Battle of Pułtusk

The Battle of Pułtusk took place on 26 December 1806 during the War of the Fourth Coalition near Pułtusk, Poland. Despite their strong numerical superiority and artillery, the Russians suffered the French attacks, before retiring the next day having suffered greater losses than the French, disorganizing their army for the rest of the year.

Coordinates: 52°43′N 21°06′E / 52.717°N 21.100°E

Battle of Pułtusk
Part of the War of the Fourth Coalition
Battle of Pułtusk 1806

Battle of Pułtusk 1806
Date26 December 1806
Location
Result Tactical French victory
Belligerents
France First French Empire
Kingdom of Bavaria Bavaria
Russia Russian Empire
Kingdom of Prussia Kingdom of Prussia
Commanders and leaders
France Marshal Lannes Russia General Bennigsen
Strength
25,000-27,000 soldiers[1] 40,000-45,000 soldiers, 128 guns,[1] of which 35,000 engaged[2][3]
Casualties and losses
unclear, see below unclear, see below

Background

Strategic context

After defeating the Prussian army in the autumn of 1806, Emperor Napoleon entered partitioned Poland to confront the Russian army, which had been preparing to support the Prussians until their sudden defeat. Crossing the River Vistula, the French advance corps took Warsaw on 28 November 1806.

Bennigsen
Levin August Bennigsen

The Russian army was under the overall command of Field Marshal Mikhail Kamensky, but he was old and becoming infirm. The Russian First Army of some 55,000 to 68,000 men,[4] commanded by Count Bennigsen, had fallen back from the Vistula to the line of the River Wkra (Ukra),[5] in order to unite with the Second Army, about 37,000 strong,[6] under General Friedrich Wilhelm von Buxhoeveden (Buxhöwden), which was approaching from Russia and was still several days march from the First Army. However, realising his mistake in allowing the French to cross the Vistula, Kamensky advanced at the beginning of December to try to regain the line of the river.[7] French forces crossed the Narew River at Modlin on 10 December, and the Prussian Corps commanded by General-Leutnant Anton Wilhelm von L'Estocq failed to retake Thorn (Toruń). This led Bennigsen on 11 December to issue orders to fall back and hold the line of the River Wkra.[8]

When this was reported to Napoleon, he assumed the Russians were in full retreat. He ordered the forces under Marshal Joachim Murat – the 3rd corps of Marshal Louis Nicolas Davout, 7th Corps of Marshal Pierre Augereau, 5th Corps under Lannes, and Murat's 1st Cavalry Reserve Corps – to pursue towards Pułtusk. Meanwhile, Marshal Michel Ney's 6th Corps, Marshal Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte's 1st Corps, and Marshal Jean-Baptiste Bessières's 2nd Cavalry Reserve Corps turned the Russian right. Marshal Nicolas Soult's 4th Corps linked the two wings of the French army.[9]

Kamensky reversed the Russian retreat, and he ordered an advance to support the troops on the River Wkra.[10] On the night of 23 and 24 December, Davout's corps forced a crossing of the lower Wkra in the Battle of Czarnowo.[11] After engagements at Bieżuń on 23 December with Bessières and Soldau (Działdowo) on 25 December with Ney, the Prussian corps under L'Estocq was driven north towards Königsberg.[12] Augereau's corps seized a second crossing of the Wkra on the 24th at Kołoząb.[13] Realising the danger, Kamensky ordered a retreat on Ostrołęka. At this time the old field marshal appears to have had a mental breakdown and returned to Grodno. Bennigsen decided to disobey his superior's orders by standing and fighting on 26 December at Pułtusk. He had available the 2nd Division of Lieutenant General Alexander Ivanovich Ostermann-Tolstoy, the 6th Division of Lieutenant General Alexander Karlovich Sedmoratski, part of Lieutenant General Dmitry Golitsyn's 4th Division, and part of Lieutenant General Fabian Gottlieb von Osten-Sacken's 3rd Division. To the north-west, most of the 4th Division commanded by Golitsyn and the 5th Division under Lieutenant General Dmitry Dokhturov fought the Battle of Gołymin on the same day.[14]

Weather

The weather caused severe difficulties for both sides. Mild autumn weather had lasted longer than normal.[15] The usual frosts, which rendered the inadequate roads passable after the muddy conditions of autumn, were broken by thaws. There was a thaw on 17 December[16] and a two-day thaw on 26 and 27 December.[17] The result was that both sides found it very difficult to manoeuvre; in particular the French (as they were advancing) had great difficulty bringing up their artillery. Davout recorded it took two hours to cover 2½ miles.[18]

There were also difficulties with supply. Captain Jean-Baptiste-Antoine-Marcelin, Baron de Marbot, who was serving with Augereau's Corps wrote:

It rained and snowed incessantly. Provisions became very scarce; no more wine, hardly any beer, and what there was exceedingly bad, no bread, and quarters for which we had to fight the pigs and the cows.[19]

Site

Pułtusk lies on the west bank of the River Narew with a suburb on the east bank. The road from Strzegociz crossed the river by a bridge and then ran north-west towards Gołymin. A second road from Warsaw entered the town from the south-west, and then ran along the west bank of the river towards Różan. Before it reached Pułtusk this road was joined by one from Nasielsk. Another longer route to Różan ran along the east bank. The final road was that to Markow, which ran northwards from the town. The town itself lay on low ground. To the north and west lay a plateau, narrowing to a wide ridge nearer the river. A ravine cut into the plateau near the river. A large wood lay on the north-west side of the plateau, towards the village of Mosin. Further out from the plateau more woods covered the approaches from Warsaw.[20]

