Battle of Preveza

The Battle of Preveza was a naval battle that took place on 28 September 1538 near Preveza in northwestern Greece between an Ottoman fleet and that of a Christian alliance assembled by Pope Paul III in which the Ottoman fleet defeated the allies. It occurred in the same area in the Ionian Sea as the Battle of Actium, 31 BC.[4] It was one of the three largest sea battles that took place in the sixteenth century Mediterranean.[5]

Battle of Preveza
Part of the Third Ottoman–Venetian War
Battle of Preveza (1538)

The "Battle of Preveza" (1538) by Ohannes Umed Behzad, painted in 1866.
Date28 September 1538
Location
Result Ottoman victory[a][1]
Belligerents

Holy League:
 Republic of Venice
Mantua Flag 1575-1707 (new).svg Duchy of Mantua
 Spanish Empire
 Portuguese Empire
 Papal States
 Republic of Genoa

Sovereign Military Order of Malta Order of Saint John
Fictitious Ottoman flag 2.svg Ottoman Empire
Commanders and leaders
Mantua Flag 1575-1707 (new).svg Ferrante I Gonzaga
Flag of Genoa.svg Andrea Doria
Fictitious Ottoman flag 2.svg Hayreddin Barbarossa
Strength
112 galleys,
50 galleons,
140 barques,
60,000 soldiers.[2][3]
122 galleys and galliots,
12,000 soldiers.[2][3]
Casualties and losses
13 ships lost (10 ships sunk, 3 ships burned);
36 ships captured and seized by the Ottomans;
3,000 prisoners.[2][3]
No loss of ship;
~400 dead;
~800 wounded.[2][3]

Background

EFS highres STS066 STS066-101-39
A satellite view of Lefkada and the Gulf of Arta. Preveza is located at the entrance of the Gulf.

In 1537, commanding a large Ottoman fleet, Hayreddin Barbarossa captured a number of Aegean and Ionian islands belonging to the Republic of Venice, namely Syros, Aegina, Ios, Paros, Tinos, Karpathos, Kasos and Naxos, thus annexing the Duchy of Naxos to the Ottoman Empire. He then unsuccessfully besieged the Venetian stronghold of Corfu and ravaged the Spanish-held Calabrian coast in southern Italy.[6]

In the face of this threat, Pope Paul III succeeded in February 1538 in assembling a ’’Holy League’’, comprising the Papacy, Spain, the Republic of Genoa, the Republic of Venice and the Knights of Malta, to confront Barbarossa.[7]

Forces

Barbarossa's fleet that summer numbered 122 galleys and galliots.[8] That of the Holy League comprised 300 galleys and galleons (55 Venetian galleys, 61 Genoese/Papal, 10 sent by the Knights Hospitaller and 50 by the Spanish). Andrea Doria, the Genoese admiral in the service of Emperor Charles V was in overall command.

Deployment

Fleet Configurations at the Battle of Preveza in 1538
Deployment of the opposing fleets

The Holy League assembled its fleet near the island of Corfu. The Papal fleet under Admiral Marco Grimani (Patriarch of Aquileia) and the Venetian fleet under Vincenzo Capello arrived first. Andrea Doria joined them with the Spanish-Genoese fleet on 22 September 1538.

Prior to Doria's arrival, Grimani attempted to land troops near the Fortress of Preveza, but he retreated to Corfu after suffering a number of casualties in the ensuing encounter with Ottoman forces.

Barbarossa was still at the island of Kos in the Aegean Sea at that time, but he soon arrived at Preveza with the rest of the Ottoman fleet, after capturing the island of Kefalonia on the way. Sinan Reis, one of his lieutenants, suggested landing troops at Actium on the Gulf of Arta near Preveza, an idea that Barbarossa initially opposed, but which later proved to be important in securing the Ottoman victory. With the Turks holding the fortress at Actium, they could support Barbarossa's fleet with artillery fire from there, while Doria had to keep his ships away from the coast. A Christian landing to take Actium probably would have been needed to ensure success, but Doria was fearful of a defeat on land after the initial sortie by Grimani had been repelled. Two more attempts by the Holy League to land their forces, this time near the fortress of Preveza at the opposite shore facing Actium, were repulsed by the forces of Murat Reis on 25 and 26 September.

