ("Fredenandi Ansuri filius") was one of the counts of the region of Burgos, the chief city of Castile—the others being Nuño Fernández, Abolmondar Albo, and Diego Rodríguez—who were captured by Ordoño II on the river Carrión in the place called Tebulare or Tegulare ("Tejar" or "Tejares" in Spanish, as yet unidentified) and imprisoned them in León. This event is known as the Episodio de Tebular (Episode of Tebular) and it took place probably no earlier than the autumn of 921. The later chronicler Pelagius of Oviedo interpolated into Sampiro's account the words et erant ei rebelles ("and they were rebels") in order to explain Ordoño's action, but this is conjecture, as is the modern suggestion that it is related to the defeat at the Battle of Valdejunquera. Two charters from Cardeña preserve the latest record of Fernando and the only (certain) record of him under the title Count of Castile; they date to 1 October and 24 November 929.In the spring of 932 the head of the Banu Ansúrez allied with the Banu Gómez in rebellion against Ramiro II and in favour of his abdicated brother Alfonso IV, who had come out of retirement to challenge for the throne. The title count is given to the leader of this rebellion by Ibn Hayyan a century later, and it may have been either Fernando or his son Ansur. Alfonso IV and his allies were defeated in the ensuing civil war, and Ramiro bestowed Castile on his partisan, Fernán González. As Fernando Ansúrez does not appear in the record thereafter, he was perhaps killed in combat.Fernando married a certain Muniadomna sometime after January 914. She is last mentioned in a document of 919 and was certainly deceased by 929. She was perhaps the widow of García I of León and thus a daughter of the Castilian count Nuño Muñoz. She gave Fernando one known child, a son, Ansur. The earliest reference to Ansur is found in a document dated 4 March 921, wherein he is named with his parents in a donation to Cardeña in the vicinity of Burgos.

Gonzalo Fernández of Castile

Gonzalo Fernández was Count of Burgos (ca. 899-915) and of Castile (c. 909-915).

Recorded for the first time in 899 as Count of Burgos, soon the region expanded to the eastern mountain valleys enabling Gonzalo to make his fort base in Lara, thus stretching his rule from the foot of the Cantabrian Mountains around Espinosa de los Monteros to the river Arlanza, which therefore became the border with the neighbouring Muslim territories. In order to stretch his territory this far, he first had to displace the Muslim forces based at the stronghold of Carazo that dominated the area and access. This was achieved after a long and well contested struggle.

The valley of Lara was then the rallying point of the family that - years later - achieved through his son, Fernán González the quasi-independence of Castile, securing the area for five generations with the family until it became a kingdom under Fernando I of Castile of the Jimenez dynasty.

His name appears for the first time in charter of the Monastery of San Pedro de Cardeña (899), one of the most influential monastic houses later in Castile together with the Monastery of Santo Domingo de Silos. He was also the founder of the other Monastic House of San Pedro de Arlanza (912).

In 912, he took the main role in the Castilian offensive to the river Duero, settling the old villages of Haza, Clunia and San Esteban de Gormaz.

Gonzalo Fernández appears as Count of Castile for the first time in a document of January 8, 914 and again on January 1, 915. He appears witnessing royal documents among other magnates and nobles at the Leonese Court main Assemblies until the defeat of the Leonese in the battle of Valdejunquera (920), after which he was considered dead. Modern scholars suspect that he must have been in disgrace at Court for some unrecorded mistake or other major offense typically resulting in exile, as somebody with his name and the then seldom given rank of Count - Gundisalvus comes - appears signing royal documents at the Court of Navarre between the years 924 and 930, the year that his son was given the authority of Count alone. Previously, his wife Muniadona, who seems to have been a member of the Asturian royal family, appears holding the patrimony estates and county regency during the minority of their son Fernán González. They also had a son Ramiro.

His remains were laid to rest in a vault at San Pedro de Arlanza, as Friar Antonio de Yepes registers in his "General Chronicle". He was succeeded in Burgos by his brother, Nuño Fernández.

July 26

July 26 is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 158 days remaining until the end of the year.

Kingdom of Navarre

The Kingdom of Navarre (; Basque: Nafarroako Erresuma, Spanish: Reino de Navarra, French: Royaume de Navarre, Latin: Regnum Navarrae), originally the Kingdom of Pamplona (Basque: Iruñeko Erresuma), was a Basque-based kingdom that occupied lands on either side of the western Pyrenees, alongside the Atlantic Ocean between present-day Spain and France.

The medieval state took form around the city of Pamplona during the first centuries of the Iberian Reconquista. The kingdom has its origins in the conflict in the buffer region between the Frankish king Charlemagne and the Umayyad Emirate that controlled most of the Iberian Peninsula. The city of Pamplona (Latin: Pompaelo; Basque: Iruñea), had been the main city of the indigenous Vasconic population and was located amid a predominantly Basque-speaking area. In an event traditionally dated to 824, Íñigo Arista was elected or declared ruler of the area around Pamplona in opposition to Frankish expansion into the region, originally as vassal to the Córdoba Emirate. This polity evolved into the Kingdom of Pamplona. In the first quarter of the 10th century the Kingdom was able to briefly break its vassalage under Córdoba and expand militarily, but again found itself dominated by Córdoba until the early 11th century. A series of partitions and dynastic changes led to a diminution of its territory and to periods of rule by the kings of Aragon (1054–1134) and France (1285–1328).

In the 15th century, another dynastic dispute over control by the king of Aragon led to internal divisions and the eventual conquest of the southern part of the kingdom by the Crown of Castile in 1512 (permanently in 1524). It would become part of the unified Kingdom of Spain. The remaining northern part of the kingdom was again joined with France by personal union in 1589 when King Henry III of Navarre inherited the French throne as Henry IV of France, and in 1620 it was merged into the Kingdom of France. The monarchs of this unified state took the title "King of France and Navarre" until its fall in the French Revolution, and again during the Bourbon Restoration from 1814 until 1830 (with a brief interregnum in 1815).

Today, significant parts of the ancient Kingdom of Navarre comprise the autonomous communities of Navarre, Basque Country and La Rioja.

Timeline of Spanish history

This is a timeline of Spanish history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Spain and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of Spain.

Timeline of the Muslim presence in the Iberian Peninsula

This is a timeline of notable events during the period of Muslim presence in Iberia, starting with the Umayyad conquest in the 8th century.

Álvaro Herraméliz

Álvaro Herraméliz (fl. 923–931), was a Spanish noble and the count of Lantarón and of Álava in the region that today would be considered the Basque Country in northern Spain.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.