Battle of Pichincha

The Battle of Pichincha took place on 24 May 1822, on the slopes of the Pichincha volcano, 3,500 meters above sea-level, right next to the city of Quito, in modern Ecuador.

The encounter, fought in the context of the Spanish American wars of independence, pitted a Patriot army under General Antonio José de Sucre against a Royalist army commanded by Field Marshal Melchor Aymerich. The defeat of the Royalist forces loyal to Spain brought about the liberation of Quito, and secured the independence of the provinces belonging to the Real Audiencia de Quito, or Presidencia de Quito, the Spanish colonial administrative jurisdiction from which the Republic of Ecuador would eventually emerge.

Battle of Pichincha
Part of Ecuadorian War of Independence
Pichincha desde Itchimbia

Quito and the Pichincha volcano
Date24 May 1822
Location
slopes of Pichincha near the current-day "La Cima de La Libertad" in La Libertad, Quito
Result Independent Forces Victory
Belligerents

Flag of the Gran Colombia.svg Gran Colombia

Flag of Guayaquil.svg Free Province of Guayaquil
Flag of Peru (1821-1822).svg República del Perú
Bandera Argentina.png Provincias Unidas del Río de la Plata

Flag of Spain (1785–1873, 1875–1931).svg Spain

Commanders and leaders
Flag of the Gran Colombia.svg Antonio José de Sucre Flag of Spain (1785–1873, 1875–1931).svg Melchor Aymerich
Strength
2,971 men 1,894 men
Casualties and losses
200 killed
140 wounded
400 killed
190 wounded
1,260 prisoners

Background

The military campaign for the independence of the Presidencia de Quito could be said to have begun on October 9, 1820, when the port-city of Guayaquil proclaimed its independence from Spanish rule after a quick and almost bloodless revolt against the local colonial garrison. The leaders of the movement, a combination of Venezuelan and Peruvian pro-independence officers from the colonial army, along with local intellectuals and patriots, set up a governing council and raised a military force with the purpose of defending the city and carrying the independence movement to the other provinces in the country.

By that time, the tide of the wars of independence in South America had turned decisively against Spain: Simón Bolívar's victory at the Battle of Boyacá (August 7, 1819) had sealed the independence of the former Viceroyalty of Nueva Granada, while to the south, José de San Martín, having landed with his army on the Peruvian coast in September 1820, was preparing the campaign for the independence of the Viceroyalty of Perú.

First Campaigns in the Real Audiencia de Quito (1820-1821)

There were three military attempts to liberate the territory of the Real Audiencia.

The first campaign was carried out by the new independent government of Guayaquil, which raised an army with local recruits — perhaps 1,800 men strong — and in November 1820 sent it towards the central highlands, with the purpose of encouraging other cities to join the independentist cause. After some initial successes, which included the declaration of independence of Cuenca, on November 3, 1820, the Patriots suffered a costly defeat at the hands of the Royalist army at the Battle of Huachi (November 22, 1820), near Ambato, forcing the Patriots to retreat back to the coastal lowlands.

By February 1821, Guayaquil began to receive reinforcements, weapons and supplies, sent by Simón Bolívar, President of the fledgling Republic of Colombia. In May of that year, Brigadier General Antonio José de Sucre, Commander in Chief of the Southern Division of the Colombian Army and Bolívar's most trusted military subordinate, came to Guayaquil. He was to take overall command of the new Patriot army, and begin operations aimed at the liberation of Quito and the entire territory of the Real Audiencia de Quito. Bolívar's ultimate political goal was the incorporation of all the provinces of the Real Audiencia into Colombia, including Guayaquil, still undecided whether to join Perú or Colombia, and with a strong current of opinion in favour of setting up its own republic. Time was of the essence, as it was vital to force the issue before General José de San Martín, still fighting in Perú, could come up to bring forward any Peruvian claims to the important port-city.

Sucre's advance up the Andes began in July, 1821. As had happened in the first campaign, after some initial successes, Sucre was defeated by the Royalist army on September 12, 1821, coincidentally at the same place as the previous battle (resulting in a Second Battle of Huachi). This second campaign came to an end with the signing of an armistice between the Patriots and the Spanish on November 19, 1821.