As Doria's ships kept their distance from the coast, much concerned about adverse winds driving them onto a hostile shore, Barbarossa had the advantageous interior position. During the night of 27–28 September, Doria therefore sailed 30 miles south and, when the wind died down, anchored at Sessola near the island of Lefkada. During the night, he and his commanders decided that their best option was to stage an attack towards Lepanto and force Barbarossa to fight.

The battle

At dawn, however, Doria was surprised to see that the Turks were coming towards his ships. Barbarossa had taken his fleet out of the anchorage and headed south as well. Turgut Reis was in the van with six large fustas, and the left wing closely hugged the shore. Not expecting such a daring offensive from the numerically inferior Ottoman fleet, it took Doria three hours to give the order to weigh anchor and ready for battle—pressed by Grimani and Capello.

The two fleets finally engaged on 28 September 1538 in the Gulf of Arta, near Preveza.

The lack of wind was not in Doria's favor. The huge Venetian flagship Galeone di Venezia with her massive guns was becalmed four miles from land and ten miles from Sessola. While the Christian ships struggled to come to her assistance, she was soon surrounded by enemy galleys and engaged in a furious battle that lasted hours and did much damage to the Ottoman galleys.

When the wind rose, the Christian fleet finally approached the action, although Doria first executed a number of maneuvres designed to draw the Turks out to sea. Ferrante Gonzaga, the Viceroy of Sicily, was at the left wing of the combined fleet, while the Maltese Knights were at the right wing. Doria placed four of his fastest galleys under the command of his nephew Giovanni Andrea Doria who was positioned in the center front, between Gonzaga and the Maltese Knights. Doria's galleys formed a long line behind them, in front of the Papal and Venetian galleys of Grimani and Capello. In the rear were the Venetian galleons under the command of Alessandro Condalmiero (Bondumier) and the Spanish-Portuguese-Genoese galleons under the command of Francesco Doria, together with the barques and support ships.

The Ottoman fleet had a Y shaped configuration: Barbarossa, together with his son Hasan Reis (later Hasan Pasha), Sinan Reis, Cafer Reis and Şaban Reis, was at the center; Seydi Ali Reis commanded the left wing; Salih Reis commanded the right wing; while Turgut Reis, accompanied by Murat Reis, Güzelce Mehmet Reis and Sadık Reis, commanded the rear wing. The Turks swiftly engaged the Venetian, Papal and Maltese ships, but Doria hesitated to bring his center into action against Barbarossa, which led to much tactical maneuvering but little fighting. Barbarossa wanted to take advantage of the lack of wind which immobilized the Christian barques that accounted for most of the numerical difference between the two sides. These barques fell as easy prey to the Turks who boarded them from their relatively more mobile galleys and galliots. Doria's efforts to trap the Ottoman ships between the cannon fire of his barques and galleys failed.

At the end of the day, the Turks had sunk 10 ships, burned 3 others, captured 36, and had taken about 3,000 prisoners. The Turks did not lose any ships but suffered 400 dead and 800 wounded. A number of Ottoman ships had been seriously damaged, however, by the cannon fire of the massive Galeone di Venezia, the Venetian flagship under the command of Alessandro Condalmiero.

The next morning, with favorable wind, and unwilling to risk the Spanish-Genoese ships, Doria set sail and left the battlefield for Corfu, deaf to the pleas of the Venetian, Papal and Maltese commanders to continue the fight.

Aftermath

It is widely speculated that Doria's prevarication and lack of zeal were due to his unwillingness to risk his own ships (he personally owned a substantial number of the "Spanish-Genoese" fleet) and his long-standing enmity towards Venice, his home city's fierce rival and the primary target of Ottoman aggression at that time.[9]

In 1539 Barbarossa returned and captured almost all the remaining Christian outposts in the Ionian and Aegean Seas.

A peace treaty was signed between Venice and the Ottoman Empire in October 1540, under which the Turks took control of the Venetian possessions in the Morea and in Dalmatia and of the formerly Venetian islands in the Aegean, Ionian and eastern Adriatic Seas. Venice also had to pay a war indemnification of 300,000 ducats of gold to the Ottoman Empire.

