The Battle of Saint Gotthard (Hungarian: Szentgotthárdi csata; Turkish: Saint Gotthard Muharebesi; German: Schlacht bei Mogersdorf and Schlacht bei St. Gotthard; French: Bataille de Saint-Gothard) was fought on August 1, 1664 as part of the Austro-Turkish War (1663–1664), between the Imperial Army led by Generalleutnant Raimondo Montecuccoli, Jean de Coligny-Saligny, Wolfgang Julius, Count of Hohenlohe-Neuenstein, together with the Army of the Holy Roman Empire led by Reichsgeneralfeldmarschall Prince Leopold of Baden and Reichsgeneralfeldmarschalleutnant Georg Friedrich of Waldeck and the army of the Ottoman Empire under the command of Köprülü Fazıl Ahmed Paşa.
The battle took place near Szentgotthárd and Mogersdorf in Western Hungary, near the present-day Austro-Hungarian border and is known as the Battle of Mogersdorf in Austria. The Turks were militarily defeated but were able to negotiate the Peace of Vasvár, which was highly favorable to them until their empire collapsed at which point it was no longer favorable to them.
|Battle of Saint Gotthard|
|Part of the Austro-Turkish War (1663–1664)|
Battle of Saint Gotthard
|Commanders and leaders|
Raimondo Montecuccoli |
Johann von Sporck
Margrave von Baden
Comte de Coligny
|Köprülüzade Fazıl Ahmed Pasha|
|~26-28,000, or 40,000||
~ 50,000-60,000 (30,000 remained unengaged), or ~60,000 janissaries, and sipahi|
|Casualties and losses|
Ottoman dominance in Hungary began with the Battle of Mohács in 1526, which resulted in the conquest of most of Hungary by Suleiman the Magnificent. Meanwhile, the parts of Hungary that remained under Austrian control became known as Royal Hungary. Although the Ottomans had been in relative decline since the death of Suleiman I, Ottoman power saw a resurgence under the extremely capable Köprülü family who sought to destroy the Austrian Habsburgs once and for all. They found their casus belli when the Habsburgs supported a Transylvanian rebellion against Ottoman rule.
Transylvania had escaped Ottoman conquest during the invasion of Hungary and retained its independence by playing off of their powerful neighbors: Poland, Austria and the Ottomans. They recognized Ottoman suzerainty and paid a tribute to the Porte but were given political and religious autonomy in return. In 1658, seeking new land for his principality, Prince George Rákóczy II invaded Poland with his Swedish allies in the Second Northern War. After initial success, he was defeated by the Poles and fled back to Transylvania. On hearing about Rákóczy's unauthorized war, the Ottomans declared war on their vassal. It was not long before Grand Vizier Köprülü Mehmed Pasha (Vizier 1656-1661) defeated Rákóczy and conquered Transylvania. The new Transylvanian prince, János Kemény, fled to Vienna, seeking Austrian support.
Emperor Leopold I, not wishing to see Transylvania fall under direct Ottoman control, sent Montecuccoli into Hungary with his small army. Montecuccoli gave no direct support as he was severely outnumbered by the Ottomans. The Ottomans, meanwhile, completed the conquest of Transylvania and built up their forces in Ottoman Hungary. Leopold I, not wishing to face the Turks alone, summoned the Imperial Diet in January 1663.
The Turks failed to conquer the fortress of Nové Zámky six times, but managed to do so in 1663. It was made the center of an Ottoman province, the Uyvar eyalet in present-day southern Slovakia. Turks and Tatars crossed the Danube in strength in 1663, ravaging Slovakia, Moravia, and Silesia. They took 12,000 slaves in Moravia. Several Turkish divisions reached as far as Olomouc.
The Austrian victory was achieved more due to diplomatic efforts than military power. Although Leopold personally objected to Protestantism, he had to rely on his Protestant German princes to provide military aid. Even worse was the military aid from France, which was (and continued to be until the Diplomatic Revolution of 1756) Austria's nemesis. Despite numerous objections from some Protestant princes, help was not withheld. The League of the Rhine - a French dominated group of German princes - agreed to send a corps of 6,000 men independently commanded by Count Coligny of France and Prince Johann Philipp of Mainz. By September 1663, Brandenburg and Saxony had also agreed to contingents of their own. In January 1664, the Imperial Diet agreed to raise 21,000 men, although this army did not yet exist other than on paper. The Turks had declared war in April 1663, but were slow in executing their invasion plans.
