Battle of Poltava

The Battle of Poltava[d] (8 July 1709[e]) was the decisive victory of Peter I of Russia, also known as "the Great," over the Swedish forces under Field Marshal Carl Gustav Rehnskiöld, in one of the battles of the Great Northern War.

It is widely believed by historians to have been the beginning of the Swedish Empire's decline as a European great power, while the Tsardom of Russia took its place as the leading nation of north-eastern Europe. The battle also bears major importance in Ukrainian national history, as Hetman of Zaporizhian Host Ivan Mazepa sided with the Swedes, seeking to create an uprising in Ukraine against the tsardom.

Today, at the site of the battle there is a State Cultural Heritage Preserve Complex in Poltava known as the "Poltava Battle Field" and consists of monuments and churches commemorating the event.

Музей «Поле Полтавської битви». Експонати. 23
Map of the battlefield. Poltava is to the south. Near the Russian fortified camp in the middle, notice the "T" formation of Russian redoubts between the Budyschenski wood to the west and the Yakovetski wood to the east. The original Russian camp is to the north and is marked "20.25.6". The Pushkaryovka camp, with the Swedish baggage, would be in the southwest corner of the map.

Prelude

Charles XII had led Swedish forces to early victories in North Zealand (summer 1700) and in the Battle of Narva in November 1700. However, it would take six years before he defeated Augustus II of Saxony-Poland.[12]:701, 703 Peter I withdrew from Poland in the spring of 1706,[12]:700 and offered to cede his Baltic possessions to Sweden except St. Petersburg, but Charles refused.[12]:703 Peter subsequently adopted a scorched-earth policy in order to deprive the Swedish forces of supplies.[12]:704

Charles ordered a final attack on the Russian heartland with a possible assault on Moscow from his campaign base in Poland. The Swedish army of almost 44,000 men[12]:704 left Saxony on 22 August 1707 and marched slowly eastwards. Charles took the field in November after waiting for reinforcements to arrive.[12]:704 Continuing east, he crossed the Vistula River on 25 December 1707, then continued through a hostile Masuria and took Grodno on 26 January 1708 after Russian troops had abandoned the city.[12]:704 At the time the Russians had been occupied with a large rebellion of Don Cossacks, known as the "Bulavin Rebellion" (1707–08). This revolt was contained in part by the forces of the Cossack Hetmanate led by Hetman Ivan Mazepa.[12]:704 The Swedes continued to the area around Smorgon and Minsk, where the army went into winter quarters. Charles left 8,000 dragoons under Maj. Gen. Ernst Detlof von Krassow in western Poland.[13]

Poor weather and road conditions kept the Swedish troops in winter quarters until June 1708. In July the Swedes defeated Marshal Boris Sheremetyev's forces at the Battle of Holowczyn and advanced to the Dnieper River.[12]:704 During the spring Gen. Lewenhaupt in Courland had been ordered to gather supplies and march his army of about 12,000 men to join Charles' forces. However, his departure from Mitau was delayed until late June and consequently he only joined Charles' forces on 11 October.[14]

Rather than winter in Livonia or wait for Lewenhaupt, Charles decided to move southward into Ukraine and join Mazepa, who had decided to rebel against Peter.[12]:706 Peter sent Sheremetev to shadow the Swedish army.[15]:287 Lewenhaupt followed south and was attacked while crossing a river near a small village that gave name to the Battle of Lesnaya, losing the supply train and half of his force.[15]:288 In need of resupply, Charles moved towards Baturyn, Mazepa's headquarters, but Russian troops under Aleksandr Menshikov reached the city first. Anticipating the Swedish arrival, Menshikov ordered the merciless massacre of the population, razing the city and destroying or looting arms, ammunition and food.[15]:288

By the spring of 1709 Charles' force had shrunk to half of its original size. After the coldest winter in Europe in over 500 years, Charles was left with 20,000 soldiers and 34 cannons.[12]:707 Short of supplies, he laid siege to the Russian fortress at Poltava on the Vorskla River on 2 May 1709.[12]:707–08 Peter's force of 80,000 marched to relieve the siege.[12]:708 Upon his arrival, Peter built a fortified camp on the Vorskla, 4 km north of Poltava.[15]:290 While observing the Russian position on 20 June, Charles was struck by a stray bullet, injuring his foot badly enough that he could not stand.[15]:289 In addition, Charles' last hope of reinforcement expired, as the Swedish forces under von Krassow had turned aside to deal with the anti-Swedish Sandomierz Confederation in Poland.[15]:289

