Battle of Tukaroi

The Battle of Tukaroi, also known as the Battle of Bajhaura or the Battle of Mughulmari,[2] was fought on 3 March 1575 near the village of Tukaroi now in Balasore District of Odisha situated between Midnapore and Jaleswar, Odisha. This battle was between The Mughal Empire and the Sultanate of Bangala and Bihar.[1]

Battle of Tukaroi
Part of Mughal invasion of Bengal
Attributed to Hiranand - Illustration from a Dictionary (unidentified)- Da'ud Receives a Robe of Honor from Mun'im Khan - Google Art Project

Daud Khan receives a Kaftan from Munim Khan
Date3 March 1575[1]
Location
between Midnapore and Jaleswar

Coordinates: 21°58′23″N 87°17′02″E / 21.973°N 87.284°E
Result

Decisive Mughal victory

  • Treaty of Katak[1]
Belligerents
Mughal Empire Sultanate of Bengal
Commanders and leaders
Akbar
Munim Khan
Daud Khan
Raja Todar Mal
Daud Khan Karrani
Gujar Khan 
Strength
unknown, but larger than that of Bengal 40,000 cavalry
140,000 infantry
20,000 guns
3,600 elephants
several hundred war-boats[1]
Casualties and losses
heavy heavy[1]

Background

Ikhtiar uddin Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji of the Delhi Sultanate, defeated the Sena king Lakshman Sen at his capital, Nabadwip in 1203–1204 and conquered most of Bengal.[1] The Deva family – the last Hindu dynasty to rule in Bengal – ruled briefly in East Bengal, although they were suppressed by the mid-fourteenth century.[1]

During the early Muslim period, the former Sena Hindu kingdom became known as the Sultanate of Bangala and Bihar, ruled intermittently from the Sultanate of Delhi.[1] The chaotic shifts in power between the Afghan and Turkish rulers of that sultanate came to an end when Mughal rule became established in Bengal during the sixteenth century.[1]

During the reign of Mughal Emperor Jalal ud-Din Muhammad Akbar the Sultan of Bangala was Daud Khan Karrani, who had seized the Fort Zamania a frontier post of the Mughal Empire.[1] This gave Akbar the cause for war.

Akbar who was in Gujarat when he received the news of Daud's audacity, at once dispatched orders to Munim Khan and the representative of the imperial power in Jaunpur to chastise the aggressor.[1] Munim on receipt of his sovereign's instructions assembled a powerful force and marched on Patna where he was opposed by Lodi Khan an influential Afghan chief who had placed Daud on the throne and now served that prince as minister Munim Khan who was then very old had lost his energy and after some skirmishing was content to cease hostilities and grant Daud extremely lenient terms.[1] Neither of the principal parties was pleased and Emperor Akbar thought that the Munim Khan had been too easy going whereas Daud was jealous of his minister Lodi Khan. The emperor accordingly deputed Raja Todar Mal to take the command in Bihar making over the Raja's civil duties as Diwan temporarily to Rai Ram Das.[1] Daud treacherously killed his minister Lodi Khan and confiscated his property.[1] Munim Khan stung by his master's censure returned rapidly to Patna and laid siege to the city.[1] But he soon found the task of taking it to be beyond his powers and begged Mughal Emperor Jalal ud-Din Muhammad Akbar to come in person and assume charge of the campaign. Akbar who had just returned to the capital after paying his annual visit to Ajmer proceeded to Agra in March 1574 and prepared a fleet of elaborately equipped boats to proceed down the rivers.[1]

On 15 June 1574, Akbar embarked for the river voyage and was accompanied by many of his best officers Hindu and Muslim.The names of nineteen given by Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak include Bhagwan Das, Raja Man Singh, Raja Birbal, Shahbaz Khan and Kasim Khan, the admiral or Mir Bahr.[1] The rainy season being then at its height the voyage was necessarily adventurous and many mishaps occurred. Several vessels foundered off Etawah and 11 off Allahabad.[1]