The Final Campaign of Quito (1822)

Planning

Back in Guayaquil, General Sucre concluded that the best course of action for the next campaign would be to drop any further attempt of a direct advance to Quito by way of Guaranda, in favor of an indirect approach, marching first to the southern highlands and Cuenca before wheeling north and advancing up the inter-Andean "corridor" towards Quito. This plan had several advantages. Retaking Cuenca would cut all communications between Quito and Lima, and would allow Sucre to wait for the reinforcements that in the meantime San Martín had promised would come from Perú. Also, a more progressive and slower advance from the lowlands up the Andes into the southern highlands would allow for a gradual adaptation of the troops to the physiological effects of the altitude. Moreover, it was the only way to avoid another direct clash in unfavorable conditions with the Royalist forces coming down from Quito.

Renewed campaign, 1822

At the beginning of January 1822, Sucre opened the new campaign. His army consisted now of approximately 1,700 men, including veterans from the previous campaigns as well as raw recruits. There were men from the lowlands of the Province of Guayaquil and volunteers who had come down from the highlands, both contingents soon to be organized into the Yaguachi Battalion; there were Colombians sent by Bolívar, a number of Spanish-born officers and men who had changed sides; a full battalion of British volunteers (the Albión); and even small numbers of Frenchmen. On January 18, 1822, the Patriot army marched on Machala, in the southern lowlands. On February 9, 1822, having crossed the Andes, Sucre entered the town of Saraguro, where he was joined by the 1,200 men of the Peruvian Division, the contingent previously promised by San Martín. This force was mostly Peruvian recruits, with Argentinian and Chilean officers. Facing a multinational force numbering around 3,000 men, the 900-strong Royalist cavalry detachment covering Cuenca withdrew to the north, being pursued at a distance by Patriot cavalry. Cuenca was thus retaken by Sucre on February 21, 1822, without a shot being fired.

During March and April, the Royalists continued to march northwards, successfully avoiding battle with the Patriot cavalry. Nevertheless, on April 21, 1822, a ferocious cavalry encounter did take place at Tapi, near Riobamba. At the end of the day, the Royalists abandoned the field, while the main body of Sucre's army proceeded to take Riobamba, staying there until April 28, before renewing the advance to the north.

Final approach to Quito

By May 2, 1822, Sucre's main force had reached the city of Latacunga, 90 km south of Quito. There he proceeded to refit his troops and fill up the ranks with new volunteers from the nearby towns, waiting for the arrival of reinforcements, mainly the Colombian Alto Magdalena Battalion, and new intelligence on the whereabouts of the Royalist army. Aymerich had meanwhile set up strongpoints and artillery positions on the main mountain passes leading to the Quito basin. Sucre, bent on avoiding a frontal clash on unfavorable terrain, decided to advance along the flanks of the Royalist positions, marching along the slopes of the Cotopaxi volcano in order to reach the Chillos valley, at the rear of the Royalist blocking positions. By May 14, the Royalist Army, sensing Sucre's intentions, began to fall back, reaching Quito on May 16. Two days later, and after a most difficult march, Sucre's main body occupied Sangolquí.

Climbing Pichincha

On the night of 23–24 May 1822, the Patriot Army, 2,971 men strong, began to climb up the slopes of Pichincha. In the vanguard were the 200 Colombians of the Alto Magdalena, followed by Sucre's main body. Bringing up the rear were the Scots and Irish of the Albión, protecting the ammunitions train. In spite of the strenuous efforts made by the troops, the advance up the slopes of the volcano was slower than anticipated, as the light rain that fell during the night turned the trails leading up the mountain into quagmires.

By dawn, to Sucre's dismay, the army had not been able to make much progress, finding itself just halfway along the mountain, 3,500 meters above sea-level, and in full view of the Royalist sentries down in Quito. At 8 o'clock, anxious about the slow progress of the Albión, and with his troops exhausted and suffering from altitude sickness, Sucre ordered a stop, ordering his commanders to hide their battalions as best they could. He sent part of the Cazadores del Paya battalion (Peruvians) forward in a reconnaissance role, to be followed by the Trujillo, another Peruvian battalion. One and a half hours later, much to their surprise, the men of the Paya were suddenly struck by a well-aimed musket volley. The battle had started.