Battle

Forces

Marechal-Lannes
Jean Lannes

Lannes commanded two infantry divisions under Generals of Division Louis Gabriel Suchet and Honoré Théodore Maxime Gazan de la Peyrière. Suchet's 1st Division included General of Brigade Michel Marie Claparède's 3-battalion 17th Light Infantry Regiment, General of Brigade Honoré Charles Reille's 4-battalion 34th Line Infantry Regiment and 3-battalion 40th Line Infantry Regiment, and General of Brigade Dominique Honoré Antoine Vedel's 64th and 88th Line Infantry Regiments, three battalions each. Gazan's 2nd Division comprised General of Brigade Jean François Graindorge's 3-battalion 21st Light Infantry Regiment and 2-battalion 28th Light Infantry Regiment and General of Brigade François Frédéric Campana's 100th and 103rd Line Infantry Regiments, three battalions each. General of Brigade Anne-François-Charles Trelliard led 12 squadrons of the corps cavalry, which consisted of the 9th and 10th Hussar Regiments and the 21st Chasseurs à Cheval Regiment. General of Brigade Louis Foucher de Careil commanded the corps artillery, 38 guns in four foot and two horse artillery batteries at full strength.[21][22]

Ostermann-tolstoi
A. Ostermann-Tolstoi

Historian Francis Loraine Petre wrote that General of Division Nicolas Léonard Beker's 1,200-strong 5th Dragoon Division was also present, but did not note its composition.[23][24] Digby Smith placed Beker in charge of the 2nd Dragoon Division and listed the 3rd, 4th, 10th, 11th, 13th, and 22nd Dragoon Regiments as part of this unit.[25] General of Brigade Joseph Augustin Fournier Marquis de D'Aultane was the acting commander of the 3rd Division of Davout's corps. This unit was made up of two brigades. General of Brigade Claude Petit led the 2-battalion 12th Line Infantry Regiment and the 3-battalion 21st Line Infantry Regiment. General of Brigade Nicolas Hyacinthe Gautier directed the 25th and 85th Line Infantry Regiments, two battalions each. General of Division Louis Michel Antoine Sahuc led the 4th Dragoon Division, which only had one brigade present. General of Brigade Jacques Léonard Laplanche commanded the 15th and 25th Dragoon Regiments.[26][27] Fournier had 70 chasseurs à cheval, 100 dragoons, and only one artillery piece attached to his command.[28]

Bennigsen commanded Ostermann-Tolstoy's 2nd Division, Sedmoratski's 6th Division, and elements of the 3rd and 4th Divisions. The 2nd Division had three infantry and one cavalry brigades. Major General Nikolai Mazovsky directed the Pavlovski Grenadier and Rostov Musketeer Regiments, Major General Alexander Yakovlevich Sukin led the Petersburg Grenadier and Jeletzsky Musketeer Regiments, and Major General Ivan Andreievich Lieven commanded the 1st and 20th Jager Regiments. Major General Koschin's cavalry brigade included the Life Cuirassier, Kargopol Dragoon, and Soum Hussar Regiments, plus two cossack units. There were a total of 60 artillery pieces in four foot batteries and one horse artillery batteries.[26][29]

The 6th Division also controlled three infantry and one cavalry brigades. Major General Karl Gustav von Baggovut led the Starokolski Musketeer and 4th Jäger Regiments, Major General Vasili Sergeievich Rachmanov commanded the Vilnius and Nizov Musketeer Regiments, and Major General Fedosei Mikhailovich Bikov directed the Reval and Volhynia Musketeer Regiments. Major General Karl Osipovich Lambert's cavalry brigade comprised the Ekaterinoslav Cuirassier, Kiev Dragoon, and Alexandrov Hussar Regiments, plus one Tatar and one cossack unit. The 6th Division artillery numbered 72 guns in five foot and one horse artillery batteries. The units of the 3rd and 4th Divisions are not listed. Altogether, Bennigsen controlled 50,500 men in 66 battalions, 55 squadrons, and his artillery.[26][29]

Action

Pultusk Campaign Map 1806
The Pułtusk Campaign Map shows the positions of the French, Russian, and Prussian forces at the end of December 1806. Actions were fought at Bieżuń and Czarnowo on the 23rd, Kołoząb on the 24th, Soldau on the 25th, and Pułtusk and Gołymin on the 26th.

Bennigsen arrayed his forces[30][31][32] along the Pułtusk-Gołymin road, with three lines composed respectively of 21, 18 and 5 battalions. The left rested on the town, the right on the Mosin wood. The artillery was positioned in front of the first line. On the extreme right Major General Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly occupied part of the Mosin wood with three battalions, a cavalry regiment and an artillery battery covering the road to Gołymin. Baggovut covered the left of the line and the bridge over the Narew from a position in front of the ravine with ten battalions, two squadrons of dragoons and an artillery battery. Deployed along the edge of the ridge were 28 squadrons of cavalry linking Barclay de Tolly and Baggovut. Cossack cavalry was deployed in front of them.[33]

Marshal Lannes had orders to cross the Narew at Pułtusk with his corps. He was aware that there was a Russian force in front of him, but did not know its size. After struggling through the mud, his first troops reached the area at about 10:00 AM,[34] and drove the cossacks back onto the Russian main line. Because of the terrain, Lannes could only see the Russian advance positions on the extreme left and right with the cavalry between them.

Lannes deployed Suchet's division on his left, opposite the Mosin wood. Gazan's division covered the rest of the Russian line. The few guns were deployed on the left and in the centre.[1]

At about 11:00 AM the French right advanced against Baggovut. The Russian cossacks and cavalry were driven back and Baggovut sent forward a Jäger unit, which was driven back despite artillery support. The French centre had also advanced, to attack Baggovut from the flank. But this manoeuvre exposed them to the Russian cavalry line, seven squadrons of which suddenly attacked the French flank in a sudden snow storm while Baggovut's cavalry and the jägers attacked from the front. A French infantry battalion then took the Russian cavalry in their flank. After a confused melee the Russians fell back to their original position. Lannes's cavalry division, under Trelliard tried to advance but was driven off by artillery fire.