After travelling for 26 days Akbar reached Benares where he halted for three days.[1] He then proceeded and anchored near where the Gomti River joins the Ganges River.[1] On the same day the army which had marched by land arrived. The whole movement evidently had been thought out and executed with consummate skill in the face of tremendous difficulties due to the weather.[1] The ladies and children were sent to Jaunpur and Akbar in response to urgent entreaties from Munim Khan that he would be pleased to come in person with all speed to the front, advanced to the famous ferry at Chaunsa where his father, Emperor Humayun, had suffered a severe defeat in 1539.[1] The army was then brought across to the southern bank of the river.[1]

Siege of Patna

Patna had been under siege for several months now under Munim Khan.[1] Akbar continued his journey by water and on 3 August 1574 landed in the neighbourhood of Patna. After taking counsel with his officers and ascertaining that the besieged city relied for the greater part of its supplies on the town of Hajipur situated on the opposite or northern bank of the Ganges he decided that the capture of that place was a necessary preliminary to the successful accomplishment of the main design. The difficulties caused by the flooded state of the huge river many miles in width at that season and the strenuous resistance of a strongly posted garrison were overcome and the fort was captured by the gallantry of the detachment appointed by Akbar to the duty.[1] The heads of the Afghan leaders killed were thrown into a boat and brought to Akbar who forwarded them to Daud as a hint of the fate which awaited and in due course befell him.[1]

The same day Akbar ascended the Panj Pahari or Five Hills a group of extremely ancient artificial mounds standing about half a mile to the south of the city and thence reconnoitred the position. Daud, although he still had at his disposal 20,000 horses, a large park of artillery and many elephants, came to the conclusion that he could not resist the imperial power and decided on flight.[1] During the night he slipped out quietly by a back gate and went to Bengal. The garrison which attempted to escape in the darkness suffered heavy losses in the process. Akbar was eager to start at once but was persuaded to wait until the morning when he entered Patna by the Delhi gate.[1] He then personally pursued the fugitives for about 50 miles but failed to overtake them.

An enormous amount of booty including 265 elephants was taken and the common people enjoyed themselves picking up purses of gold and articles of armour in the streams and on the banks.[1] The capture of so great a city in the middle of the rainy season was an almost unprecedented achievement and a painful surprise to the Bengal Sultan.[1] He had reckoned on Akbar following the good old Indian custom of waiting until the Dasahara festival in October to begin a campaign. But Akbar disregarded adverse weather conditions and so was able to win victories in defiance of the shastras and the seasons.

Akbar returns to Fatehpur Sikri

The question now came up for decision whether the campaign should be prosecuted notwithstanding the rains or postponed until the cold season. Opinions were divided but Akbar had no hesitation in deciding that delay could not be permitted. Accordingly, he organised an additional army of more than 20,000 men entrusting the supreme command to old Munim Khan who was appointed governor of Bengal.[1] Raja Todar Mal and other capable officers were placed under his orders Jaunpur, Benares, Chunar and certain other territories were brought under the direct administration of the Crown and officers were appointed to govern them on behalf of Akbar.[1] He resolved to return to his capital leaving the Bengal campaign to be conducted by his generals. Late in September while he was encamped at Khanpur in the Jaunpur district he received dispatches announcing the success of Munim Khan. The emperor arrived at Fatehpur Sikri on 18 January 1575 after seven months of strenuous travelling and campaigning.

Battle

The Mughal army marched into the capital of Bengal, Tanda (near Gaur), and Daud withdrew to Odisha. The action was forced on Munim Khan who was compelled to engage before he was ready. In the early stages of the conflict the Mughal commander received several severe wounds and victory seemed assured to the Bengal army. But later in the day the fall of Daud's general Gujar Khan caused fortune to change sides and brought about the total defeat of Daud who fled from the field.[1] The battle led to the Treaty of Katak in which Daud ceded the whole of Bengal and Bihar, retaining only Odisha.[1] The treaty eventually failed after the death of Munim Khan who died at the age of 80. Sultan Daud Khan took the opportunity and invaded Bengal. This would lead to the Battle of Raj Mahal in 1576.[1]

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai The History of India: The Hindú and Mahometan Periods By Mountstuart Elphinstone, Edward Byles Cowell, Published by J. Murray, 1889, Public Domain
  2. ^ Haig, Wolseley (1937). Burn, Richard (ed.). The Mughul Period. The Cambridge History of India. Vol. IV. Cambridge University Press. p. 113. OCLC 7492314.
1575 in India

Events from the year 1575 in India.