Battle, 3,500 meters above sea-level

Unknown to Sucre, when dawn came, the sentries posted around Quito had indeed caught sight of the Patriot troops marching up the volcano. Aymerich, aware now of the young General's intention to flank him by climbing Pichincha, ordered his army—1,894 men—to ascend the mountain at once, intent on facing Sucre then and there.

Having made contact in the most unlikely of places, both commanders had no choice but to throw their troops piecemeal into the battle. There was little room to manoeuvre on the steep slopes of Pichincha, amid deep gullies and dense undergrowth. The men from the Paya, recovering from the initial shock, took positions under withering fire, waiting for the Trujillo to come up. A startled Sucre, hoping only that the Spaniards would be even more exhausted than his own troops, began by sending up the Yaguachi Battalion (Ecuadorians). The Colombians of the Alto Magdalena tried to make a flanking move, but to no avail, as the broken terrain made it impossible. Soon, the Paya, Barrezueta and Yaguachi, suffering heavy losses and lacking enough ammunition, began to fall back.

Everything now seemed to depend on the personnel of the British Legions bringing up the much needed reserve ammunition and additional personnel, but whose exact whereabouts were unknown. As time went by, the Royalists seemed to gain the upper hand. The Trujillo was forced to fall back, while the Piura Battalion (Peruvians), fled before making contact with the enemy. In desperation, the part of the Paya held in reserve was ordered to make a bayonet charge. Both sides suffered heavy losses, but the situation was somehow stabilized for the Patriots.

Nevertheless, Melchor Aymerich had an ace up his sleeve, so to speak. During the march up Pichincha, he had detached his crack Aragón battalion from his main force, ordering it to make for the top of the volcano, so as to fall upon the rear of the Patriots when the time came, and break their lines. The Aragón battalion — a veteran Spaniard unit that had seen plenty of action both during the Peninsular War and in South America — was now above the Patriots. As luck would have it, just as it was about to charge down onto the faltering Patriot line, it was stopped dead in its tracks by the English, Scots and Irish veterans of Albión, which made a surprise entry into the battle. As it was, the Albión had actually advanced to a position higher than the Spaniards. Soon, the Magdalena battalion joined in the fight, and the Aragón, after suffering heavy losses, was put out of action. The Colombians from the Magdalena then went up to the line to replace the Paya, which was forced to pull back, and charged upon the Royalist line, which was finally broken. At midday, Aymerich ordered the retreat. The Royalist army, now disorganized and exhausted, retreated down the slopes of Pichincha towards Quito. Although some units descended to Quito in disarray, harassed by the Magdalena battalion charging after them, others retreated in orderly fashion. The Colombians reached the outer limits of Quito, but did not go any further, acting on orders from their commanding officer who prudently decided against letting his soldiers enter the city. Thus, the Battle of Pichincha had ended. From the moment of first contact to the order of retreat, it had lasted no more than three hours.

Sucre's after-action report

Jose Antonio de Sucre
General Antonio José de Sucre, Commander In Chief, División del Sur

The day after the battle, May 25, Sucre wrote down his report of the action:

"The events at Pichincha have brought about the occupation of this city [Quito] as well as its forts on the afternoon of the 25, the possession and peace of the entire Department, and the taking of 1,100 prisoners, 160 officers, 14 artillery pieces, 1,700 rifles...Four hundred enemy soldiers and two hundred of our own lie dead on the field of battle; we have also counted 190 Spanish wounded, and 140 of our own...[A]mong the latter are Captains Cabal, Castro, and Alzuro; Lieutenants Calderón and Ramírez, and Second Lieutenants Borrero and Arango...I make a special mention of Lieutenant Calderón's conduct, who having suffered four wounds in succession, refused to leave the field. He will probably die, but I am sure the Government of the Republic will compensate his family for the services rendered by this heroic officer."