Pultusk noon
Battle of Pułtusk about noon

At the same time as the French right attacked, on the French left Suchet's division, led by Lannes in person, attacked the position held by Barclay. The initial attack drove the Russians out of the wood, and captured the battery stationed there, but Barclay's reserve drove the French back into the wood and recaptured the guns.

The French centre had also advanced. The Russian cavalry withdrew behind the main line, exposing the French to artillery fire from the Russian batteries.

By about 2 p.m.[35] the French position looked dangerous. The Russian left had held, the French centre was suffering from the artillery fire, and on the right increasing pressure was beginning to force Suchet's men out of the wood. A French retreat looked a distinct possibility when unexpected reinforcements arrived.

Pultusk 3pm
Battle of Pułtusk about 3 PM

The 3rd Division of Davout's 3rd Corps, temporarily commanded by his Chief of Staff Fournier, had been ordered to pursue a Russian column apparently retiring on Pułtusk. Concerned about the strength of the Russian cavalry force which was escorting guns and stores, Fournier had pursued but not engaged. He was preparing to stop for the night when he heard the sounds of combat to his right, and so marched his men towards Pułtusk. Due the state of the roads he was only able to bring up one gun.[35]

Seeing this force approach, Bennigsen wheeled back his main line to face the wood, thus reducing the artillery fire directed at Lannes's units. Barclay, finding Fournier attacking his right flank, fell back to the right of the main Russian line. Bennigsen reinforced him with two infantry regiments and some cavalry, and directed an artillery battery to fire on the wood. Thus reinforced Barclay attacked the wood. The French were driven out, and Fournier's right flank exposed. This was attacked by twenty squadrons of Russian cavalry, but the 85th French Infantry Regiment formed squares and by a steady fire drove the cavalry off. At about 8:00 PM the combat died away, and Fournier retired to the edge of the woods.[36]

The arrival of Fournier's division also had an effect on the French right wing. With the switch of much of the Russian artillery to support Barclay de Tolly, the French were able to use their own guns to support a fresh attack at about 2:00 PM[37] on Baggovut by the brigades of Claparède and Vedel, supported by Gazan on their left. Baggovut's men were driven back over the ravine in their rear, and their guns captured. Ostermann-Tolstoy established a battery to Barclay's right and reinforced by five battalions he attacked. After a desperate fight the French were thrown back and the guns recaptured. The French right and centre fell back to their start positions as night fell.

During the night, Bennigsen decided to retire, and did so the next day, 27 December, using the longer road to Różan along the east bank of the Narew. From there he continued his retreat to Ostrołęka. Fournier's division also moved off to rejoin the 3rd Corps at Golymin. Lannes was in no position to pursue the Russians, and occupied Pułtusk on 28 December.

Analysis

Losses on both sides are disputed. Lannes claimed the Russians lost 2,000 killed, 3,000 wounded and 1,800 prisoners, a total of 6,800; Sir Robert Wilson, British liaison officer with the Russian army, claimed the Russians lost less than 5,000 men. Lannes admitted 700 French killed and 1,500 wounded; Russian authorities said the French losses were 7,000 killed and wounded and 70 prisoners. Given that the French were attacking and exposed to artillery fire a total for them of 7,000 killed, wounded and prisoners does not seem unreasonable, and a total of 5,000 casualties for the Russians seems a good estimate.[38] Another authority gives French losses as five generals and 140 officers killed or wounded, 3,200 soldiers dead or wounded, and 700 captured. Russian losses are stated as 3,500 total, including 1,500 men and 12 guns captured. On the French side, Lannes, Bonnard, Claparède, and Vedel were all wounded.[26]

Bennigsen claimed a victory. The consensus seems to be[39] that having decided to fight, in defiance of his orders he could have better disposed his forces, taken the offensive and destroyed Lannes's corps before Fournier came up. Bennigsen said he thought he was facing 60,000 French under Napoleon in person, which may explain his defensive stance. Bennigsen also complained that Buxhoeveden did not support him, but that officer was obeying his orders to retire.

Lannes, on the other hand, was following his orders, and the result was to find himself facing a superior force in a good defensive position. Napoleon's orders had not allowed for this, and unaware of the odds against him Lannes attacked. If Fournier had not used his initiative and marched to the sound of the guns the result may have been very different.

Aftermath

At the Battle of Gołymin, Golitsyn successfully held off a superior French force. This, combined with the failure of Soult's corps to pass around the Russian right flank spoiled Napoleon's chances of cutting the Russian line of retreat and trapping them against the River Narew.

The Russian 5th and 7th Divisions retired towards the main body of the army at Różan. Bennigsen's forces fell back to Nowogród on the River Narew, uniting on 1 January 1807 with the forces under Buxhoeveden. On 28 December, Napoleon stopped his advance and, having lost contact with the Russian army, decided to go into winter quarters. His troops were exhausted and discontented, and the supply situation was in great disorder.[40]

The break in hostilities did not last long. Soon afterward, Bennigsen was appointed army commander and he launched an unexpected winter offensive into East Prussia. Aimed at the French strategic left flank, the Russian blow was blunted at the Battle of Mohrungen on 25 January 1807. Napoleon immediately counterattacked, trying to cut the Russian communications line that ran to the northeast. The French caught up with the Russians on 7 and 8 February 1807 and the dreadful Battle of Eylau was fought.

