Battle of Paris (1814)

The Battle of Paris was fought on March 30–31, 1814 between the Sixth Coalition—consisting of Russia, Austria, and Prussia against the French Empire. After a day of fighting in the suburbs of Paris, the French surrendered on March 31, ending the War of the Sixth Coalition and forcing Emperor Napoleon to abdicate and go into exile.

Battle of Paris 1814
Battle of Paris 1814
Russparis
Russian army enters Paris

Background

Napoleon was retreating from his failed invasion of Russia in 1812. With the Russian armies following up victory, the Sixth Coalition was formed with Russia, Austria, Prussia, Great Britain, Sweden, Spain and other nations hostile to the French Empire. Even though the French were victorious in the initial battles during their campaign in Germany, the Coalition armies eventually joined together and defeated them at the Battle of Leipzig in the autumn of 1813. After the battle, the Pro-French German Confederation of the Rhine collapsed, thereby losing Napoleon's hold on Germany east of the Rhine. The supreme commander of the Coalition forces in the theatre and the paramount monarch among the three main Coalition monarchs, the Russian Tsar Alexander I, then ordered all Coalition forces in Germany to cross the Rhine and invade France.

Prelude

Campaign in northeastern France

The Coalition forces, numbering more than 400,000[1] and divided into three groups, finally entered northeastern France in January 1814. Facing them in the theatre are the French forces numbering only about 70,000 men, but they had the advantage of fighting in friendly territory, shorter supply lines, and more secure lines of communication.

Utilizing his advantages, Napoleon defeated the divided Coalition forces in detail, starting with the battles at Brienne and La Rothière, but could not stop the latter's advance. He then launched his brilliant Six Days' Campaign against the huge Coalition army, under Blücher, threatening Paris to its northeast at the Aisne River. He successfully defeated and halted it, but could not seize the strategic initiative back in their favor as Blücher's forces were still largely intact.

The Austrian emperor Francis I and King Frederick William III of Prussia felt very demoralized upon hearing the setbacks brought about by Napoleon's victories since the start of the campaign. They even considered ordering a general retreat. But the Tsar Alexander I was far more determined than ever to victoriously enter Paris whatever the cost, imposing his will upon Schwarzenberg and the wavering monarchs.

Meanwhile, shifting his forces from the Aisne to this sector, Napoleon and his army engaged another Coalition army, under Schwarzenberg, which was also threatening Paris to its southeast near the Aube River, at the Battle of Arcis-sur-Aube on 20 March. He was successful in defeating this army, but it was not enough to halt it in time, as it later linked up with Blücher's army at Meaux on 28 March. After this the Coalition forces advanced yet again towards Paris.

Until this battle it had been nearly 400 years since a foreign army had entered Paris, during the Hundred Years' War.

French war-weariness

Since the disaster in Russia and the start of the war, the French populace had been increasingly becoming war-weary.[2] France had been exhausting itself at war for 25 years, and many of its men had died during the wars Napoleon had fought until then, making conscription there increasingly unpopular. Once the Coalition forces entered the country of France, the leaders were astonished and relieved upon seeing that against their expectations and fears the populace never staged a popular uprising against them, in the scale of the popular guerrilla war in Spain or Russia's patriotic resistance against the Grande Armée in 1812. Even Napoleon's own ex-foreign minister, Charles Maurice de Talleyrand, sent a letter to the Coalition monarchs stating that the Parisians are already becoming angry against their Emperor and would even welcome the Coalition armies if they were to enter the city.

Tsar Alexander I's subterfuge

Alexander I of Russia by G.Dawe (1826, Peterhof) crop
Alexander I of Russia, leader of the coalition

The leaders of the Coalition decided that Paris, and not Napoleon himself, was now the main objective. For the plan, some generals proposed their respective plans, but one, that of the Russian general Toll, fitted precisely what Tsar Alexander I had in mind; attack Paris head-on with the main Coalition army while redirecting Napoleon as far away from the city as possible.