Montecuccoli's army consisted of Habsburg forces (including Czech infantry and a few hundred Hungarians, approx. 2,000 Croatians) and forces from the German principalities, French brigades, a Piedmontese regiment .
The Habsburg forces: 5,000 infantry (10 Battalions), 5,900 cavalry (27 escadrons), 10 guns
The Imperial forces: 6,200 infantry (6 Battalions), 1,200 cavalry (9 escadrons), 14 guns
The Rhine forces: 600 infantry (2 Battalions), 300 cavalry (4 escadrons)
The French forces: 3,500 infantry (4 Battalions), 1,750 cavalry (10 escadrons)
Other forces: 2,000 Croat cavalry (out of this a regiment), Hungarian foot soldiers in Szentgotthárd, and Esterházy, Batthyány and Nádasdy regiment's, Czech musketeers and the Italian (Piedmontish) infantry regiment (commander Marchese Pio de Savoya).
The Turks renewed their invasion in the spring of 1664. They besieged, conquered and destroyed Novi Zrin Fortress on the Mura river in northern Croatia at the very beginning of July. Montecuccoli was still waiting for help to arrive, and this delay was key to the defense of Austria. In July 1664 the Imperial forces were assembled and set out for the River Rába, which separated the Ottoman forces from the Austrian duchy itself. If the Turks were allowed to cross, they would threaten both Vienna and Graz. Montecuccoli intercepted the Turks before they crossed the river but the division of command made effective deployment of troops impossible.
On 1 August 1664, Ottoman forces crossed the river near the monastery of Saint Gotthard and beat the Austrians back. Although initially plagued by disunity, Montecuccoli was finally able to convince Coligny and Leopold Wilhelm of Baden-Baden (commander of the Imperial detachment) to mass their forces and attack the Ottoman troops, who were reorganizing in a nearby forest. The attack surprised the Turks, who fled in confusion back to the river, a large number drowning. The confusion caused by the fleeing troops prevented Ahmed Köprülü (Vizier 1661-1676) from sending the rest of his army across the river and he instead retired from the field.
Ottoman casualties were heavy, significantly falling mostly on the elite corps of the army. Köprülü was left with an army of ill-trained irregulars and auxiliaries while Montecuccoli's casualties were light and mostly in the Imperial contingent.
Although many in Europe, especially the Croats and Hungarian nobility, expected the Austrian Habsburgs to finally liberate Hungary once and for all, Leopold abandoned the campaign. Many have criticized him for this decision (both in the past and the present). Although Montecuccoli's army was largely intact, there was no interest among the allies to liberate Hungary. Any invasion of Hungary would undoubtedly have to be done without the help of the French and German troops. Leopold noticed that the French officers had begun to fraternize with the Magyar nobles and encouraged them to rebel against Austrian rule.
In addition, Leopold had always been a member of the "Spanish faction" in Vienna. With the last Spanish Habsburg, Carlos II, about to die at any given moment, Leopold wanted to ensure that his hands were free for the inevitable struggle against Louis XIV of France. Although the liberation of Hungary was a strategic interest of the Habsburgs, it would have to wait until later. Throughout his reign, Leopold had always been more interested in the struggle against France rather than the Ottomans. Therefore, he signed the rather unfavourable Peace of Vasvár, which did not take into account the Battle of Saint Gotthard. The Battle of Saint Gotthard is still significant, however, for it stopped any Ottoman invasion of Austria, which certainly would have prolonged the war and led to a disastrous resolution. The Austrians would also use the twenty-year truce to build up their forces and begin the liberation of Hungary in 1683.
The battle of Mogersdorf/Szentgotthárd provided Rainer Maria Rilke with the inspiration for his poetic short story, "Lay of the Love and Death of Cornet Christopher Rilke", which was very popular among German and Austrian soldiers during the first half of the 20th century.