Between the Russian and Swedish forces the Yakovetski and Budyschenski woods formed a corridor, which the Russians defended by building six forts across the gap.[16]:60 Peter, in addition, ordered four more redoubts built so the entire system of ten forts would have a T shape, providing flanking fire to a Swedish advance.[16]:60 Two of the redoubts were still being constructed on the morning of the battle, but 4,000 Russians manned the remaining eight, with 10,000 cavalry under Gen. Aleksandr Danilovich Menshikov stationed behind them.[16]:60

Battle

Lomonosov Poltava 1762 1764
One of Mikhail Lomonosov's mosaics depicts the Battle of Poltava

Because of his wound, Charles turned over operational command to Field Marshal Carl Gustav Rehnskiöld.[15]:289 Four columns of infantry and six columns of cavalry were to form during the night, 600 meters south of the redoubts, intending to attack before dawn in order to swiftly bypass the redoubt system and hit the Russian fort.[16]:77 The infantry was in place by 2:30 a.m. but the cavalry arrived late, having lost their way.[16]:83 Riding forward, Axel Gyllenkrok observed the Russians at work on the two nearest redoubts and rode back to inform Rehnskiöld.[16]:83 A reconnoitre by Maj. Gen Wolmar Anton von Schlippenbach was discovered by the Russians and the alarm was sounded by the firing of a pistol.[16]:84 Having lost the element of surprise, and without sufficient cannon to breach the fortifications, Rehnskiöld consulted with Charles, Carl Piper and Lewenhaupt on whether or not to proceed with the assault.[16]:91 By the time Rehnskiöld decided to proceed with the attack by quoting, "In the name of God then, let us go forward", it was nearly 4:00 a.m. on 28 June (Swedish calendar) and dawn was already approaching.[16]:91–92

The Swedes in Carl Gustaf Roos' column quickly overran the first two redoubts, killing every Russian soldier inside them, but by 4:30 a.m. the attempts to take the third redoubt stalled.[16]:97–99 Lewenhaupt's ten battalions on the right bypassed the first four redoubts entirely, advancing to the back line and, with the aid of cavalry, took some redoubts while bypassing others.[16]:96, 105, 108 Two of Roos' rear battalions joined them, indicating that issued orders lacked clarity as to whether to avoid the redoubts or attack them in series.[16]:94 The cavalry on the left wing, commanded by Maj. Gen. Hamilton and an infantry regiment, advanced by passing the redoubts on the left and charged the Russian cavalry, forcing them to retreat.[16]:105 It was 5:00 a.m. when the left and right wings of the Swedish army made it past the back line of redoubts, sending the Russian cavalry in retreat.[16]:106, 108 However, Rehnskiöld ordered his cavalry to stop their pursuit and Lewenhaupt, already advancing towards the fort, to withdraw to the west.[16]:108–09 There they awaited Roos' battalions for two hours, while the Russian cavalry and Ivan Skoropadsky's Cossacks waited to the north, with 13 Russian battalions deployed north of their camp and ten to the south, anticipating a Swedish advance.[16]:125

Gen. Roos and six battalions (one-third of the Swedish infantry) became isolated while attempting to take the third Russian redoubt.[16]:110 After suffering severe casualties from several assault attempts, Roos led the remaining 1,500 of his original 2,600 men into the Yakovetski woods to the east at 6:00 a.m.[16]:114 The Russians reoccupied the first two redoubts[16]:115 and launched a two-pronged attack by ten regiments around 7:00 a.m., forcing Roos to retreat towards Poltava and take refuge in an abandoned fort by 9:00 a.m. when he could not make it to the Swedish siege works.[16]:118–19, 127, 132 Roos was forced to surrender his command[15]:290 at 9:30 a.m.[16]:134

The Swedes continued to wait for Roos' troops to return, unaware of their surrender.[15]:292 As time went by Peter led the 42 battalions of Russian infantry—22,000 soldiers—into an advance out of the fortified camp, supported by 55 three-pounder cannons plus 32 guns on the ramparts of the fort.[16]:129, 138–39 Ten regiments of dragoons formed under Lt. Gen. Adolf Fredrik Bauer on the Russian right and six regiments under Menshikov on the left.[16]:139 Just west of the camp the Russians were faced by 4,000 Swedish infantry,[15]:292 formed into ten battalions with four three-pounders, and Creutz's cavalry in the rear.[16]:143 The Russians slowly moved forward to engage.[16]:143 According to Charles and reports from other Swedish officers, the weather at that time was already very hot and humid, with the sun obscured by smoke from the Russian cannon in the fort.