Thus was born the legend of native Cuencan Abdón Calderón Garaycoa, who along with Sucre came to symbolize the memory of Pichincha for the new Ecuadorian nation.

Aftermath

While in the general context of the Wars of Independence, the Battle of Pichincha stands as a minor clash, both in terms of its duration and the number of troops involved, its results were to be anything but insignificant. On May 25, 1822, Sucre and his army entered the city of Quito, where he accepted the surrender of all the Spanish forces then based in what the Colombian government called the "Department of Quito", considered by that Government as an integral part of the Republic of Colombia since its creation on December 17, 1819.

Previously, when Sucre had recaptured Cuenca, on February 21, 1822, he had obtained from its local Council a decree by which it proclaimed the integration of the city and its province into the Republic of Colombia.

Now, the surrender of Quito, which put an end to the Royalist resistance in the northern province of Pasto, allowed Bolívar to finally come down to Quito, which he entered on June 16, 1822. Amid the general enthusiasm of the population, the former Province of Quito was officially incorporated into the Republic of Colombia.

One more piece to the puzzle remained, Guayaquil, still undecided about its future. The presence of Bolívar and the victorious Colombian army in the city finally forced the hands of the Guayaquilenos, whose governing council proclaimed the Province of Guayaquil as part of Colombia on July 13, 1822.

Eight years later, in 1830, the three southern Departments of Colombia, Quito (now renamed Ecuador), Guayaquil and Cuenca, would secede from that country to constitute a new nation, which took the name of Republic of Ecuador.

Order of battle

PATRIOT ARMY

Supreme Commander:
Brigadier General Antonio José de Sucre, Colombian Army
Commander in Chief, 'División Unidad al Sur de la República'
  • División de Colombia (Colombian Division): General José Mires
    • Albión Battalion (Scottish, Irish, English - British Legions): Lt Col Mackintosh
    • Paya Rifle-Hunters Battalion (Peruvians): Lt Col Leal
    • Alto Magdalena Battalion (Colombians): Col Córdova
    • Yaguachi Battalion (Ecuadorians): Col Ortega
    • Southern Dragoons (Peruvians, Argentinians): Lt Col Rasch
  • División del Perú (Peruvian Division): Colonel Andrés de Santa Cruz
    • Trujillo Battalion (Peruvians): Col Olazábal
    • Piura Battalion (Peruvians): Col Villa
    • Horse Grenadiers of the Andes, 1st Squadron (Argentinians, Chileans): Col Lavalle
    • Mounted Rifle Hunters, 1st Squadron (Argentinians, Chileans): Lt Col Arenales
    • Artillery Battery: Capt Klinger

ROYALIST ARMY

Supreme Commander:
Field-Marshal Melchor Aymerich, Spanish Army
Capitán General, Kingdom of Santa Fé
  • 1st Aragón Battalion (Spanish): Col Valdez
  • Cádiz Sharpshooters Battalion: Col de Albal
  • Cazadores Ligeros de Constitución: Col Toscano
  • HM Queen Isabel's Dragoons, 1st Squadron: Col Moles
  • Granada Dragoons, 1st Squadron: Col Vizcarra
  • Presidential Guard Dragoons, 1st Squadron: Lt Col Mercadillo
  • HM King Ferdinand VII's Own Hussars, 1st Squadron: Col Allimeda
  • Artillery Battery: Col Ovalle

La Cima de la Libertad

The area where the battle took place has now a large monument and a Champ de Mars (Parade grounds) and a museum and is called colloquially "La Cima de la Libertad" (The Summit of Liberty). A military parade is held on that spot every May 24 to mark Armed Forces Day and the victory of the liberation forces.

References

  • Salvat Editores (Eds.), Historia del Ecuador, Vol. 5. Salvat Editores, Quito, 1980. ISBN 84-345-4065-7.
  • Enrique Ayala Mora (Ed.), Nueva Historia del Ecuador, Vol. 6. Corporación Editora Nacional, Quito, 1983/1989. ISBN 9978-84-008-7.