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Petre "Poland" 2001 ed, p.96
  2. ^ D. G. Chandler. The Campaigns of Napoleon. Simon and Schuster, 2009. P. 521
  3. ^ Roberts A. Napoleon the Great. Penguin UK, 2016
  4. ^ Petre "Poland", 2001 ed, p38
  5. ^ Petre "Poland", 2001 ed, p70
  6. ^ Petre "Poland", 2001 ed, p39
  7. ^ Petre "Poland", 2001 ed, p40
  8. ^ Petre "Poland", 2001 ed, p73
  9. ^ Petre "Poland", 2001 ed, p76
  10. ^ Petre "Poland", 2001 ed, p77
  11. ^ Petre "Poland", 2001 ed, p79-82
  12. ^ Petre "Poland", 2001 ed, pp87-88
  13. ^ Petre "Poland", 2001 ed, pp84-85
  14. ^ Petre "Poland", 2001 ed, p89
  15. ^ Petre "Poland", 2001 ed, p354
  16. ^ Correspondance de Napoleon Ier, XI 497
  17. ^ Petre "Poland", 2001 ed, p. 40
  18. ^ Petre "Poland", 2001 ed, p. 93
  19. ^ Marbot "Memoirs", 1:xxvii
  20. ^ Petre " Poland", 2001 ed, pp90-91
  21. ^ Smith, p235. Smith itemized Colbert-Chabanais' 6th Corps cavalry but repeated Trelliard's list of regiments, which was clearly a misprint.
  22. ^ Chandler Jena, p36
  23. ^ Petre, p 95. Petre mentioned Beker and Trelliard, but not Colbert-Chabanais.
  24. ^ Petre, p177. Petre stated that Beker led the 5th Division.
  25. ^ Smith, p235. These units are identical to Grouchy's division.
  26. ^ a b c d Smith, p235
  27. ^ Chandler Jena, p35
  28. ^ Petre "Poland" 2001 ed. p100. The rest of the corps cavalry was at Gołymin.
  29. ^ a b Millar, Left Wing
  30. ^ Petre "Poland" 2001 ed, p.90-107
  31. ^ Chandler "Campaigns" p.521
  32. ^ Chandler "Dictionary" p.439
  33. ^ Petre "Poland" 2001 ed, p.91
  34. ^ Petre "Poland" 2001 ed, p.95
  35. ^ a b Petre "Poland" 2001 ed, p.99
  36. ^ Petre "Poland" 2001 ed, p.101
  37. ^ Petre "Poland" 2001 ed, p.102
  38. ^ Petre "Poland" 2001 ed, p.103. Petre quotes the various authorities.
  39. ^ Petre "Poland" 2001 ed, p104-5
  40. ^ Petre "Poland", 2001 ed, p117

References

  • Chandler, David G. The Campaigns of Napoleon. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995. ISBN 0-02-523660-1
  • Chandler, David G. Dictionary of the Napoleonic Wars. Wordsworth Editions Ltd, 1999. ISBN 1-84022-203-4
  • Chandler, David G. Jena 1806: Napoleon Destroys Prussia. Westport, Conn.: Praeger Publishers, 2005. ISBN 0-275-98612-8
  • Marbot, Baron M. The Memoirs of Baron de Marbot. Translated by A J Butler. Kessinger Publishing Co, Massachusetts, 2005. ISBN 1-4179-0855-6 (References are to book and chapter). Also available in English translation on line (see external links below).
  • Millar, Stephen. Russian-Prussian Order-of-Battle at Eylau: 8 February 1807: The Left Wing
  • Petre, F Loraine. Napoleon's Campaign in Poland 1806–1807. First published 1901; reissued Greenhill Books, 2001. ISBN 1-85367-441-9. Petre used many first hand French sources, German histories and documents from the French Army archives. However as he spoke no Russian he was not able to use any Russian sources.
  • Smith, Digby. The Napoleonic Wars Data Book. London: Greenhill Books, 1998. ISBN 1-85367-276-9

Other reading

  • Stolarski. P; "Eylau", Miniature Wargames Magazine, March 1997

External links

1703 in Sweden

Events from the year 1703 in Sweden

1806

1806 (MDCCCVI)

was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1806th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 806th year of the 2nd millennium, the 6th year of the 19th century, and the 7th year of the 1800s decade. As of the start of 1806, the Gregorian calendar was

12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

1806 in France

Events from the year 1806 in France.

Anders Örbom

Anders Örbom (May 9, 1675 – May 25, 1740) was a captain in the Swedish Army who was at the Surrender at Perevolochna and taken to Siberia as a prisoner of war for 13 years.

Battle of Golymin

The Battle of Golymin took place on 26 December 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars at Gołymin, Poland, between around 17,000 Russian soldiers with 28 guns under Prince Golitsyn and 38,000 French soldiers under Marshal Murat. The Russian forces disengaged successfully from the superior French forces. The battle took place on the same day as the Battle of Pułtusk.

Battle of Pułtusk (1703)

The Battle of Pułtusk took place on April 21, 1703 in Pułtusk during the Great Northern War. The Swedish army under the command of Charles XII defeated the Saxon army under Adam Heinrich von Steinau.

Charles later went on to take Toruń (Thorn) in December.

Dmitry Golitsyn

Serene Prince Dmitry Vladimirovich Golitsyn or Galitzine (Russian: Дмитрий Владимирович Голицын) (29 October 1771 – 27 March 1844, Paris) was a Russian cavalry general prominent during the Napoleonic Wars, statesman and military writer.

He was born in the family of Knyaz Vladimir Borisovich Golitsyn (1731–1798) and his wife Natalie Chernyshova, nicknamed La Princesse Moustache, or the Queen of Spades, who was portrayed as a central character in Pushkin's story (and Tchaikovsky's opera) of the same name. His siblings were Boris Vladimirovitch Golitsyn, Ekaterina Vladimirovna Apraksina and Sophie Stroganov.