With the victory at Preveza and the subsequent victory in the Battle of Djerba in 1560, the Ottomans succeeded in repulsing the efforts of Venice and Spain, the two principal rival powers in the Mediterranean, to stop their drive for controlling the sea. The Ottoman supremacy in large-scale fleet battles in the Mediterranean Sea remained unchallenged until the Battle of Lepanto in 1571.

Nicolò Zen the younger wrote his History of the War between Venice and the Turks which primarily consisted of an invective against those who had called for the war against the Ottomans in which they had behaved so ingloriously. The text was not published but a manuscript of it was circulated in his household and survived and is now held by the Biblioteca Marciana.[10]

Notes

  1. ^ The sixteenth century saw only three such large battles: Preveza in 1538, Djerba in 1560 and Lepanto in 1571. These battles were spectacular..[...].Nevertheless, these battles were not really decisive; a galley fleet can be built in a few months and the logistical limitations of galleys prohibit the strategic exploitation of victory.[1]

References

  1. ^ a b Hattendorf & King 2013, p. 32.
  2. ^ a b c d "Türk Tarihi: Battle of Preveza". Archived from the original on 13 November 2007. Retrieved 18 June 2007.
  3. ^ a b c d Corsari nel Mediterraneo: Hayreddin Barbarossa Archived 28 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ Hattendorf & King 2013, p. 6.
  5. ^ Hattendorf & King 2013, p. 15.
  6. ^ Roger Crowley, Empires of the Sea, faber and faber 2008 pp.67-69
  7. ^ Partridge, Loren (14 March 2015). Art of Renaissance Venice, 1400 1600. Univ of California Press. ISBN 9780520281790.
  8. ^ "Admiral Piri Reis ....The 500 Year Old Map that Shatters the Official History of the Human Race [Archive] - The Project Avalon Community Forum". projectavalon.net. Retrieved 8 December 2017.
  9. ^ Roger Crowley, Empires of the Sea, faber and faber 2008 p.71
  10. ^ Robilant (2011). Venetian Navigators: The Voyages of the Zen Brothers to the Far North.

Sources

Coordinates: 38°57′33″N 20°45′01″E / 38.95917°N 20.75028°E

External links

1538

Year 1538 (MDXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Battle of Djerba

The Battle of Djerba (Turkish: Cerbe) took place in May 1560 near the island of Djerba, Tunisia. The Ottomans under Piyale Pasha's command overwhelmed a large joint Christian Alliance fleet, composed chiefly of Spanish, Papal, Genoese, Maltese and Neapolitan forces. The allies lost 27 galleys and some smaller vessels as well as the fortified island of Djerba. This victory marked perhaps the high point of Ottoman power in the Mediterranean Sea.Until about 1573 the Mediterranean headed the list of Spanish priorities under Philip II of Spain (1556–98); under his leadership the Habsburg galley fleet increased to about 100 ships, and more in wartime. Spain sent a major fleet against the Turks in 1560, aiming for the island of Djerba off the coast west of Tripoli. The Ottoman fleet won a resounding victory, killing more than 10,000 men and sinking many vessels. However, typically of the aftermath of Mediterranean battles, they did not follow up the victory. Spain was able to rebuild its fleet in the next two years and prepared a new offensive in 1563-64 with nearly 100 ships. Despite the Ottomans being victorious in the battle, they were unable to attack the Venetian center of gravity.

Battle of Preveza (1911)

This engagement should not be confused with the Battle of Preveza in 1538.The Battle of Preveza, in September 1911, was the first naval engagement fought during the Italo-Turkish War. Five Italian Soldato-class destroyers encountered five Ottoman ships off the Greek port of Preveza. Over the course of two days, four of the Turkish vessels present were sunk or captured and the city was bombarded.