The Tsar intended to ride out to meet the Prussian king and Schwarzenberg. They met on a road leading directly to Paris and the Tsar proposed his intentions. He brought a map and spread it to the ground for all of them to see as they talked about the plan. The plan was for the entire main Coalition army to stop pursuing Napoleon and his army and instead march directly to Paris. The exception was Wintzingerode's 10,000-strong cavalry detachment and eight horse batteries which were to follow and mislead Napoleon that the Coalition army was still pursuing him southwards. As was usual, the king agreed as did Schwarzenberg. The main Coalition army began its march towards Paris on 28 March, and at the same day Wintzingerode's unit was now performing his task.

The deception campaign worked. While the main Coalition army attacked Paris, Wintzingerode's unit hotly pursued Napoleon and his rag-tag army to the southeast, but was later beaten back by the latter. However, by the time the emperor knew of the subterfuge, he was already too far away to the southeast of Paris, which by this time was now faced with Coalition forces. He would never reach the city in time, thus he also could not participate in the upcoming battle for the city.

Forces

Barclay de Tolly (Dawe)
Field Marshal Count Barclay de Tolly, commander of the joint forces

The Austrian, Prussian and Russian armies were joined together and put under the command of Field Marshal Count Barclay de Tolly who would also be responsible for the taking of the city, but the driving force behind the army was the Tsar of Russia and the King of Prussia, moving with the army. The Coalition army totaled about 150,000 troops. Napoleon had left his brother Joseph Bonaparte in defense of Paris with about 23,000[3] regular troops under Marshal Auguste Marmont along with an additional 6,000 National Guards and a small force of the Imperial Guard under Marshals Bon Adrien Jeannot de Moncey and Édouard Mortier. Assisting the French were the incomplete trenches and other defenses in and around the city.

Battle

The Coalition army arrived outside Paris in late March. Nearing the city, Russian troops broke rank and ran forward to get their first glimpse of the city. Camping outside the city on March 29, the Coalition forces were to assault the city from its northern and eastern sides the next morning on March 30. The battle started that same morning with intense artillery bombardment from the Coalition army. Early in the morning the Coalition attack began when the Russians attacked and drove back the French skirmishers near Belleville[4] before themselves driven back by French cavalry from the city's eastern suburbs. By 7:00 a.m. the Russians attacked the Young Guard near Romainville in the center of the French lines and after some time and hard fighting pushed them back. A few hours later the Prussians, under Blücher, attacked north of the city and carried the French position around Aubervilliers, but did not press their attack.

The Württemberg troops seized the positions at Saint-Maur to the southwest, with Austrian troops in support. The Russians attempted to press their attack but became caught up by trenches and artillery before falling back before a counterattack of the Imperial Guard. The Imperial Guard continued to hold back the Russians in the center until the Prussian forces appeared to their rear.

The Russian forces then assailed the Montmartre Heights in the city's northeast, where Joseph's headquarters had been at the beginning of the battle, which was defended by Brigadier-general Baron Christiani. Control of the heights was severely contested, and Joseph fled the city. Marmont contacted the Coalition and reached a secret agreement with them. Shortly afterwards, he marched his soldiers to a position where they were quickly surrounded by Coalition troops; Marmont then surrendered, as had been agreed.

Capitulation

Bouchot - Napoléon signe son abdication à Fontainebleau 4 avril 1814
The Abdication of Napoleon
(Painted by François Bouchot in 1843)

Alexander sent an envoy to meet with the French to hasten the surrender. He offered generous terms to the French and, although willing to avenge Moscow more than a year earlier, declared himself to be bringing peace to France rather than its destruction. On March 31 Talleyrand gave the key of the city to the Tsar. Later that day the Coalition armies triumphantly entered the city with the Tsar at the head of the army followed by the King of Prussia and Prince Schwarzenberg. On April 2, the Senate passed the Acte de déchéance de l'Empereur, which declared Napoleon deposed.

Napoleon had advanced as far as Fontainebleau when he heard that Paris had surrendered. Outraged, he wanted to march on the capital, but his marshals would not fight for him and repeatedly urged him to surrender. He abdicated in favour of his son on 4 April. The Allies rejected this out of hand, forcing Napoleon to abdicate unconditionally on April 6. The terms of his abdication, which included his exile to the Isle of Elba, were settled in the Treaty of Fontainebleau on April 11. A reluctant Napoleon ratified it two days later. The War of the Sixth Coalition was over.