In 1774 Golitsyn was enrolled in the Leib Guard Preobrazhensky regiment and received his first rank of sergeant in 1777. He continued his education in Strasbourg and from 1781 he travelled in Germany and France with his family. In the middle of the 1780s the Golitsyns settled in Paris, where Dmitriy studied military science. In 1785 Golitsyn returned to Russia and entered the cavalry. During the Kościuszko Uprising he fought under Aleksandr Suvorov and on 24 October 1794 distinguished himself at the Battle of Praga and earned his first Order of St. George of the 4th degree.

During the reign of Emperor Paul I he was quickly promoted, first to colonel (on 2 May 1797), then to Major General (on 5 August 1798), and finally to Lieutenant General (on 21 August 1800). He meanwhile received the Order of St. Anne 4th class, and also became a member of the Knights Hospitaller. He also married Tatiana Vasilyevna Vasilchikova in 1800.

Golitsyn fought bravely during the Napoleonic Wars. In 1805, during the War of the Third Coalition, his regiment started the campaign in the corps of Count Bennigsen in Silesia. In December 1806 he led the 4th division at the Battle of Golymin. This victory and success of Bennigsen at the Battle of Pułtusk stopped the French forces. After that, Golitsyn commanded the cavalry of the left wing. His forces took part in all major actions – at Eylau, Heilsberg and Friedland. For this campaign he received numerous Russian and foreign awards: the Order of St. George 3rd class (on 21 January 1807), the Order of St. Vladimir 2nd class, the Prussian Order of the Red Eagle (on 18 May 1807), the Order of the Black Eagle on 25 June 1807), and a gold sword with diamonds with the inscription For Bravery.

After a brief participation in the Finnish War Golitsyn resigned his commission on 18 April 1809 and travelled in Germany. He listened to lectures at different universities. Upon returning to Russia he lived on his estate near Moscow.

On 31 August 1812 he entered military service again. Kutuzov entrusted him with leading the cavalry of the 2nd army, at which he excelled at Borodino, Vyazma, and Krasny.

In 1814 he was promoted to the rank of full General of the Cavalry.

He governed Moscow as War Governor for 25 years. In 1829 he founded a committee aimed at the protection of prisoners and supported Friedrich Joseph Haass.

On 16 April 1841 Golitsyn received the title of Serene Prince for his great merits.

In the late 1830s Golitsyn fell seriously ill and from 1838 he received medical treatment for the urolithiasis. He died in Paris on 27 March 1844, a few months before the 25th anniversary of his service as Governor of Moscow.

Dominique Honoré Antoine Vedel

Dominique Honoré Antoine Vedel (2 July 1771 – 30 March 1848) was a French general who participated in the French Revolution, the War of the Fourth Coalition and the Peninsular War.

Serving in both cases under Marshal Jean Lannes, Vedel fought at the Battle of Saalfeld (1806) and was wounded at the Battle of Pułtusk (1806) in Poland.

Jan Kozietulski

Baron Jan Leon Hipolit Kozietulski (4 July 1781 – 3 February 1821) was a Polish noble, military commander and an officer of the armed forces of the Duchy of Warsaw during the Napoleonic Wars. He is best remembered as the heroic commander of the Polish cavalry charge at the Battle of Somosierra.

Jean François Graindorge

Jean François Graindorge (1 July 1770 – 1 October 1810) became a brigade commander during the Napoleonic Wars and was mortally wounded while leading his troops against the British at the Battle of Bussaco in Portugal. His surname is one of the names inscribed under the Arc de Triomphe, on Column 38.

Karl Friedrich von dem Knesebeck

Karl Friedrich von dem Knesebeck (5 May 1768– 12 January 1848) was a Prussian field marshal and military adviser in the Napoleonic Wars, notable for designing the campaign plan of the Battle of Leipzig and the subsequent invasion of France.

Karl Gustav von Baggovut

Karl Gustav von Baggehufwudt (Russian: Карл Фёдорович Багговут, tr. Karl Fyodorovich Baggovut; Swedish: Carl Gustaf Baggehufvudt; 27(J:16) September 1761 in Perila, Estonia – 18 (J:06) October 1812) was a lieutenant general of the Russian Empire who took part both in Napoleonic Wars and Finnish War. His family was originally Norwegian, but had moved to Sweden in the 16th century, then to Estonia in the 17th century.

He was seen as one of the bravest Russian generals and, on his death at the Battle of Tarutino (or Winkowo), Alexander I of Russia wrote to his widow, "I have lost a brave commander, useful to the fatherland".

List of Swedish battles

This is a list of major (land) battles and operations fought by Sweden between 1521 and 1814:

The Swedish War of Liberation or Befrielsekriget (1521–1523)

Battle of Brunnbäck Ferry (first half of April 1521)

Battle of Västerås (April 29, 1521)

Conquest of Kalmar (May 27, 1523)

Conquest of Stockholm (June 16–17, 1523)

The Danish Count Feud or Danska Grevefejden (1534–1536)

Conquest of Halmstad (October 31, 1534)

Battle of Helsingborg (January, 1535)

The Russo-Swedish War (1554–57) or Stora ryska kriget (1554–1557)

Battle of Kivinäbb (March 11, 1555)

Assault of Nöteborg (September 15–29, 1555)

Assault of Viborg (January 21–25, 1556)

The Northern Seven Years' War or Nordiska sjuårskriget (1563–1570)

Capitulation of Älvsborg (September 4, 1563)

Battle of Marred (November 9, 1563)

Conquest of Pernau (June 9, 1565)

Battle of Obermühlenberg (August 15, 1565)

Conquest of Varberg (August 28, 1565)

Battle of Axtorna (October 20, 1565)

Battle of Runafer (February 3, 1567)

Fall of Pernau (June 9, 1565)