Dragut

Dragut (Turkish: Turgut Reis) (1485 – 23 June 1565), known as "The Drawn Sword of Islam", was a Muslim Ottoman naval commander, governor, and noble, of Greek descent. Under his command, the Ottoman Empire's maritime power was extended across North Africa. Recognized for his military genius, and as being among "the most dangerous" of corsairs, Dragut has been referred to as "the greatest pirate warrior of all time", "undoubtedly the most able of all the Turkish leaders", and "the uncrowned king of the Mediterranean". He was described by a French Admiral as "A living chart of the Mediterranean, skillful enough on land to be compared to the finest generals of the time. No one was more worthy than he to bear the name of king".In addition to serving as Admiral and Corsair in the Ottoman Empire's Navy under Suleiman the Magnificent, Dragut was also appointed Bey of Algiers and Djerba, Beylerbey of the Mediterranean, as well as Bey, and subsequently Pasha, of Tripoli. While serving as Pasha of Tripoli, Dragut constructed great feats in the city, making it one of the most impressive to behold along all the North African Coast.

Hayreddin Barbarossa

Hayreddin Barbarossa (Arabic: خير الدين بربروس‎, romanized: Khayr ad-Din Barbarus), or Barbaros Kheireddin Pasha (Turkish: Barbaros Hayrettin Paşa or Hızır Hayrettin Paşa; also Hızır Reis before being promoted to the rank of Pasha and becoming the Kapudan Pasha), born Khizr or Khidr (c. 1478 – 4 July 1546), was an Ottoman admiral of the fleet who was born on the island of Lesbos and died in Constantinople, the Ottoman capital. Barbarossa's naval victories secured Ottoman dominance over the Mediterranean during the mid 16th century, from the Battle of Preveza in 1538 until the Battle of Lepanto in 1571.

Hayreddin (from Arabic Khayr ad-Din, "goodness" or "best of the faith") was an honorary name given to him by Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent. He became known as "Barbarossa" ("Redbeard" in Italian) in Europe, a name he inherited from his elder brother Oruç Reis after he was killed in a battle with the Spanish in Algeria. Oruç was also known as "Baba Oruç", which sounded like "Barbarossa" to the Europeans, and since Oruç did have a red beard, the nickname stuck. In a process of linguistic reborrowing, the nickname then stuck back to Hayreddin's native Ottoman name, in the form Barbaros.

Holy League

Holy League may refer to:

Holy League (1495), or "League of Venice", alliance of several opponents of French hegemony in Italy, arranged by Pope Alexander VI

League of Cambrai, anti-Venetian alliance that included Louis XII of France, Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, and Ferdinand I of Spain, created by Pope Julius II

Holy League (1538), a short-lived alliance of Christian states arranged by Pope Paul III at the urging of the Republic of Venice; defeated by Hayreddin Barbarossa in Battle of Preveza

Holy League (1571), included almost all the major Catholic maritime states in the Mediterranean; defeated Ottomans in Battle of Lepanto

Holy League (1594), established in 1594 by Pope Clement VIII was a military alliance of predominantly Christian European countries (Holy League) aimed against the Ottoman Empire during the Long War (1591–1606).

Holy League (1684), composed of the Holy Roman Empire, Poland-Lithuania and the Venetian Republic; fought Ottomans in the Great Turkish War

Holy League (1717), allying the Papal States to Portugal, Venice and Malta against the Ottoman Empire and which resulted in the Battle of Matapan

One of the Catholic Leagues

Holy League (1538)

The Holy League of 1538 was a short-lived alliance of Christian states arranged by Pope Paul III at the urging of the Republic of Venice.

In 1537 the Ottoman admiral Hayreddin Barbarossa, Pasha of Algiers, had nearly captured the Venetian stronghold of Corfu and ravaged the coasts of Calabria. In the face of this threat Pope Paul succeeded in February 1538 in organizing the Holy League which consisted of the Papal States, the Republic of Venice, the Maltese Knights and Spain with her vassal states of Naples and Sicily.

To confront Barbarossa and his roughly 120 galleys and fustas, the League assembled a fleet of about 300 ships (162 galleys and 140 sailing ships) in September 1538 near Corfu. Its supreme commander was the Genoese admiral Andrea Doria, who was then in the service of Emperor Charles V.