At 9:45 a.m. Rehnskiöld ordered Lewenhaupt and the Swedish line to move forward, advancing towards the Russian line, which started firing its cannon at 500 meters.[16]:147, 151 When the Swedes were 50 meters from the Russian line, the Russians opened fire with their muskets from all four ranks.[16]:155 Advancing to within 30 meters of the Russian line, the Swedes fired a volley of their own and charged with their muskets and pikesmen, and the Russian first line retreated towards their second line.[16]:156 The Swedes seemed to be on the verge of a breakthrough and needed the cavalry under Gen. Creutz to break the Russian lines.[16]:157 Unfortunately for the Swedes, Creutz's and the other cavalry units were unable to reform completely and in time.[15]:292 With the Russian line longer than the Swedish line, the Swedish infantry on the left flank lagged behind the right and finally threw down their weapons and fled.[16]:159 As the Swedish right flank was still advancing, a gap began to open in the Swedish line which the Russians filled and the battle turned into a Cannae variation.[16]:165 Barely able to gather his cavalry squadrons, Creutz tried to advance on the right flank, but the Russian battalions were able to form into hollow squares,[16]:158 while Menshikov's cavalry outflanked the Swedes and attacked them from the rear.[16]:160 At this point the Swedish assault had disintegrated and no longer had organized bodies of troops to oppose the Russian infantry or cavalry. Small groups of soldiers managed to break through and escape to the south through the Budyschenski woods, while many of the rest were overwhelmed, ridden down or captured.[16]:174

Mazepa2
Charles XII and Mazepa at the Dnieper River after Poltava by Gustaf Cederström.

Realizing they were the last Swedes on the battlefield, Charles ordered a retreat to the woods, gathering what remaining forces he could for protection, including the remnants of Creutz's detachment.[16]:175, 180 The Russians halted at the edge of the woods and their artillery fire stopped; only the Cossacks and Kalmucks roamed the plains south of the woods.[16]:189, 192 Emerging from the woods at around noon, Charles—on horseback after his litter was destroyed and protected by a square of a couple of thousand men—headed to Pushkaryovka and his baggage train 5 km to the south, reaching it after 1:00 p.m., by which time the battle was over.[16]:194

Charles gathered the remainder of his troops and baggage train and retreated to the south later that same day—at about 7:00 p.m.--abandoning the siege of Poltava.[16]:197, 210 Lewenhaupt led the surviving Swedes and some of the Cossack forces to the Dnieper River, but was doggedly pursued by the Russian regular cavalry and 3,000 Kalmyk auxiliaries and forced to surrender three days later at Perevolochna, on 1 July.[17]

Aftermath

Church at Battelfield near Poltava
Orthodox church on the battlefield.
Poltava-Monument-Stockholm-1
The Poltava Monument in Stockholm, Sweden.
Poltava-Monument-Stockholm-3
The inscription on the monument in Stockholm: "To the fallen sons of the Fatherland" (Latin: "Filiis pro patria occisis").

High-ranking Swedes captured during the battle included Field Marshal Rehnskiöld, Maj. Gen. Schlippenbach, Maj. Gen. Stackelberg, Maj. Gen. Hamilton and Prince Maximilian Emanuel, as well as Piper.[16]:199, 203 Peter the Great held a celebratory banquet in two large tents erected on the battlefield.[16]:202 Voltaire assumed Peter's reason for this, in raising a toast to the Swedish generals as war masters, was to send a message to his own generals about disloyalty.[18]: 108 Two mass graves contained the Russian dead, 500 meters southwest of their camp.[16]:205 Previously defeating Peter, Charles had gone so far as to pay the Russian troops. Peter instead took many Swedes, with great pride, and sent them to Siberia.[18]: 107