Battle of Buxar

The Battle of Buxar was fought on 22 October 1764, during the Bengal War was between the forces under the command of the British East India Company, led by Hector Munro, and the combined armies of Mir Qasim, Nawab of Bengal till 1763; the Nawab of Awadh Shuja-ud-Daula; and the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II. The battle was fought at Buxar, a "small fortified town" within the territory of Bihar, located on the banks of the Ganges river about 130 kilometres (81 mi) west of Patna; it was a decisive victory for the British East India Company. The war was brought to an end by the Treaty of Allahabad in 1765.

Battle of Khajwa

Battle of Khajwa (Khajuha) was a battle fought on January 5, 1659, between the newly crowned Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb and Shah Shuja who also declared himself Mughal Emperor in Bengal. Shuja's army rested by the tank of Khajwa, about 30 miles to the west of Fatehpur-

Haswa in'the Allahabad District, between the Ganges and the Jumna.

Battle of Samugarh

Battle of Samugarh, Jang-e-Samugarh, (May 29, 1658), was a decisive battle in the struggle for the throne during the Mughal war of succession (1658–1659) between the sons of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan after the emperor's serious illness in September 1657. The battle of Samugarh was fought between his sons Dara Shikoh (the eldest son and heir apparent) and his two younger brothers Aurangzeb and Murad Baksh (third and fourth sons of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan).Dara Shikoh began to retreat towards Samugarh, about 10 miles (16 km) east of Agra, India, south of the Yamuna River, after Aurangzeb had defeated Dara Shikoh's forces during the Battle of Dharmat. Aurangzeb and his smaller but formidable army then flanked Dara’s fortified line along the Chambal River by finding a little-known and unguarded ford. The battle was fought during northern India's warmest season and Aurangzeb's men were on the march for a very long while. The army of Aurangzeb arrived with yellow banners and flags and fortified their position in front of the heir apparent. Dara Shikoh then tried to protect his rear flank by erecting massive red tents and banners.

Battle of Thanesar

Battle of Thanesar, (also known as the Battle of the Ascetics) was fought on the eve of Solar eclipse holy bath fair on 9 April 1567, near Thanesar on the banks of the Sarsawati Ghaggar River in the state of Haryana. While the Mughal Emperor Akbar was on his campaign to subdue the renegade Rajputs, he set up camp at a water Qanat and established camp around that fresh water reservoir in order to properly manage his forces in the nearby regions.

Chausath Khamba

Chausath Khamba, also spelled Chaunsath Khamba (Urdu: چونسٹھ کھمبا‎, Hindi: चौंसठ खम्बा), is a tomb built during 1623–24. It is located in Nizamuddin precincts of Sufi Muslim shrines and tombs in New Delhi, India. The name means "64 pillars" in Urdu and Hindi. It was built by Mirza Aziz Koka, son of Ataga Khan, as a mausoleum for himself, at the time when Mughal Emperor Jahangir ruled from Delhi. Mirza Aziz Koka had served several times as Jahangir’s Governor of Gujarat before he died in Gujarat.

Daud Khan Karrani

Daud Khan Karrani (reigned 1572 – 12 July 1576) was the youngest son of the Bengali ruler Sulaiman Khan Karrani. During his father's reign, he commanded a massive army of 40,000 cavalry, 3,600 elephants, 140,000 infantry and 200 cannons. He invaded the southwestern regions of present-day India.