Capitulation of Varberg (December 4, 1569)

The Livonian War or Första polska kriget (1563–1568)

Fall of Pernau (June 9, 1565)

Battle of Obermühlenberg (August 15, 1565)

Battle of Runafer (February 3, 1567)

Conquest of Sonnenburg (August 11, 1568)

The Russian Twenty-five Years' War or 25-årskriget mot Ryssland (1570–1595)

Battle of Ubagall (March, 1571)

Conquest of Weissenstein (January 1, 1573)

Battle of Lode (January 23, 1573)

Battle of Wenden (October 21, 1578)

Conquest of Kexholm (November 4, 1580)

Conquest of Narva (September 6, 1581)

The War against Sigismund or Kriget mot Sigismund (1598–1599)

Battle of Stegeborg (September 8, 1598)

Battle of Stångebro (September 25, 1598)

The Polish War or Andra polska kriget (1600–1629)

Battle of Kokenhausen (June 17, 1601)

Battle of Weissenstein (September 15, 1604)

Battle of Kircholm (September 17, 1605)

Conquest of Riga (September 15, 1621)

Battle of Wallhof (January 8, 1626)

Battle of Mewe (September 21, 1626)

Battle of Hammerstein (April 13, 1627)

Battle of Dirschau (August 8, 1627)

Battle of Danzig (June 16, 1628)

Battle of Osterode (October 14, 1628)

Battle of Gurzno (February 2, 1629)

The De la Gardie Campaign or De la Gardieska fälttåget (1609–1610)

Battle of Kamenka (May 15, 1609)

Battle of Torzhok (June 17, 1609)

Battle of Tver (July 13, 1609)

Battle of Tver (July 15, 1609)

Battle of Kaljazin (August 18, 1609)

Battle of Troitsko (October 28, 1609)

Battle of Rzjov (April, 1610)

Battle of Klusina (June 24, 1610)

The Ingrian War or Ingermanländska kriget (1610–1617)

Conquest of Novgorod (July 15, 1611)

Battle of Bronnicy (July 14, 1614)

Assault of Pskov (October 9, 1615)

The Kalmar War or Kalmarkriget (1611–1613)

Conquest of Kalmar slott (August 3, 1611)

Conquest of Älvsborg (May 24, 1612)

The Thirty Years' War or Trettioåriga kriget (1630–1648)

Siege of Stralsund (1628)

Conquest and occupation of Pomerania (1630)

Battle of Marwitz (December 25, 1630)

Battle of Frankfurt an der Oder (April 3, 1631)

Conquest of Magdeburg (May 10, 1631)

Battle of Breitenfeld (September 7, 1631)

Battle of Rain (April 5, 1632)

Battle of Nürnberg (August 24, 1632)

Battle of Lützen (November 6, 1632)

Battle of Oldendorf (June 28, 1633)

Battle of Pfaffenhofen (August 1, 1633)

Battle of Steinau (September 27, 1633)

Battle of Nördlingen (August 27, 1634)

Battle of Dömitz (October 22, 1635)

Battle of Wittstock (September 24, 1636)

Battle of Chemnitz (April 4, 1639)

Battle of Wolfenbüttel (June 19, 1641)

Battle of Schweidnitz (May 21, 1642)

Battle of Breitenfeld (October 23, 1642)

Battle of Jüterbog (November 23, 1644)

Sack of Magdeburg (December 23, 1644)

Battle of Jankau (February 23, 1645)

Battle of Zusmarshausen (May 7, 1648)

The Torstenson War or Torstensonkriget (1643–1645)

Battle of Kolding (January 9, 1644)

Battle of Colberger Heide (July 1, 1644)

Battle of Fehmarn (October 13, 1644)

Battle on the frozen Bysjö (December 22, 1644)

The First Bremian War or Första bremiska kriget (1654)

No major battles

The Northern Wars or Nordiska krigen (1655–1661)

Battle of Sobota (August 23, 1655)

Battle of Żarnów (September 6, 1655)

Battle of Nowy Dwór (September 20, 1655)

Battle of Wojnicz (September 23, 1655)

Battle of Radom (February 2, 1656)

Battle of Golomb (February 8, 1656)

Battle of Warka (March 28, 1656)

Battle of Gnesen (April 27, 1656)

Battle of Warszawa (June 18–20, 1656)

Battle of Rautu kyrka (July, 1656)

Battle of Lyck (September 28, 1656)

Battle of Filippovo (October 12, 1656)

Battle of Chojnice (December 23, 1656)

Battle of Walk (July 8, 1657)

Battle of Ängelholm (July 18, 1657)

Assault of Lava (August 1, 1657)

Battle of Genevadsbro (August 31, 1657)

Battle of Hjärtum (September 25, 1657)

Battle of Kattarp (October 3, 1657)

Conquest of Fredriksodde (October 24, 1657)

Battle of Tybrindvig (January 30, 1658)

March Across the Belts (January 30-February 10, 1658)

Conquest of Kronborg (September 6, 1658)

Assault on Copenhagen (February 11, 1659)

Battle of Nyborg (November 14, 1659)

The Second Bremian War or Andra bremiska kriget (1666)

No major battles

The Scanian War or Skånska kriget (1674–1679)

Battle of Rathenow (June 15, 1675)

Battle of Fehrbellin (June 18, 1675)

Battle of Halmstad (August 17, 1676)

Battle of Lund (December 4, 1676)

Battle of Landskrona (July 14, 1677)

Battle of Warksow (January 8, 1678)

Battle of Uddevalla (August 28, 1678)

Great Sleigh Drive (winter 1678)

The Great Northern War or Stora nordiska kriget (1700–1721)

Battle of Pühhajoggi (November 17, 1700)

Battle of Narva (November 20, 1700)

Crossing of Daugava (July 9, 1701)