Charles and Mazepa escaped with about 1,500 men to Bendery, Moldavia, then controlled by the Ottoman Empire.[12]:710 Charles spent five years in exile there before he was able to return to Sweden in December 1715.[15]:295 During this time, even handicapped, he retained his magisterial calm demeanor under fire, fighting his way out of several situations. The high vizier of the Turks was eventually paid off, with much intrigue and espionage involved and plots within plots, at one point involving a ransom of the Russian crown jewels, according to Charles' prison translator.[19]

In popular culture

There have been numerous references towards the Battle of Poltava, including the song 'Poltava' by Sabaton who wanted to commemorate the battle and the bravery of the Swedish forces.

Notes

  1. ^ About 2,000 sick and injured soldiers were standing in the Pushkarivka camp.
  2. ^ The exact numbers of Mazepa's and Zaporizhian Cossacks is unknown but are usually given to 3,000 up to 7,000. They were stationed in the Pushkarivka camp and did not participate in the battle.
  3. ^ Russian sources quote the captive Field Marshal Rehnskiöld stating that his combined army before the battle consisted of up to 30,000 men.
  4. ^ Swedish: Slaget vid Poltava; Russian: Полта́вская би́тва; Ukrainian: Полта́вська би́тва
  5. ^ 28 June according to the then-used Swedish calendar; 27 June in the Julian calendar; 8 July in the modern calendar.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Moltusov, Valerij Aleksejevitj (2009). Poltava 1709: Vändpunkten (in Swedish). SMB. p. 93. ISBN 978-91-85789-75-7.
  2. ^ a b (in Russian) О составе русской и шведской армий в Полтавском сражении
  3. ^ Ericson, p. 297.
  4. ^ (in Russian) Istorīia Petra Velikago, by Nikolai Alekseevich Polevoi, 1843, p. 38
  5. ^ Englund (1988), p. 215.
  6. ^ a b (in Swedish) Christer Kuvaja: Karolinska krigare 1660–1721, p. 192. Schildts Förlags AB 2008. ISBN 978-951-50-1823-6.
  7. ^ Derek Wilson (March 9, 2009). "Poltava : the Battle that Changed the World". History Today. London. 59 (3): 23–29.
  8. ^ (in Russian) Битва под Полтавой Archived 2005-02-25 at the Wayback Machine
  9. ^ a b "Poltava, Battle of". Retrieved 12 December 2016.
  10. ^ (in Russian) Istorīia Petra Velikago, p. 355
  11. ^ Gordon A. The History of Peter the Great, Emperor of Russia: To which is Prefixed a Short General History of the Country from the Rise of that Monarchy: and an Account of the Author's Life, Volume 1. Aberdeen. 1755. pp. 301–02
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Tucker, S.C., 2010, A Global Chronology of Conflict, Vol. Two, Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, LLC, ISBN 9781851096671
  13. ^ Christer Kuvaja: Karolinska krigare 1660–1721, p. 179. Schildts Förlags AB 2008. ISBN 978-951-50-1823-6.
  14. ^ Christer Kuvaja: Karolinska krigare 1660–1721, pp. 180–85. Schildts Förlags AB 2008. ISBN 978-951-50-1823-6.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Frost, R.I., 2000, The Northern Wars, 1558–1721, Harlow: Pearson Education Limited, ISBN 9780582064294
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao Englund, P., 1992, The Battle that Shook Europe, London: I.B. Tauris & Co. Ltd., ISBN 9781780764764
  17. ^ Massie.
  18. ^ a b Voltaire, The History of Charles XII, King of Sweden (1908)
  19. ^ Friedrich Ernst von Fabrice, The Genuine Letters of Baron Fabricius Envoy from His Serene Highness the Duke Administrator of Holstein to Charles XII of Sweden (1761)