See also

References

  1. ^ Maude 1911, p. 232.
  2. ^ Merriman, John (1996). A History of Modern Europe. W. W. Norton. p. 579. ISBN 0-393-96888-X.
  3. ^ Chandler. p.286.
  4. ^ Mikhailofsky-Danilefsky A. – History of the Campaign in France London; Smith, Elder, and Co. Cornhill, 1839; p. 356

Sources

  • Compton's Home Library: Battles of the World CD-ROM

External links

Coordinates: 48°51′24″N 2°21′06″E / 48.8566°N 2.3518°E

Alexander I of Russia

Alexander I (Russian: Александр Павлович, Aleksandr Pavlovich; 23 December [O.S. 12 December] 1777 – 1 December [O.S. 19 November] 1825) reigned as Emperor of Russia between 1801 and 1825. He was the eldest son of Paul I and Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg. Alexander was the first Russian King of partitioned Poland, reigning from 1815 to 1825, as well as the first Russian Grand Duke of Finland, reigning from 1809 to 1825.

He was born in Saint Petersburg to Grand Duke Paul Petrovich, later Emperor Paul I, and succeeded to the throne after his father was murdered. He ruled Russia during the chaotic period of the Napoleonic Wars. As prince and during the early years of his reign, Alexander often used liberal rhetoric, but continued Russia's absolutist policies in practice. In the first years of his reign, he initiated some minor social reforms and (in 1803–04) major, liberal educational reforms, such as building more universities. Alexander appointed Mikhail Speransky, the son of a village priest, as one of his closest advisors. The Collegia was abolished and replaced by the State Council, which was created to improve legislation. Plans were also made to set up a parliament and sign a constitution.

In foreign policy, he changed Russia's position relative to France four times between 1804 and 1812 among neutrality, opposition, and alliance. In 1805 he joined Britain in the War of the Third Coalition against Napoleon, but after the massive defeat at the Battle of Austerlitz he switched and formed an alliance with Napoleon by the Treaty of Tilsit (1807) and joined Napoleon's Continental System. He fought a small-scale naval war against Britain between 1807 and 1812 as well as a short war against Sweden (1808–09) after Sweden's refusal to join the Continental System. Alexander and Napoleon hardly agreed, especially regarding Poland, and the alliance collapsed by 1810. The tsar's greatest triumph came in 1812 as Napoleon's invasion of Russia proved a total disaster for the French. As part of the winning coalition against Napoleon he gained some spoils in Finland and Poland. He formed the Holy Alliance to suppress revolutionary movements in Europe that he saw as immoral threats to legitimate Christian monarchs. He helped Austria's Klemens von Metternich in suppressing all national and liberal movements.

In the second half of his reign he was increasingly arbitrary, reactionary and fearful of plots against him; he ended many earlier reforms. He purged schools of foreign teachers, as education became more religiously oriented as well as politically conservative. Speransky was replaced as advisor with the strict artillery inspector Aleksey Arakcheyev, who oversaw the creation of military settlements. Alexander died of typhus in December 1825 while on a trip to southern Russia. He left no children, as his two daughters died in childhood. Both of his brothers wanted the other to become emperor. After a period of great confusion (that presaged the failed Decembrist revolt of liberal army officers in the weeks after his death), he was succeeded by his younger brother, Nicholas I.

Alexander Lvovich Davydov

Alexander Lvovich Davydov (Russian: Александр Львович Давыдов; 1773 - 1833) was a major-general of the Russian Empire, who served in the era of the Napoleonic Wars.

Andrei Ivanovich Gorchakov

Andrei Ivanovich Gorchakov (1768 – 1855) led a Russian infantry corps in the German Campaign of 1813 and the French Campaign of 1814 during the Napoleonic Wars. He participated in the 1799 Italian and Swiss expedition on the staff of his uncle Alexander Suvorov and was at Cassano, the Trebbia and Novi. In 1812 he fought at Smolensk and Borodino. At Bautzen in May 1813 he led the second line of the Right Wing. He commanded the 1st Infantry Corps, at Dresden and Leipzig in 1813 and at Bar-sur-Aube, Laubressel and Paris in 1814.