Coordinates: 0°13′8.72″S 78°31′38.15″W / 0.2190889°S 78.5272639°W

Daniel Florence O'Leary

Daniel Florence O'Leary (Irish: Dónall Fínín Ó Laoghaire; 1801–1854) was a military general and aide-de-camp under Simón Bolívar.

Ecuadorian Army

The Ecuadorian Army (Ejército Ecuatoriano) is the land component of the Ecuadorian Armed Forces. Its 116,450 soldiers are deployed in relation to its military doctrine. The contemporary Ecuadorian Army incorporates many jungle and special forces infantry units into its structure.

Ecuadorian War of Independence

The Ecuadorian War of Independence was fought from 1820 to 1822 between several South American armies and Spain over control of the lands of the Royal Audience of Quito, a Spanish colonial administrative jurisdiction from which would eventually emerge the modern Republic of Ecuador. The war ended with the defeat of the Spanish forces at the Battle of Pichincha on May 24, 1822, which brought about the independence of the entire Presidencia de Quito. The Ecuadorian War of Independence is part of the Spanish American wars of independence fought during the first two decades of the 19th century.

Ecuador–Spain relations

Ecuador–Spain refers to the current and historical relations between Ecuador and Spain. Both nations are members of the Association of Academies of the Spanish Language and the Organization of Ibero-American States.

Flag of Guayaquil

The flag of Guayaquil was established after the victory of the emancipatory troops in the independence of the city on October 9, 1820 as the insignia of the Republic of Guayaquil that encompassed several provinces of the current Ecuadorian coast. It is maintained that it was José Joaquín de Olmedo who devised the sky blue and white pavilion, being himself the one who designed the current coat of arms of the city. The flag is divided into 5 horizontal stripes, 3 of them sky blue and the other 2 white. In addition in the central sky blue fringe there are 3 white stars.

In his "Historical Review", José de Villamil states that on October 9, 1820 "...by arrangement of the Junta (Government) was deployed the independent Guayaquil flag composed of five horizontal strips, three blue and two white and in the one from the center (blue) three stars...".Within the history of the Ecuadorian flag, this flag is considered the 4th national flag, which flamed on the battlefield, as the insignia of the Yaguachi Battalion, during the victory of the independentist troops over the Spanish troops in the Battle of Pichincha. Within the republican history, it is the second one, if the red flag with a white X-cross is supposed to be valid, which was supposedly the one of August 10, 1809. In practice, it is the first flag that represented a truly free territory as that today is Ecuador.

There is still confusion about the representation of the 3 stars of the central strip. It's believed that the stars represent the 3 main provinces of the Royal Audience of Quito, these being: Quito, Cuenca and Guayaquil. Some historians say that them represent the 3 main cities of the Free Province of Guayaquil, which are: Portoviejo, Machala and the capital city Guayaquil.

Guayaquil Conference

The Guayaquil Conference (Spanish: Conferencia de Guayaquil) was a meeting that took place on July 26, 1822, in Guayaquil, Ecuador, between José de San Martín and Simón de Bolívar, to discuss the future of Perú (and South America in general).

History of Ecuador (1990–present)

This article is about the history of Ecuador from 1990 to the present.

Jacinto Jijón y Caamaño

Jacinto Jijón y Caamaño was an Ecuadorian historian and politician, born in Quito on December 11, 1890 to Don Manuel Jijón Larrea and Doña Dolores Caamaño y Almada. He was the mayor of the city of Quito (the capital of Ecuador) from 1946 to 1948. He was a member of the Ecuadorian parliament and a candidate for the presidency of Ecuador. He went to school in Quito, where he was taught by Archbishop Federico González Suárez. In 1912, he accompanied a fellow pupil, Don Carlos Manuel Larrea, and his own mother to Europe. There, he developed his interest in the sciences, and learned English, French and German. It was, having collected a large number of books, that he returned to Ecuador and began to utilize his funds to examine pre-Hispanic settlements in the area.As an archeologist, Jacinto Jijón y Caamaño surveyed pre-Hispanic settlement near the town of Manta, mapping the largest structures. It was then that he became the first to use the term "Manteño" to describe such settlement. Jijón y Caamaño believed that the Manteños operated like a trading ring rather than a kingdom or empire, and drew parallels to the Hanseatic League.He wrote several works, including Quito y la independencia de America: discurso leido en la sesion solemne celebrada por la Academia Nacional de Historia ... en conmemoracion del I centenario de la batalla de Pichincha ("Quito and the independence of America: Address delivered at the solemn session held by the National Academy of History ... in commemoration of the centenary of the Battle of Pichincha", referring to Quito, capital of Ecuador, and the Battle of Pichincha). He also wrote books on archaeological topics, such as the Antropología prehispánica del Ecuador ("Pre-Hispanic Anthropology of Ecuador").