Sources

  • Adlerfelt, G. (1740). The Military History of Charles XII, King of Sweden, Written by the Express Order of His Majesty.
  • Englund, Peter (1988). Poltava: berättelsen om en armés undergång. Atlantis. ISBN 91-7486-834-9.
  • Englund, Peter (2003). The Battle that Shook Europe: Poltava and the Birth of the Russian Empire. I. B. Tauris. ISBN 1-86064-847-9.
  • Ericson, Lars (2004). Svenska slagfält (in Swedish). Wahlström & Widstrand. ISBN 91-46-21087-3.
  • Hrushevskyi, Mykhailo. Illjustrirovannaja istorija Ukrainy s priloženijami i dopolnenijami.
  • Konstam, Angus (1994). Poltava 1709: Russia Comes of Age. Osprey. ISBN 1-85532-416-4.
  • Massie, Robert K. (1980). Peter the Great: his Life and World. Ballantine Books. ISBN 978-0-345-29806-5.
  • Velychenko, Stephen. The Battle of Poltava and the Decline of Cossack-Ukraine in light of Russian and English methods of rule in their Borderlands (1707–1914).
  • http://historians.in.ua/index.php/doslidzhennya/326-stephen-velychenko-the-battle-of-poltava-and-the-decline-of-cossack-ukraine-in-light-of-russian-and-english-methods-of-rule-in-their-borderlands-1707-1914
  • Voltaire. Voltaire's History of Charles the XII King of Sweden. ISBN 9781230362984.
  • Von Fabrice, Friedrich. The Genuine Letters of Baron Fabricius Envoy from his Serene Highness the Duke Administrator of Holstein to Charles Xii. of Sweden. ISBN 9785871371343.

External links

Media related to battle of Poltava at Wikimedia Commons

Coordinates: 49°37.88′N 34°33.17′E / 49.63133°N 34.55283°E

Adam Ludwig Lewenhaupt

Adam Ludwig Lewenhaupt (15 April 1659, Copenhagen – 12 February 1719 Moscow) was a Swedish general.

Alexander Danilovich Menshikov

Prince Aleksander Danilovich Menshikov (Russian: Алекса́ндр Дани́лович Ме́ншиков; 16 November [O.S. 6 November] 1673 – 23 November [O.S. 12 November] 1729) was a Russian statesman, whose official titles included Generalissimus, Prince of the Russian Empire and Duke of Izhora (Duke of Ingria), Prince of the Holy Roman Empire, Duke of Cosel. A highly appreciated associate and friend of Tsar Peter the Great, he was the de facto ruler of Russia for two years.

Battle of Sokolki

The Battle of Sokolka took place on April 23, 1709, near the town of Poltava, Ukraine, during the ninth year of the Great Northern War. The Swedish army of close to 3,000 cavalry under the command of Carl Gustaf Kruse and 3,500 Cossacks of Kost Gordiyenko and Ivan Mazepa launched a surprise attack on a Russian camp of about 3,000 cavalrymen and 2,000 Cossacks under Karl Evald von Rönne. Although encamped and taken by surprise, the Russians were immediately alerted and successfully counterattacked, cutting their way through the enemy forces, and eventually escaped, having captured 4 guns left behind by the fleeing Zaporozhian Cossacks and a number of prisoners. The battle was fought in fog, both sides claimed victory. It was one of the encounters shortly before the decisive battle of Poltava which would seriously cripple the Swedish chances of victory in the war.

Carl Gustaf Roos

Carl Gustaf Roos (before 1705, Carl Gustaf Roos af Hjelmsäter; 1655–1722) was a friherre and Major General of the Carolean Swedish Army.After his military education in a foreign army – according to the custom of that time – Carl Gustaf Roos participated in Charles XI of Sweden's war against Denmark. After Charles XII's accession to the Swedish throne he served the new king in battle. Roos distinguished himself at the battle of Narva in 1700 and was promoted to colonel, as well as head of the Närke-Värmland Regiment in 1701.

Roos was elevated to friherre in 1705. He had until then had the cognomen Roos af Hjelmsäter, but after his elevation became known simply as "Roos".

In 1706 Roos was promoted to Major General and participated as such in the battle of Poltava on 28 June 1709. During the course of this battle he was captured, and was later taken to Moscow as a prisoner. Roos died in 1722 on his way home from his release from captivity after the 1721 treaty of Nystad.

Roos was the father of friherre Axel Erik Roos (1684-1765), who also participated in the Great Northern War.

Carl Henrik Wrangel

Carl Henrik Wrangel, friherre Wrangel af Adinal (28 January 1681 – 23 March 1755) was an officer of the Swedish Army, eventually attaining the rank of Field Marshal.