Battle of Paris

The Battle of Paris may refer to:

Battle of Paris (1814), during the Napoleonic Wars

Liberation of Paris (1944), during the Second World War

Charles Étienne de Ghigny

Charles Étienne de Ghigny (14 January 1771 – 1 December 1844) commanded a Kingdom of the Netherlands light cavalry brigade at the Battle of Waterloo. He joined a French light cavalry regiment in 1792 and served in the same regiment for 22 years, becoming its lieutenant colonel in 1806. He fought in the Peninsular War in 1810–1811 and in the latter year became colonel of the regiment. He fought in the 1812 French invasion of Russia, the 1813 German Campaign and the 1814 French Campaign. In 1814 he led a cavalry regiment at Fère-Champenoise and Paris. He changed his allegiance to the Netherlands in 1815 and was appointed major general. He was promoted to lieutenant general in 1826. He switched allegiance to the Kingdom of Belgium in 1831 and received the Order of Leopold in 1837.

Christophe Antoine Merlin

Christophe Antoine Merlin (27 May 1771 – 9 March 1839) became a French division commander during the Napoleonic Wars. He joined a volunteer regiment in 1791 and fought against the Kingdom of Spain in the War of the Pyrenees. After becoming an officer in the 4th Hussar Regiment, he participated in the Rhine and Italian campaigns. In 1805 he was promoted general of brigade and fought in Italy and in the 1806 Invasion of Naples. Later he became an equerry to Joseph Bonaparte when that individual headed the Kingdom of Naples.

When Joseph accepted the crown of Spain in 1808, Merlin went with him and was assigned to Joseph's Spanish army as a general of division. He fought at Talavera, Almonacid and Ocaña in 1809. After re-entering the French service in 1814 he led a cavalry division at Gué-à-Tresmes, Laon, Reims, Fère-Champenoise and Paris. In 1815 he led soldiers on the Rhine. He held peacetime commands until 1825 when he retired, but was again employed from 1830 to 1836. His surname is one of the names inscribed under the Arc de Triomphe, on Column 30.

Château de Vincennes

The Château de Vincennes is a massive 14th and 17th century French royal fortress in the town of Vincennes, to the east of Paris, now a suburb of the metropolis.

Fyodor Korf

Fyodor Karlovich Korf or Korff (5 April 1773 – 11 September 1823) led a Russian cavalry corps in 1812–1814 during the Napoleonic Wars. In 1807 he led a cavalry brigade in the 4th Division at Eylau. During the French invasion of Russia in 1812 he commanded the II Cavalry Corps at Borodino. In 1813 he led the I Cavalry Corps at the Katzbach and Leipzig. In 1814 he led his horsemen at Laon, Fère-Champenoise and Paris.

Georgi Emmanuel

Count Georgi Arsenyevich Emmanuel (Russian: Георгий Арсеньевич Эммануэль; Banat of Temeswar, 13 April 1775 - Kirovohrad, 26 January 1837) was a Russian general of the Napoleonic Wars of Serbian origin.

He was promoted to major general on 26 December 1812 and after the end of the battle of Paris to general on 27 March 1814. After returning to Russia, he was put in command of the 4th Dragoon Division. On 25 June 1825 he became the supreme commander and governor of the Caucasus. He was promoted to general of the cavalry in July 1828, during the Russo-Turkish War (1828-29). In 1829 he organised and led the first Russian scientific expedition to Mount Elbrus, for which he was made a member of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Henri François Marie Charpentier

Henri François Marie Charpentier (23 June 1769 – 14 October 1831) became a French chief of staff during the French Revolutionary Wars and a division commander during the Napoleonic Wars. In 1791 he joined a volunteer battalion and later became a staff officer. He served as Jacques Desjardin's chief of staff when that general served as commander of the right wing of the Army of the North during the battles of Grandreng, Erquelinnes and Gosselies in 1794. Next year he was Jacques Maurice Hatry's chief of staff during the Siege of Luxembourg. He was promoted to general of brigade and fought at the Trebbia and Novi in 1799 and fought at Montebello and Marengo in 1800. Napoleon appointed him general of division in 1804.