The two fleets met on 28 September 1538 in the Battle of Preveza, and Barbarossa decisively defeated the numerically superior Christian alliance. Doria's leadership in the battle was less than vigorous and is widely believed to have been a major contributing cause to the League's defeat. His hesitation to bring his own ships into full action (he personally owned a number of them) and to sacrifice them for the good of Venice, the traditional rival of his home town of Genoa, are generally considered to explain his actions at Preveza.

Mersin Naval Museum

Mersin Naval Museum (Turkish: Mersin Deniz Müzesi) is a naval museum in Mersin, Turkey.

Murat Reis the Elder

Murat Reis the Elder (Turkish: Koca Murat Reis; c. 1534–1609) was an Ottoman privateer and admiral, who served in the Ottoman Navy. He is regarded as one of the most important Barbary corsairs.

Navy of the Order of Saint John

The navy of the Order of Saint John, also known as the Maltese Navy after 1530, was the first navy of a chivalric order. It was established in the Middle Ages, around the late 12th century. The navy reached its peak in the 1680s, during the reign of Grand Master Gregorio Carafa. It was disbanded following the French invasion of Malta in 1798, and its ships were taken over by the French Navy.

Nicolò Zen the younger

Nicolò Zen the younger (1515–1565) was a Venetian Senator.

Nicolò was the son of Caterino Zen, a prominent literary figure of the time. He was schooled in science and the humanities and became an accomplished hydraulic engineer. His political career started with securing the post of Savio agli ordini dell'arsenale (Special Commissioner for the Arsenal) at the age of 23, two years less than the minimum. He was able to purchase recognition of experience for 100 Ducats from the Council of Ten.Zen advocated a peaceful approach to the Ottoman Empire, but nevertheless Venice became involved in a war with them, 1537-1540.. This led to the defat of the Venetians in the Battle of Preveza which took place on 28 September 1538. By the end of the war Venice had lost many of its island possessions in the eastern mediterranean. Zen then wrote his History of the War between Venice and the Turks which primarily consisted of an invective against those who had called for a war in which they had behaved so ingloriously. The text was not published but a manuscript of it was circulated in his household and survived and is now held by the Biblioteca Marciana.A portrait of Zen by Titian was discovered in Kingston Lacy in 2008.

Osman Nuri Pasha (painter)

Osman Nuri Pasha (c.1839 in Istanbul – 1906 in Istanbul) was a Turkish painter and military officer. While his birth date has not been established, it is on record that he received his education in Istanbul, attending the Turkish Military Academy. In 1857, he received an appointment as court painter; serving under Sultans Abdülmecid I and Abdülaziz, who gave him paintings by European artists, to serve as examples for his work.As a court painter he was eventually promoted to Brigadier General (Tuğgeneral) and became an art teacher at Kuleli Military High School. Most of Turkey's best-known painters were among his students, including Ahmet Ziya Akbulut, Hodja Ali Rıza and Hüseyin Zekai Pasha. In 1877, during the Russo-Turkish War, he served as a military commander.

Although he painted landscapes, most of his paintings deal with military subjects; notably battles and warships. These include his depiction of the Battle of Preveza (which was one of the first Turkish paintings to use Western-style oil techniques) and the sinking of the frigate Ertuğrul, following a good-will mission to Japan.

Ottoman–Venetian War (1537–1540)

The Third Ottoman Venetian War (1537–1540) was the second of three Ottoman Venetian wars which took place during the 16th century. The war arose out of the Franco-Ottoman alliance between Francis I of France and Süleyman I of the Ottoman Empire against the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. The initial plan between the two had been to jointly invade Italy, Francis through Lombardy in the North and Süleyman through Apulia to the South. However, the proposed invasion failed to take place.

In what became known as the Italian War of 1536–1538, Francis’s invasion of Piedmont, having made modest territorial gains, was halted by Genoa, an ally of Charles V. Furthermore, he was not able to put all his resources against the city as he also had to fend off Charles V’s invasion of Provence. At the same time, Süleyman was not yet ready to engage in a large-scale invasion of the Kingdom of Naples thus not giving Francis any relief. Ottoman troops were landed in Otranto from their encampment in Valona on July 23, 1537 but these were pulled out within a month when it became clear that Francis was not going to invade Lombardy. However, the landing and raiding of Ottoman soldiers in Apulia and the presence of the large Ottoman fleet in the Strait of Otranto did generate considerable fear in Rome that a large-scale invasion would follow.