Carl Piper

Carl, Count (or Greve) Piper (July 29, 1647, Stockholm – May 29, 1716, Schlüsselburg) was a Swedish statesman. He entered the foreign office after completing his academical course at Uppsala, accompanied Benedict Oxenstjerna on his embassage to Russia in 1673, and attracted the attention of Charles XI during the Scanian War by his extraordinary energy and ability.

Ivan Mazepa

Ivan Stepanovych Mazepa (also spelled Mazeppa; Ukrainian: Іван Степанович Мазепа, Polish: Jan Mazepa Kołodyński; March 30 [O.S. March 20] 1639 – October 2 [O.S. September 21] 1709) served as the Hetman of Zaporizhian Host in 1687–1708. It is claimed that he was awarded a title of Prince of the Holy Roman Empire in 1707 for his efforts for the Holy League.Mazepa was famous as a patron of the arts, and also played an important role in the Battle of Poltava (1709), where after learning that Tsar Peter I intended to relieve him as acting Hetman of Zaporizhian Host and to replace him with Alexander Menshikov, he deserted his army and sided with King Charles XII of Sweden. The political consequences and interpretation of this desertion have resonated in the national histories both of Russia and of Ukraine.

The Russian Orthodox Church laid an anathema on Mazepa's name in 1708 and refuses to revoke it to this day. Anti-Russian elements in Ukraine from the 18th century onwards were derogatorily referred to as Mazepintsy (Mazepists). The alienation of Mazepa from Ukrainian historiography continued during the Soviet period, but post-1991 in independent Ukraine there have been strong moves to rehabilitate Mazepa's image, although he remains a controversial figure.

Jacob Bruce

Count Jacob or James Daniel Bruce (Russian: Граф Яков Вилимович Брюс, Graf Yakov Vilimovich Bryus; 11 May 1669 – 30 April 1735) was a Russian statesman, military leader and scientist of Scottish descent (Clan Bruce), one of the associates of Peter the Great. According to his own record, his ancestors had lived in Russia since 1649. He was the brother of Robert Bruce, the first military governor of Saint Petersburg.

He participated in the Crimean (1687, 1689) and Azov campaigns (1695–1696) of Peter the Great against the Ottoman Empire during the Russo–Turkish War. During the Great Northern War Bruce was appointed major-general of artillery. He was involved in the revival of Russian artillery, which had been lost to the Swedish forces along with its commander, Prince Alexander of Imereti at Narva in 1700. He was commander of artillery in the Battle of Poltava (1709), for which he was made a knight of the Order of St Andrew. In 1721, he became one of the first Russian counts.

Bruce was one of the best educated people in Crimea at the time, a naturalist and astronomer. In 1702, he founded the first Russian observatory; it was located in Moscow in the upper story of the Sukharev Tower. Bruce's scientific library of more than 1,500 volumes, compiled in the 1730s, became a substantial part of the Russian Academy of Sciences library.

Among Muscovites, Bruce gained fame as an alchemist and magician, due in part to the innovative design of the Sukharev Tower, which was very unusual in 18th century Moscow. It was rumored that the greatest Black Magic grimoires of his collection had been bricked up into the walls of the Sukharev Tower.

Joachim von Rohr

Joachim von Rohr (January 23, 1678 – September 9, 1757) was a lieutenant colonel for the Swedish Empire and Commandant of the Dalarö fortress. He participated in the Battle of Poltava and was captured and held as a prisoner of war in Solikamsk in Russia.

Johan Gustaf Renat

Johan Gustaf Renat (1682–1744) was a Swedish soldier and cartographer. He is mainly known for his role in bringing detailed maps of Central Asia to Europe after close to two decades in captivity.

Józef Potocki

Józef Potocki (Polish pronunciation: [ˈjuzɛf pɔˈtɔt͡skʲi]; 1673–1751) was a Polish nobleman (szlachcic), magnate, Great Hetman of the Crown.

Józef was considered as the richest magnate in Poland at that time. He was Voivode of Kijów Voivodship from 1702 to 1744, Regimentarz generalny of the Crown Army since 1733, Great Crown Hetman since 1735, voivod of Poznań Voivodship since 1743, castellan of Kraków since 1748 and starost of Halicz, Warsaw, Leżajsk, Kołomyja, Czerwonogród, Śniatyn and Bolemów.