Karina Galvez

Karina Galvez (born July 7, 1964) is an Ecuadorian American poet. She was born in Guayaquil, Ecuador, July 7, 1964. She lived in California, United States during 1985-2012. Since 2012 she resided in Ecuador, but flew extensively through the world. In 1995, she published her book "Karina Galvez – Poetry and Songs", which includes both English and Spanish versions of her poems and a prologue written by León Roldós Aguilera, former vice-president of Ecuador. In 1996, her "Poem for My Mother" won 2nd place in the annual Latin American poetry contest organized by the "Casa de la Cultura" in Long Beach, CA. She is also a song writer and has written children's poems and short children's stories.

She is a Television presenter for "Mesa de Análisis" on UCSG Television de Ecuador, the tv channel of the Universidad Católica de Santiago de Guayaquil, with interviews about Art and Culture; former radio host of "Garza Roja Cultural" and "Garza Roja Musical" on Ecuador's Radio Tropicana 96.5 FM, and radio personality for "Artífices" on UCSG Radio 1190 AM in Guayaquil.

She studied economics at the Catholic University of Santiago de Guayaquil and obtained a degree in tourism at California Travel School. Her knowledge of Spanish, English, French, German, Italian and Portuguese allowed her to share her poetry in several languages. She has been a soprano and a talent for voice overs. One of the pioneers of the Ecuadorian American Chamber of Commerce of Los Angeles. Member of the Ibero-American Society of Poetry of Los Angeles. She is a national disaster trainer for the Orange County American Red Cross, member of the Catholic Detention Ministry in Orange County, CA, Member of DMAT CA-1. Community activist. She received a commendation by Mayor James Hahn of Los Angeles, CA, Mayor Miguel Pulido of Santa Ana, CA, and by California Senator Kevin de León. On October 2008 she was part of the Ecuadorian delegation invited by the Vatican to the Canonization of Narcisa de Jesús Martillo and on April 2014, to the Canonization of Pope John XXIII and Pope John Paul II.

Some of her poems may be found in print and/or online in several Hispano-American anthologies of Poetry and Narrative published in Spain, Mexico, El Salvador, Bolivia, Chile, Brazil, Canada, Romania, the U.K., the U.S., Peru, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Czech Republic and Argentina. Her poems in Spanish have been translated to English, French, Italian, Portuguese, Romanian, Bulgarian, Slovakian and Czech."The author was also awarded the "Crystal Condor", top recognition granted to Ecuadorians that have excelled outside national borders, at a ceremony known as the "Ecuadorian Achievement Awards". Karina Galvez was interviewed by Cristina Aceves at KMEX "Los Angeles Al Dia" morning show, and portrayed her poetry in KTNQ live radio shows.In 2011 Karina Galvez was nominated to the First International Medal of Peace and Culture "Presidente Salvador Allende", in Chile. Also in 2011, Galvez, together with musician Pablo Goldstein and painter Luis Burgos Flor, was one of the only three non-Mexican artists to be invited to commemorate the 125th anniversary of the opening of the Consulate General of Mexico in Los Angeles, where her poem "Ave, Mi Guadalupana" debuted with Goldstein playing Franz Schubert's Ave Maria (Schubert) on bandoneón in the background.

In 2016, Karina Galvez along with Toño Escobar from Fundación BienvenidoGYE were David Rockefeller's hosts and guides on his visit to Guayaquil, Ecuador.

"The Avowal", the English version in micro-theatre format of Karina Galvez' monologue "I Swear I Will" (about domestic violence) debuted on June 9, 2017 at the CEN (Centro Ecuatoriano Norte-Americano) in Urdesa, Guayaquil.