In 1806 Charpentier became chief of staff to Eugène de Beauharnais in Italy but later fought at Burgos in Spain in 1808. Serving under Eugène again, in 1809 he was present at Sacile, Caldiero, the Piave, Tarvis, Raab and Wagram. During the 1812 French invasion of Russia, he fought at Smolensk. In 1813 he led an infantry division in the XI Corps at Lützen, Bautzen, Katzbach, Leipzig, Hanau and Arnhem. In 1814 he led a Young Guard division at Craonne, Laon, Fère-Champenoise and Paris. His surname is one of the names inscribed under the Arc de Triomphe, on Column 26.

Ignác Gyulay

Count Ignác Gyulay de Marosnémeti et Nádaska, Ignácz Gyulay, Ignaz Gyulai, or Ignjat Đulaj (11 September 1763 – 11 November 1831) was a Hungarian military officer, joined the army of Habsburg Austria, fought against Ottoman Turkey, and became a general officer during the French Revolutionary Wars. From 1806 he held the title of Ban of Croatia. In the struggle against the First French Empire during Napoleonic Wars, he commanded army corps. At the time of his death, he presided over the Hofkriegsrat, the Austrian Council of War.

While fighting against the Turks, Gyulay rose in rank to become a field officer. From 1793 to 1796, he served on the upper Rhine in combat with the armies of the First French Republic. In 1799 he led a brigade in Germany and the following year he commanded a division. From 1801 until 1831, he was Proprietor (Inhaber) of a Hungarian infantry regiment.

During the Napoleonic Wars, Gyulay fought in the 1805 campaign against the First French Empire and later served his emperor as a negotiator in the peace talks. He commanded an Austrian army corps in the 1809 campaign in Italy. Again leading a corps, he fought at the decisive Battle of the Nations in 1813. During the subsequent French campaign in 1814, he led one of the corps in the victorious Allied armies.

Ivan Guryelov

Prince (knyaz) Ivan Stepanovich Gurielov (Иван Степанович Гурьелов) also known as Guryalov (Гурьялов) or Gurieli (Гуриэли; Georgian: გურიელი) (1770–1818) was a Russian general of Georgian origin who fought in several campaigns, most notably in the 1812-14 wars against Napoleon I of France.

Gurielov came from the princely dynasty of Gurieli, which ruled Guri, a small region on Georgia's Black Sea coast. His grandfather, Kaikhosro III, who had briefly ruled Guria in 1716, retired to Russia with Vakhtang VI of Kartli in 1724 and then served in the Georgian Hussar Regiment.

Ivan Gurieli enrolled in the Russian army in 1780 and received the rank of praporshchik in 1786. He took part in the Russo-Turkish War (1787–92) and the Polish campaign (1794). He was promoted to colonel on June 25, 1799, and to major general on May 16, 1803. He served as a commander of Volinsky musketeer regiment (1803–05) and a commandant of Vilno (now Vilnius, Lithuania) (1808–12). During Napoleon's invasion of Russia (1812), he led the Yekaterinburgsky Infantry Regiment and then the 1st Brigade within the 23rd Infantry Division and assumed the command of the same division after the Battle of Borodino. He took part in the battles of Tarutino, Vyazma (1812), Bautzen and Leipzig (1813). During the Battle of Paris (1814), he was the first of the allied commanders to assail the Montmartre Heights. Since 1816, Gurielov served as a commander of the 27th Division.

Karl Wilhelm von Toll

Count Karl Wilhelm von Toll (Russian: Карл Вильгельм Фёдорович Толль ; 9 April 1777, Keskvere, Governorate of Estonia – 5 May 1842) was a Baltic German aristocrat and Russian subject who served in the Imperial Russian Army in the campaigns against the Napoleonic Army.