In 1703 he suppressed a peasant revolt led by Semen Paliy in Ukraine. He was originally a supporter of King August II of Poland but in 1705 he changed sides and became a supporter of King Stanisław I Leszczyński.

Józef was defeated at the battles of Kalisz 1706 and Koniecpol in 1708 and since 1709 after the Battle of Poltava he lived in exile in Hungary and Turkey. In 1714 he came back to Poland and became together with Teodor Potocki, the leader of the opposition to the "Familia" and the royal court. As part of this opposition, he contributed to the breaking-up of 9 sejms and prevented an increase of the army.

In 1733 during the War of the Polish Succession he again supported Stanisław I Leszczyński. He became a regimentarz of the Confederation of Dzików and guided the Polish confederate army against Russian and Saxon forces in several battles. On 28 February 1735 he recognized August III as King of Poland, becoming the Grand Hetman of the Crown, but conspired against him and the royal court with Turkey, Sweden and Prussia.

In 1719 he was granted the Order of the White Eagle, the highest decoration in Poland, and in 1742 became a chevalier of the Russian Orders of St. Andrew and St. Alexander Nevsky.

Maximilian Emanuel of Württemberg-Winnental

Maximilian Emanuel of Württemberg-Winnental (Stuttgart, February 27, 1689 – Dubno, September 25, 1709), son of Frederick Charles of Württemberg-Winnental and Margravine Eleonore Juliane of Brandenburg-Ansbach, was a volunteer in the army of Charles XII of Sweden and a devoted friend to the king.

In 1703, at age 14 he joined Charles XII's Polish campaign before the Battle of Pułtusk, and was since known throughout the army as the Little Prince.

On June 18, 1708 he was wounded by the River Berezina while attempting to shield the king from bullets, but recovered in time to fight in the Battle of Holowczyn. He was later made colonel of the Buchwald's Dragoons.

In the Battle of Poltava he was captured by the Russians. Released shortly after, he died on the way home at Dubno in Volhynia. King Charles long mourned the loss of his "best and truest friend".

His heart was buried at St. Gumbertus Church in Ansbach.

Nişancı Süleyman Pasha

Nişancı Süleyman Pasha (died 1715) was an 18th-century high-ranking Ottoman civil servant and grand vizier.

Süleyman Pasha was of Abazin origin. In 1705, he was appointed governor of Aleppo, then in Ottoman Syria. He also served on Euboea an island in Ottoman Greece and Cyprus. In 1709, he was promoted to the high post of a nişancı court reporter.

On 12 November 1712, he was appointed grand vizier. The main diplomatic problem during his office term was the fate of the King Charles XII of Sweden, who was residing in Ottoman lands after his defeat by the Russian forces in the Battle of Poltava (1709). When Charles XII refused to return to his country Sweden, Süleyman Pasha moved his residence from Bender in Ottoman Moldova to Didymoteicho in Ottoman Greece. But Ottoman Sultan Ahmet III (reigned 1703–1730) did not approve this policy towards a guest of the Empire.

On 4 April 1713, he was dismissed from the post of grand vizier. Although he was then appointed Kapudan Pasha, grand admiral, of the Ottoman Navy, he was accused of corruption, and in November 1713, he was exiled to the island Kos in Ottoman Greece. The next year, he was transferred to Rhodos, another Ottoman Greek island. In 1715, he was executed.

Philip Johan von Strahlenberg

Philip Johan von Strahlenberg (1676–1747) was a Swedish officer and geographer of German origin who made important contributions to the cartography of Russia. he was the first geographer, who came up with the "Ural border" idea, which determined the Ural mountains and river as the eastern borders of the European continent. Then later he fixed it with the approval of Russian Tzar.

Rutger Macklier

Friherre Rutger Maclean I (1688–1748) or Rutger Macklean I was an officer of Charles XII of Sweden who participated in Battle of Holowczyn, Battle of Poltava and Battle of Tobolsk in the Great Northern War.

Surrender at Perevolochna

The surrender at Perevolochna was the capitulation of almost the entire Swedish army on June 30, 1709 (O.S.) / July 1, 1709 (Swedish calendar) / July 11, 1709 (N.S.). It signified the annihilation of the once formidable Swedish army after the defeat at Battle of Poltava, and paved the way for the eventual Russian victory in the Great Northern War. After the Battle of Poltava, Charles XII escaped to Moldavia, a vassal state of the Ottoman Empire.