Battle of Rauge (September 5, 1701)

Battle of Erastfer (December 30, 1701)

Battle of Kliszów (July 9, 1702)

Battle of Hummelshof (July 19, 1702)

Battle of Saladen (March 19, 1703)

Battle of Pułtusk (April 21, 1703)

Battle of Systerbäck (July 9, 1703)

Battle of Wesenberg (June 16, 1704)

Battle of Jakobstadt (July 26, 1704)

Battle of Posen (Poznań) (August 9, 1704)

Battle of Punitz (October 28, 1704)

Battle of Gemäuerthof (July 16, 1705)

Battle of Rakowitz (July 21, 1705)

Battle of Fraustadt (February 3, 1706)

Battle of Kalisz (October 19, 1706)

Battle of Holowczyn (July 4, 1708)

Battle of Lesnaya (September 29, 1708)

Battle of Poltava (June 28, 1709)

Battle of Helsingborg (February 28, 1710)

Battle of Gadebusch (December 9, 1712)

Battle of Pälkäne (October 6, 1713)

Battle of Storkyro (February 19, 1714)

Battle of Stralsund (October 9, 1715)

Battle of Stäket (August 13, 1719)

The Russo-Swedish War or Hattarnas ryska krig (1741–1743)

Battle of Villmanstrand (August 23, 1741)

The Seven Years' War or Pommerska kriget (1757–1762)

Battle of Tornow (September 26, 1758)

Battle of Fehrbellin (September 28, 1758)

Battle of Neu Kahlen (January 2, 1759)

Russo-Swedish War (1788–1790) or Gustav III:s ryska krig (1788–1790)

Battle of Kvistrum (September 29, 1788)

First Battle of Porrassalmi (June 13, 1789)

Second Battle of Porrassalmi (June 19, 1789)

Battle of Uttismalm (June 28, 1789)

Battle of Kaipas (July 15, 1789)

Battle of Parkumäki (July 21, 1789)

Battle of Valkeala (April 29, 1790)

Battle of Korhois (1790)

Battle of Keltis barracker (May 19–20, 1790)

Battle of Savitaipale (June 4, 1790)

The Franco-Swedish War or Första kriget mot Napoleon (1805–1810)

Battle of Lübeck (November 6, 1806)

Battle of Stralsund (April 1, 1807)

Battle of Ueckermünde (April 17, 1807)

Battle of Prestebakke (June 10, 1808)

The Finnish War or Finska kriget (1808–1809)

Battle of Siikajoki (April 18, 1808)

Battle of Revolax (April 27, 1808)

Battle of Pulkkila (May 1, 1808)

Battle of Nykarleby (June 24, 1808)

Battle of Lappo (July 14, 1808)

Battle of Kauhajoki (August 10, 1808)

Battle of Alavus (August 17, 1808)

Battle of Karstula (August 21, 1808)

Battle of Ruona (September 1, 1808)

Battle of Jutas (September 13, 1808)

Battle of Oravais (September 14, 1808)

Battle of Koljonvirta (October 27, 1808)

Battle of Hörnefors (July 2, 1809)

Battle of Sävar (August 19, 1809)

Battle of Ratan (August 20, 1809)

The Anglo-Swedish War or Kriget mot England (1810–1812)

No battles fought

The Second War against Napoleon or Andra kriget mot Napoleon (1813–1814)

Battle of Großbeeren (August 23, 1813)

Battle of Dennewitz (September 6, 1813)

Battle of Rosslau (September 28, 1813)

Battle of Leipzig (October 18–19, 1813)

Battle of Bornhöved (1813) (December 7, 1813)

The Swedish–Norwegian War or Fälttåget mot Norge (1814)

Invasion of Hvaler (29 July 1814)

Battle of Lier (August 2, 1814)

Battle of Fredrikstad (August 4, 1814)

Battle of Midtskog (August 5, 1814)

Battle of Matrand (August 5, 1814)

Battle of Langnes (August 9, 1814)

Battle of Kjølberg Bridge (August 14, 1814)

Louis-Gabriel Suchet

Louis-Gabriel Suchet (2 March 1770 – 3 January 1826), Duke of Albufera (French: Duc d'Albuféra), was a French Marshal of the Empire and one of the most successful commanders of the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars.

Louis Victorin Cassagne

Louis Victorin Cassagne (5 June 1774 – 6 July 1841) became a French division commander during the Napoleonic Wars. In 1793 he joined a free company which was immediately absorbed into a volunteer battalion. Until 1795 he fought in the Army of the Eastern Pyrenees as a captain. In 1795–1797 he served in the Army of Italy, fighting at Loano, Lonato and Tarvis. In 1798–1801 he participated in the French campaign in Egypt and Syria, fighting at the Pyramids, Acre and Alexandria. In 1801 he was made commander of an infantry regiment. Cassagne was wounded an extraordinary number of times, especially during his early campaigns.

Cassagne led his regiment at Auerstadt and Pułtusk in 1806 and Eylau in 1807. He was promoted general of brigade in 1807 and became Baron of the Empire in 1808. He transferred to Spain and was captured at Bailén. After exchange he served at Talavera and Cadiz. Promoted to general of division in 1813, he led a division that year at Vitoria. Transferring to Germany he led a division at Dresden and was captured when that fortress surrendered. During the Hundred Days he was employed by Napoleon on the Spanish frontier. Placed on inactive duty during the Bourbon Restoration he was recalled to active duty in 1833 and retired six years later. His surname is one of the names inscribed under the Arc de Triomphe, on Column 27.

Maximilian Emanuel of Württemberg-Winnental

Maximilian Emanuel of Württemberg-Winnental (Stuttgart, February 27, 1689 – Dubno, September 25, 1709), son of Frederick Charles of Württemberg-Winnental and Margravine Eleonore Juliane of Brandenburg-Ansbach, was a volunteer in the army of Charles XII of Sweden and a devoted friend to the king.