The Battle of Gvozd Mountain took place in the year 1097 and was fought between the army of Petar Snačić and King Coloman I of Hungary. It was a decisive Hungarian victory.Battle of Kupa
The Battle of Kupa occurred at Kupa river in 819. It involved Frankish vassal Duke Borna of Dalmatia, with an army of Guduscani, against the advancing army of Frankish rebel, Duke Ljudevit of Lower Pannonia. During the battle, the Guduscans abandoned Borna and joined Ljudevit. While Borna's forces suffered massive losses, he managed to escape with his bodyguards. However, Dragomuž, Ljudevit's father-in-law, who sided with Borna, was killed. Ljudevit suffered heavy casualties that included 3,000 soldiers and over 300 horses. Afterwards, Ljudevit used the momentum to invade Dalmatia in December 819.Battle of Pákozd
The Battle of Pákozd (or Battle of Sukoró) was a battle in the Hungarian Revolution of 1848, fought on the 29 September 1848 in the Pákozd – Sukoró – Pátka triangle. It was one of the most important battles of the revolution, in which the Hungarian revolutionary army led by Lieutenant-General János Móga defeated the troops of the Croatian Ban Josip Jelačić.Battle of Saint Gotthard
Battle of Saint Gotthard may refer to:
Battle of Saint Gotthard (1664)
Battle of Saint Gotthard (1705)Bosnian–Ragusan War
A war was fought between the Kingdom of Bosnia and the Republic of Ragusa in 1403. In 1403 Stephen Ostoja of Bosnia sided with King Ladislaus of Naples in his plights against the Hungarian King Sigismund, Bosnia's liege. King Ostoja led a war against the Ragusans, Sigismund's allies.
Radič Sanković led the attacks on Dubrovnik in the name of Stephen Ostoja. Sandalj Hranić captured and blinded Radič, and held him in prison until his death in 1404. Among the fallen noblemen were Vukosav Nikolić and the Duke of Slano.The Ragusans set fire to Šumet and Žrnovnica, so the Bosnian army retreated.Croatian–Bulgarian wars
The Croatian–Bulgarian Wars were a series of conflicts that erupted three times during the 9th and 10th centuries between the medieval realms of Croatia and Bulgaria. During these wars, Croatia formed alliances with Eastern Francia and Byzantium against the Bulgarian Empire.Croatian–Ottoman wars
Croatian–Ottoman Wars (Turkish: Osmanlı-Hırvatistan Savaşları, Croatian: Hrvatsko-osmanski ratovi) can refer to one of the several conflicts between the Kingdom of Croatia (in Kingdom of Hungary-Croatia and in Habsburg Monarchy) and the Ottoman Empire:
Long Campaign (1443–1444) of the King Vladislaus II of Hungary
Hundred Years' Croatian–Ottoman War, War for Croatia - a period of near constant mostly low-intensity warfare ("Small War") approximately 1493–1593 (from the Battle of Krbava Field to the Battle of Sisak)
Long War (1593–1606)
Austro-Turkish War (1663–1664)
Great Turkish War (1683–1699)
Austro-Turkish War (1716–1718)
Austro-Turkish War (1787–1791)
Austro-Hungarian campaign in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1878
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Jean de Coligny-Saligny, (Saligny, December 25, 1617 – April 16, 1686) was a French noble and army commander, best known for his part in the victory in the Battle of Saint Gotthard (1664).
He was the son of Gaspard II de Coligny-Saligny and Jacqueline de Montmorin Saint-Hérem,
and thus a member of the well-known House of Coligny.
He first followed Louis, Prince of Condé (1621–1686) in his revolt against the King, but they had a dispute so serious, that Coligny reconciled himself with the court and became Condé's greatest enemy.
As lieutenant-general, he was sent to Hungary at the head of a corps of 6000 men, to help the Emperor stop an invasion by the Turks. Coligny played a crucial role in the Battle of Saint Gotthard (1664), in which the Turks were decisively defeated.
This battle was exceptional for the fact that French and Austrians, for once, fought on the same side.
Coligny wrote his Mémoires, which were only published in 1844 by Louis Monmerqué, and which are very negative for the prince of Condé. These memoires are now being reedited by Axor-Danaé.