Gujar

Gujar may refer to:

Gurjar, Gujjar or Gujar, an ethnic group of people in Afghanistan, India and Pakistan

Gojari language or Gujjar, a language spoken by the Gujjar people of Afghanistan, Pakistan and India

Gujar, Iran (disambiguation)

Gujar, Nepal, a town in Nepal

Gujar Khan, nephew of Ataga Khan who fought against Akbar's army at the Battle of Tukaroi

Gujar Kurashvili (born 1951), Georgian general

Jahangir Mahal, Orchha

Jahangir Mahal, Citadel of Jahangir, Orchha Palace, Mahal-e-Jahangir Orchha, Jahangir Citadel; the Jahangir Mahal is a citadel and garrison located in Orchha, in the niwari district of Madhya Pradesh state, India.

Karrani dynasty

The Karrani dynasty (Pashto: د کرلاڼيو واکمني‎, Bengali: কররানী) was founded in 1564 by Taj Khan Karrani, an ethnic Pashtun from the Karlani tribe. It was the last dynasty to rule the Sultanate of Bengal.

Kurumbera Fort

The Kurumbera Fort is situated in Gaganeshwar village, southeast of Keshiari, at about four kilometres from that town. The fort has small quarters and temples. It is a protected monument under the Archaeological Survey of India.

March 3

March 3 is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 303 days remain until the end of the year.

Moti Masjid (Lahore Fort)

Moti Masjid (Punjabi, Urdu: موتی مسجد‎), one of the "Pearl Mosques", is a 17th-century religious building located inside the Lahore Fort. It is a small, white marble structure built by Mughal emperor Jahangir, and is among his prominent extensions (such as Sheesh Mahal and Naulakha pavilion) to the Lahore Fort Complex. The mosque is located on the western side of Lahore Fort, closer to Alamgiri Gate, the main entrance.

Munim Khan

Munim Khan Khan-i-Khanan was a Mughal general under both emperors Humayun and Akbar. He was titled Khan-i-Khanan when Akbar appointed him as Vakil (Prime Minister). Then in 1564 he became the Subahdar of Jaunpur. He also served as the governor of Bengal and Bihar during 1574–1575.

Roshnai Gate

"Roshnai Gate" (Urdu: روشنائی دروازہ‎) or "Gate of Lights" is one of the thirteen gates within the Walled City of Lahore in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. It was the main entry into Lahore for emperors and nobles during the Mughal, and later Sikh period.

Its extended height and width is testament to its use by emperors' caravans of elephants. Since the Ravi river once flowed alongside the northern wall of the Lahore Fort and the Badshahi Mosque, the gate was profusely illuminated during night to aid travelers. It is for this reason that the gate has been named as “Roshnai Darwaza” or the “gate of light”. It is considered to be the oldest of Lahore's gates, and is only gate that has been preserved in its original shape.

Sheesh Mahal (Lahore Fort)

The Sheesh Mahal (Urdu: شیش محل‎; “The Palace of Mirrors”) is located within the Shah Burj block in northern-western corner of Lahore Fort. It was constructed under the reign of Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan in 1631-32. The ornate white marble pavilion is inlaid with pietra dura and complex mirror-work of the finest quality. The hall was reserved for personal use by the imperial family and close aides. It is among the 21 monuments that were built by successive Mughal emperors inside Lahore Fort, and forms the "jewel in the Fort’s crown." As part of the larger Lahore Fort Complex, it has been inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1981.

Siege of Gurdaspur

The Siege of Gurdaspur of 1715 was a major campaign of the new Mughal Emperor Farrukhsiyar in present-day India.

Siege of Ranthambore (1568)

Siege of Ranthambore, on February 8, 1568, Akbar lead a massive Mughal Army composed of over 50,000 men and besieged Ranthambore Fort. Akbar had become emboldened after his victories at the Battle of Thanesar and the Siege of Chittorgarh and only Ranthambore Fort remained unconquered. Akbar believed that Ranthambore Fort was a major threat to Mughal Empire because it housed great Hada Rajputs who considered themselves sworn enemies of the Mughals.

Akbar had first besieged Ranthambore Fort in the year 1558, but decided instead to capture Gwalior, northern Rajputana and Jaunpur.

Emperors
Battles andconflicts
Architecture
Adversaries
Provinces
See also
Successor states

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