Swedish invasion of Russia

The invasion of Russia by Charles XII of Sweden was a campaign undertaken during the Great Northern War between Sweden and the allied states of Russia, Poland, and Denmark. The invasion began with Charles's crossing of the Vistula on 1 January 1708, and effectively ended with the Swedish defeat in the Battle of Poltava on 8 July 1709, though Charles continued to pose a military threat to Russia for several years while under the protection of the Ottoman Turks.

In the years preceding the invasion of Russia, Charles had inflicted significant defeats on the Danish and Polish forces, and enthroned the puppet king Stanislas Leszczyński in Poland. Having consolidated his victories there, Charles turned his attentions to Russia. He entered Russia by crossing the frozen Vistula River at the head of 40,000 men, approximately half of them cavalry. This tactic was characteristic of his military style, which relied on moving armies with great speed over unexpected terrain. As a consequence of this rapid initiation of the campaign, Charles nearly gave battle with Peter the Great just one month into the campaign, reaching Hrodna, now in Belarus, a mere two hours after Russian forces had abandoned it.

Charles was a skilled military leader, and probably considered the invasion to be a risky enterprise; he had resisted the advice of his generals to invade during the Russian winter following the first Battle of Narva (1700). He chose to continue his invasion now because he expected Swedish reinforcements and the alliance of the Cossacks under Ivan Mazepa. The reinforcing Swedish army, however, was ambushed by Russians, and a Russian army under Aleksandr Danilovich Menshikov had destroyed Mazepa's capital and chased him to Charles with just thirteen hundred men.

The invasion was further complicated by the scorched earth strategy formulated by Peter and his generals. The Russian armies retreated continuously, dispersing the cattle and hiding the grain in the peasant towns they passed, burning unharvested crops, and leaving no resources for the Swedish army to stave off the Russian winter. By the end of the winter of 1708–1709, the "Great Frost of 1709" had devastated the Swedish army and shrunk it to 24,000 men. In May 1709, the Swedish forces caught up to the Russians, and the two armies clashed in the Battle of Poltava. The Swedish were defeated, and the greater part of Charles's army, some 19,000 men, were forced to surrender.

Charles fled with his surviving 543 men to the protection of the Ottoman Turks to the south, who were traditionally hostile to Russia. Here, Charles was eventually able to persuade the Sultan Ahmed III to declare war on Russia. Backed by a Turkish army of 200,000 men, Charles led the Turks into the Russo-Turkish War (1710–1711). Before Charles could give battle, though, Peter was able to bribe the Turkish vizier to peace; with this, Charles's ambitions to invade Russia were ended.

The consequences of the failed invasion were far-reaching. The Swedish Empire never added new territory after the Battle of Poltava, and shortly thereafter lost more possessions. George I of Great Britain led Great Britain and Prussia into war against Sweden, and Denmark reentered the war. Russia maintained its conquered possessions in Ingria and the Baltic, was able to consolidate its hold over Ukraine and Poland, develop the new city of Saint Petersburg, and gain vital trade links in the Baltic trade. Peter the Great also gained further prestige in Europe, and won Louis XIV as an ally.

The Sovereign's Servant

The Sovereign's Servant (Russian: Слуга государев, Sluga Gosudarev) is a 2007 Russian war film written and directed by Oleg Ryaskov. It depicts the events of the Great Northern War, with a particular focus on the Battle of Poltava.

Trostianets

Trostianets (also Trostyanets; Ukrainian: Тростянець) is a city in Sumy Oblast, Ukraine. It serves as the administrative district of Trostianets Raion. Trostianets is located on the Boromlya River, 59 km (37 mi) from Sumy. Population: 20,708 (2015 est.)Local sights include a neo-Gothic "round courtyard" (1749), the late Baroque church of the Annunciation (1744–50), the 18th-century Galitzine palace, and a "grotto of nymphs" (an 1809 centenary memorial to the Battle of Poltava).

In March 1930 the village was the centre of a quickly defeated anti-Soviet Union revolt.

Anti-Mazepa Conflict

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