In 1703, at age 14 he joined Charles XII's Polish campaign before the Battle of Pułtusk, and was since known throughout the army as the Little Prince.

On June 18, 1708 he was wounded by the River Berezina while attempting to shield the king from bullets, but recovered in time to fight in the Battle of Holowczyn. He was later made colonel of the Buchwald's Dragoons.

In the Battle of Poltava he was captured by the Russians. Released shortly after, he died on the way home at Dubno in Volhynia. King Charles long mourned the loss of his "best and truest friend".

His heart was buried at St. Gumbertus Church in Ansbach.

Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly

Prince Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly (German: Michael Andreas Fürst Barclay de Tolly; 27 December [O.S. 16 December] 1761 – 26 May [O.S. 14 May] 1818) was a Baltic German Field Marshal and Minister of War of the Russian Empire during Napoleon's invasion in 1812 and War of the Sixth Coalition. Barclay implemented a number of reforms during this time that improved supply system in the army, doubled the number of army troops, and implemented new combat training principles. He was also the Governor-General of Finland.

He was born into a German-speaking noble family from Livonia who were members of the Scottish Clan Barclay. His father was the first of his family to be accepted into the Russian nobility. Barclay joined the Imperial Russian Army at a young age in 1776, enlisting in the Pskov Carabineer Regiment. For his role in the capture of Ochakov in 1788 from the Ottomans, he was personally decorated by Grigory Potemkin. Afterwards he participated in Catherine II's Swedish War. In 1794, he took part in putting down the Kościuszko Uprising in Poland and was again decorated for role in the capture of Vilnius.

In 1806, Barclay began commanding in the Napoleonic Wars, distinguishing himself at the Battle of Pułtusk that same year. He was wounded at the Battle of Eylau in 1807 while his troops were covering the retreat of the Russian army. Because of his wounds, he was forced to leave command. The following year, he carried out successful operations in the Finnish War against Sweden. Barclay led a large number of Russian troops approximately 100km across the frozen Gulf of Bothnia in winter during a snowstorm. For his accomplishments, Barclay de Tolly was appointed Governor-General of the Grand Duchy of Finland. From 20 January 1810 to September 1812 he was the Minister of War of the Russian Empire.

When the French invasion of Russia began in 1812, Barclay de Tolly was commander of the 1st Army of the West, the largest Army to face Napoleon. Barclay was appointed Commander-in-Chief and initiated a scorched earth policy from the beginning of the campaign, though this made him unpopular among Russians. After the Battle of Smolensk failed to halt the French and discontent among Russians continued to grow, Alexander I appointed Mikhail Kutuzov as Commander-in-Chief, though Barclay remained in charge of the 1st Army. However, Kutuzov continued the same scorched earth retreat up to Moscow where the Battle of Borodino took place nearby. Barclay commanded the right wing and center of the Russian army for the battle. After Napoleon's retreat, the eventual success of Barclay's tactics made him a hero among Russians. He became Commander-in-Chief once again in 1813 after the death of Kutuzov and led the taking of Paris, for which he was made a Field Marshal. His health later declined and he died on a visit to Germany in 1818.

Mikhail Kamensky

Count Mikhail Fedotovich Kamensky (Russian: Михаи́л Федо́тович Каме́нский; 19 May 1738 – 12 August 1809) was a Russian Field Marshal prominent in the Catherinian wars and the Napoleonic campaigns.

Mikhail Kamensky served as a volunteer in the French army in 1758-1759. He then took part in the Seven Years' War. In 1783, Kamensky was appointed Governor General of Ryazan and Tambov guberniyas. During the war with Turkey, in 1788, he defeated the Turks at the Moldavian settlement of Gangur. When prince Potemkin fell ill and entrusted his command of the army to Mikhail Kakhovsky, Kamensky refused to subordinate himself, referring to his seniority. For this, he was discharged from military service.

In 1797, Emperor Paul I granted Kamensky the title of count and made him retire. In 1806, Kamensky was appointed commander-in-chief of the Russian army in Prussia, which had been fighting the French armies of Napoleon. After six days of being in command, on the eve of the battle of Pułtusk, he transferred the command to Feodor Buxhoeveden under pretence of illness and left for his estate near Oryol.

Kamensky was notorious for his maltreatment of his serfs, and he was killed by one of them in 1809. His death occasioned a sentimental poem by Vasily Zhukovsky. He was the father of Generals Sergei Kamensky and Nikolai Kamensky. The British actress Dame Helen Mirren is his great-great-great-great-granddaughter. Another well-known descendant was historian A. A. Zimin.

Pułtusk

Pułtusk ([ˈpuu̯tusk]; German: Ostenburg) is a town in Poland by the river Narew, 70 kilometres (43 miles) north of Warsaw. It is located in the Masovian Voivodship and has about 19,000 inhabitants.

In 1339 Pułtusk was granted town rights and throughout the 15th and 17th centuries, it was one of the most important economic centres in the Masovian region. The favorable placement of the town on the Narew River, where grain and other goods were transported to Gdańsk, contributed to the town’s growth and importance. Moreover, the construction of Europe’s longest paved market square (380 meters in length) was a sign of the town’s economic success.During the millennium of its existence, Pułtusk was possibly the most invaded town in Poland. Despite the extent of the destruction, especially during World War II, the town was reconstructed, and is now one of the most recognized and admired tourist destinations in the north-eastern part of the country because of its historical and unique architecture. It is one of the most popular weekend places for the inhabitants of Warsaw.

Pułtusk is one of the oldest towns in Poland and, due to its beauty and floating gondolas, it is known as "Little Polish Venice".

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