At the same time, crisis in Venetian-Ottoman relations was developing during the siege of Klis - last Habsburg stronghold in Dalmatia, that fell in March 1537. Venetian government feared that Turkish forces will attack Dalmatian cities and resorted to diplomatic efforts in order to avoid the war.

This fears were further strengthened when following a skirmish with Andrea Doria, the Ottomans suddenly laid siege to the Venetian Island of Corfu in the Adriatic (Siege of Corfu 1537), thus breaking the peace treaty signed with Venice in 1502. On Corfu, the Ottomans faced formidable resistance and defenses specifically designed to counter Ottoman artillery. The siege lasted less than two weeks, and afterward Süleyman withdrew his forces and returned east to spend the winter in Adrianople.

These events resolved Pope Paul III of the need to form a Holy League (1538) to combat and to deter the Ottoman assaults that were expected in the next year. Through intense diplomacy the Pope stopped the war between Charles V and Francis I with the Truce of Nice and secured Charles’s support. Venice also joined the league but only reluctantly and after much debate in the senate.

The Ottoman fleet had grown greatly in size as well as in competence over the course of the 16th century and was now headed by the former corsair turned admiral Hayreddin Barbarossa Pasha. In the summer of 1538 the Ottomans turned their attention to the remaining Venetian possessions in the Aegean capturing the islands of Andros, Naxos, Paros, and Santorini, as well as taking the last two Venetian settlements on the Peloponnese Monemvasia and Navplion. The Ottomans next turned their focus to the Adriatic. Here, in what the Venetians considered their home waters, the Ottomans, through the combined use of their navy and their army in Albania, captured a string of forts in Dalmatia and formally secured their hold there. The most important battle of the war was the Battle of Préveza. After taking Kotor, the supreme commander of the League’s navy the Genoese Andrea Doria managed to trap Barbarossa’s navy in the Ambracian Gulf. This was to Barbarossa’s advantage however as he was supported by the Ottoman army in Préveza while Doria, unable to lead a general assault for fear of Ottoman artillery, had to wait in the open sea. Eventually Doria signaled a retreat at which time Barbarossa attacked leading to a major Ottoman victory. The events of this battle, as well as the events of the Siege of Castelnuovo (1539) put a stop to any Holy League plans to bring the fight to the Ottomans in their own territory and coerced the League to begin talks to end the war. The war was particularly painful to the Venetians as they lost most of the rest of their foreign holdings as well as showing them that they could no longer take on even the Ottoman navy alone.

A treaty or "Capitulation" was signed between Venice and the Ottoman Empire to end the war on 2 October 1540.

In the period between the start of the Second Ottoman–Venetian War in 1499 and the end of this war in 1540, the Ottoman Empire made significant advances in the Dalmatian hinterland – it didn't occupy the Venetian cities, but it took the Kingdom of Hungary's Croatian possessions between Skradin and Karin, eliminating them as a buffer zone between the Ottoman and Venetian territory. The economy of the Venetian cities in Dalmatia, severely impacted by the Turkish occupation of the hinterland in the previous war, recovered and held steady even throughout this war.

Preveza

Preveza (Greek: Πρέβεζα, pronounced [ˈpreveza]) is a town in the region of Epirus, northwestern Greece, located at the mouth of the Ambracian Gulf. It is the capital of the regional unit of Preveza, which is part of the region of Epirus. The Aktio-Preveza Immersed Tunnel – the first and so far only undersea tunnel in Greece – was completed in 2002 and connects Preveza to Aktio in western Acarnania in Aetolia-Acarnania. The ruins of the ancient city of Nicopolis lie 7 kilometres (4 miles) north of the city.

Salah Rais

Salah Rais (Turkish: Salih Reis) (c. 1488 – 1568) was an Ottoman privateer and admiral. He is alternatively referred to as Sala Reis, Salih Rais, Salek Rais and Cale Arraez in several European sources, particularly in Spain, France and Italy.In 1529, together with Aydın Reis, he took part in the Turkish-Spanish battle near the Isle of Formentera, during which the Ottoman forces destroyed the Spanish fleet, whose commander, Rodrigo Portundo, died in combat.