Coligny married Anne Nicole Cauchon de Maupas and had 3 children.Johann von Sporck
Johann von Sporck (1595 – 6 August 1679) was a German nobleman and Generalfeldmarschall. Sporck was born in 1595 and he began his military career at the start of the Thirty Years' War as a private. His personal bravery and mastery of cavalry tactics led to his steady advancement through the ranks as well as his ennoblement. He later fought in the Second Northern War, the Austro-Turkish War (1663–64) and the Franco-Dutch War. He retired in 1676, having received the rank of Generalfeldmarschall and accumulating great riches. He died three years later. His son Franz Anton von Sporck became a publisher and a patron of arts.Köprülüzade Fazıl Ahmed Pasha
Köprülüzade Fazıl Ahmed Pasha (Ottoman Turkish: كپرولى زاده فاضل احمد پاشا, Turkish: Köprülü Fazıl Ahmet Paşa; Albanian: Fazıl Ahmed Pashë Kypriljoti; 1635 – 3 November 1676) was a member of the renowned Köprülü family originating from Albania, which produced six grand viziers of the Ottoman Empire.Military history of Croatia
The military history of Croatia encompasses wars, battles and all military actions fought on the territory of modern Croatia and the military history of the Croat people regardless of political geography.Mogersdorf
Mogersdorf (Hungarian: Nagyfalva, Slovene: Modinci) is a town in the district of Jennersdorf in the Austrian state of Burgenland.Philip Florinus of Sulzbach
Philip Florinus of Pfalz-Sulzbach (Sulzbach, 20 January 1630 – Nürnberg, 4 April 1703) was an imperial field marshal.Siege of Zara
The Siege of Zara or Siege of Zadar (Croatian: Opsada Zadra, Hungarian: Zára ostroma; 10–24 November 1202) was the first major action of the Fourth Crusade and the first attack against a Catholic city by Catholic crusaders. The crusaders had an agreement with Venice for transport across the sea, but the price far exceeded what they were able to pay. Venice set the condition that the crusaders help them capture Zadar (or Zara), a constant battleground between Venice on one side and Croatia and Hungary on the other, whose king, Emeric, pledged himself to join the Crusade. Although some of the crusaders refused to take part in the siege, the attack on Zadar began in November 1202 despite letters from Pope Innocent III forbidding such an action and threatening excommunication. Zadar fell on 24 November and the Venetians and the crusaders sacked the city. After spending the winter in Zadar the Fourth Crusade continued its campaign, which led to the Siege of Constantinople.Syrmian Front
The Syrmian Front (Serbo-Croatian: Sremski front, Сремски фронт) was an Axis line of defense during World War II. It was established as part of the Eastern Front in late October 1944 in Syrmia and east Slavonia, northwest of Belgrade.
After the Yugoslav Partisans and the Red Army expelled the Germans from Belgrade in the Belgrade Offensive, the retreating Wehrmacht and the Croatian Armed Forces used fortifications to protect the withdrawal of German Army Group E from the Balkans. With help from their Soviet allies, the Partisans (by then recognized as the Yugoslav army), joined by Bulgarian and Italian forces, fought a difficult winter campaign and finally broke through the front on 12 April 1945.
After the Syrmian front was broken, occupied Yugoslavia was liberated.Vienna Uprising
The Vienna Uprising or October Revolution (German: Wiener Oktoberaufstand, or Wiener Oktoberrevolution) of October 1848 was the last uprising in the Austrian Revolution of 1848.
On 6 October 1848, as the troops of the Austrian Empire were preparing to leave Vienna to suppress the Hungarian Revolution, a crowd sympathetic to the Hungarian cause (of workers, students and mutinous soldiers) tried to prevent them from leaving. The incident escalated into violent street battles; blood was spilt in Saint Stephen's Cathedral and Count Baillet von Latour, the Austrian Minister of War, was lynched by the crowd. The commander of the Vienna garrison, Count Auersperg, was obliged to evacuate the city, but he entrenched himself in a strong position outside it.On 7 October, Emperor Ferdinand I fled with his court to Olmütz (now Olomouc, Czech Republic) under the protection of Alfred I, Prince of Windisch-Grätz. Two weeks later, the Austrian Parliament was moved to Kremsier (now Kroměříž, Czech Republic).
On 26 October, under the command of General Windisch-Grätz and Count Josip Jelačić, the Austrian and Croatian armies started a bombardment of Vienna, and they stormed the city centre on the 31st. The defence was led by the Polish General Józef Bem. Except for him, who managed to escape, all the leaders of the resistance were executed in the days following—including Wenzel Messenhauser, the journalist Alfred Julius Becher, Hermann Jellinek and the Radical member of parliament Robert Blum, even though he had parliamentary immunity.
The gains of the March Revolution were largely lost, and Austria began a phase of both reactionary authoritarianism—"neo-absolutism"—but also liberal reform.
Hungary and the Balkans
Ottoman victories are in bold.