On October 23, 2017, the Major Council of Chiefs and Communes of Chiloé (in Chiloé Archipelago, in Los Lagos Region, Chile) through Resolution #7, granted Karina Galvez the title of "Williche de Chiloé Por Gracia" (Williche of Chiloé by Grace), to acknowledge her work for Latin American culture and for the Williche people around the world, a title that essentially means that she was received as a member of the Huilliche people.

Although her poetry is mostly romantic, Karina Gálvez often surprises the reader with poems and Prose poetry that reflect an acute perception of social issues like abortion, social class clashes, social turmoil, and lack of tolerance, or with poems of profound historical content, like her epic poem "La Batalla del Pichincha" ('The Battle of Pichincha'), or about Catholic beliefs, like her poem "Ave, Mi Guadalupana" that tells of the apparitions of Our Lady of Guadalupe, or with eco-poems (poems about the ecology), Tongue-twisters, and even 'culinary poems' containing traditional Ecuadorian recipes in rhyme.

La Libertad, Quito

La Libertad is an urban parish in the city of Quito, Ecuador. It is located in the southern part of the city, just south of the city center and on the slopes of the Pichincha volcano.

La Cima de La Libertad, a military museum that sits on the location of the Battle of Pichincha, is located within this parish.

List of years in Ecuador

This is a list of years in Ecuador.

Luis Rodolfo Peñaherrera Bermeo

Luis Rodolfo Peñaherrera Bermeo (c. 1936 – 20 August 2016) was an Ecuadorian artist.

He studied lithography and drawing from the Meritorious Philanthropic Society of Guayas, and earned a Fine Arts teaching degree from the Municipal School of Arts in Guayaquil. He became a professor at both institutions, and the rector of the latter for 33 years. During his time as a student, some of his teachers included Alfredo Palacio, Caesar Andrade Faini, and Hans Michaelson. Additionally, some of his own students such as Jorge Velarde went on become noted painters.He painted the mural "Apotheosis of Guayaquil" on the ceiling of the City Hall, which portrays past and present iconic figures from Guayaquilean history. Another of his notable murals "Battle of Pichincha" is at the Carondelet Palace in Quito.

At the age of 23 he took over the drawing of the cartoon character named "Juan Pablo" (created in 1918 by Jaime Salinas), which was the most popular cartoon character in Guayaquil, having first appeared in El Telégrafo, and later in La Prensa and El Universo, which in 1994 was also recognized as "a civic emblem" by the municipal government. When Salinas died in 1959, El Telégrafo launched a contest to find someone who would take over the drawing of Juan Pablo, which Peñaherrera Bermeo won. From 1962 to 1998 he drew a cartoon called "Flechazos" for the newspaper El Universo under the pseudonym Robin. He has also used the pseudonym Sombras at El Telégrafo.

May 24

May 24 is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 221 days remain until the end of the year.

Melchior Aymerich

Melchor Aymerich (1754 in Ceuta – 1836 in Cuba) was a Spanish general and provincial administrator, serving as the last president of the Royal Audience of Quito from April until May 1822. One of the last Spanish colonial provinces to be overthrown during the final years of the Spanish American wars of independence, he was defeated by rebel General Antonio José de Sucre at the Battle of Pichincha on May 24, 1822, formally surrendering two days later.

Military history of Ecuador

The military history of Ecuador spans hundreds of years.

Order of Abdon Calderón

The Order of Abdón Calderón is an Ecuadorian decoration instituted in 1904 and awarded for extraordinary military service. It is named after the revolutionary hero who died from injuries sustained on May 24, 1822 during the Battle of Pichincha.

Pichincha

Pichincha may refer to:

Argentina

Pichincha (Buenos Aires Underground)Ecuador

Pichincha Province, a province of Ecuador

Pichincha Canton, a canton in Manabí Province

Pichincha, Ecuador, the capital of Pichincha Canton

Pichincha Volcano

Public holidays in Ecuador

Public holidays in

Timeline of Quito

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Quito, Ecuador.

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