In 1538 he commanded the right wing of the Turkish fleet at the naval Battle of Preveza, where the Ottoman forces under Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha defeated the Holy League of Charles V under the command of Andrea Doria.

In 1551, due to his success in the conquest of Tripoli (Libya) together with Turgut Reis and Sinan Pasha, he was promoted to the rank of Pasha and became the Beylerbeyi (Ottoman equivalent of Grand Duke) of Algiers and the Bahriye Beylerbeyi (Admiral) of the Ottoman West Mediterranean Fleet.

Seydi Ali Reis

Seydi Ali Reis (1498–1563), formerly also written Sidi Ali Reis and Sidi Ali Ben Hossein, was an Ottoman admiral and navigator. He commanded the left wing of the Ottoman fleet at the naval Battle of Preveza in 1538. He was later promoted to the rank of fleet admiral of the Ottoman fleet in the Indian Ocean, and as such, encountered the Portuguese forces based in the Indian city of Goa on several occasions in 1554.

He is famous today for his books of travel such as the Mir'ât ül Memâlik (The Mirror of Countries, 1557) which describes the lands he has seen on his way back from India to Constantinople, and his books of navigation and astronomy, such as the Mir’ât-ı Kâinât (Mirror of the Universe) and the Kitâb ül Muhit: El Muhit fî İlmi'l Eflâk ve'l Buhûr (Book of the Regional Seas and the Science of Astronomy and Navigation) which contain information on navigation techniques, methods of determining direction, calculating time, using the compass, information on stars, sun and moon calendars, wind and sea currents, as well as portolan information regarding the ports, harbours, coastal settlements and islands in the various regions of the Ottoman Empire. His books are translated into numerous languages including English, French, Italian, German, Greek, Arabic, Persian, Urdu, Russian and Bengali and are considered among the finest literary works dating from the Ottoman period.

Siege of Castelnuovo

The Siege of Castelnuovo was an engagement during the Ottoman-Habsburg struggle for control of the Mediterranean, which took place in July 1539 in the walled town of Castelnuovo, present-day Herceg Novi, Montenegro. Castelnuovo had been conquered by elements of various Spanish tercios the year before during the failed campaign of the Holy League against the Ottoman Empire in Eastern Mediterranean waters. The walled town was besieged by land and sea by a powerful Ottoman army under Hayreddin Barbarossa, who offered an honorable surrender to the defenders. These terms were rejected by the Spanish commanding officer Francisco de Sarmiento and his captains even though they knew that the Holy League's fleet, defeated at the Battle of Preveza, could not relieve them. During the siege Barbarossa's army suffered heavy losses due to the stubborn resistance of Sarmiento's men. However, Castelnuovo eventually fell into Ottoman hands and almost all the Spanish defenders, including Sarmiento, were killed. The loss of the town ended the Christian attempt to regain control of the Eastern Mediterranean. The courage displayed by the Old Tercio of Naples during this last stand, however, was praised and admired throughout Europe and was the subject of numerous poems and songs.

Sinan Reis

Sinan Reis, also Ciphut Sinan, (Hebrew: סנאן ראיס‎, Sinan Rais; Arabic: سنان ريس‎, Sinan Rayyis;) "Sinan the Chief", and Portuguese: Sinao o Judeo, "Sinan the Jew", was a Barbary corsair and Jewish pirate who sailed under the famed Ottoman admiral Hayreddin Barbarossa.

War of the Holy League

There were several wars of the Holy League in European history:

The part of the War of the League of Cambrai from 1511 to 1514

War of the Holy League (1538-1540) centered on the Battle of Preveza (1538) and Siege of Castelnuovo (1539)

Part of the Fourth Ottoman-Venetian War from 1570 to 1573 centered on the battle of Lepanto

The Great Turkish War from 1683 to 1699

Battles involving the Ottoman Empire by era
Rise
(1299–1453)
Classical Age
(1453–1550)
Transformation
(1550-1700)
Old Regime
(1700–1789)
Modernization
(1789–1908)

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