Mikhail Miloradovich

Count Mikhail Andreyevich Miloradovich (Russian: Михаи́л Андре́евич Милора́дович), spelled Miloradovitch in contemporary English sources (October 12 [O.S. October 1] 1771 – December 27 [O.S. December 15] 1825) was a Russian general of Serbian origin, prominent during the Napoleonic Wars. He entered military service on the eve of the Russo-Swedish War of 1788–1790 and his career advanced rapidly during the reign of Paul I. He served under Alexander Suvorov during Italian and Swiss campaigns of 1799.

Miloradovich served in wars against France and Turkey, earning distinction in the Battle of Amstetten, the capture of Bucharest, the Battle of Borodino, the Battle of Tarutino and the Battle of Vyazma. He led the reserves into the Battle of Kulm, the Battle of Leipzig and the Battle of Paris (1814). Miloradovich attained the rank of General of the Infantry in 1809 and the title of count in 1813. His reputation as a daring battlefield commander (referred to as "the Russian Murat" and "the Russian Bayard") rivalled that of his bitter personal enemy Pyotr Bagration, but Miloradovich also had a reputation for being lucky. He boasted that he had fought fifty battles but had never been wounded nor even scratched by the enemy.By 1818, when Miloradovich was appointed Governor General of Saint Petersburg, the retirement or death of other senior generals made him the most highly decorated active officer of the Russian Army, holding the Order of St. George 2nd class, the Order of St. Andrew, the Order of St. Vladimir 1st class, the Order of St. Anna 1st class, the Order of St. John of Jerusalem and the Order of St. Alexander Nevsky with diamonds. A chivalrous man of boastful and flamboyant character, Miloradovich was a poor fit for the governorship. Vladimir Nabokov called him "a gallant soldier, bon vivant and a somewhat bizarre administrator"; Alexander Herzen wrote that he was "one of those military men who occupied the most senior positions in civilian life with not the slightest idea about public affairs".When news of the death of Alexander I reached Saint Petersburg, Miloradovich prevented the heir, future tsar Nicholas I, from acceding to the throne. From December 9 [O.S. November 27] to December 25 [O.S. December 13] 1825, Miloradovich exercised de facto dictatorial authority, but he ultimately recognised Nicholas as his sovereign after the Romanovs sorted out the succession crisis. Miloradovich had sufficient evidence of the mounting Decembrist revolt, but did not take any action until the rebels took over the Senate Square on December 26 [O.S. December 14] 1825. He rode into the rows of rebel troops and tried to talk them into obedience, but was fatally shot by Pyotr Kakhovsky and stabbed by Yevgeny Obolensky.

National Guard (France)

The National Guard (French: Garde nationale) is a French military, gendarmerie, and police reserve force, active in its current form since 2016 but originally founded in 1789 after the French Revolution.

For most of its history the National Guard, particularly its officers, has been widely viewed as loyal to middle-class interests. It was founded as separate from the French Army and existed both for policing and as a military reserve. However, in its original stages from 1792 to 1795, the National Guard was perceived as revolutionary and the lower ranks were identified with sans-culottes. It experienced a period of official dissolution from 1827 to 1830, but was reestablished. Soon after the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71, the National Guard in Paris again became viewed as dangerously revolutionary, which contributed to its dissolution in 1871.In 2016, France announced the reestablishment of the National Guard in response to a series of terrorist attacks in the country.

Nikita Volkonsky

Prince Nikita Grigorievich Volkonsky (9 July 1781, Moscow, Russian Empire - 6 December 1844, Assisi, Italy) was a Russian general from the Volkonsky family. He took part in the Napoleonic wars and later converted from Orthodoxy to Roman Catholicism.

Peter Mikhailovich Kaptzevich

Peter Mikhailovich Kaptzevich or Kaptsevich or Kapsevich or Kapzewitch (1772 – 3 July 1840) led a Russian infantry corps during the 1814 Campaign in France. In 1812 he led the 7th Division at Smolensk, Borodino, Maloyaroslavets and Krasnoi. Promoted to command the 10th Infantry Corps, he fought at the Katzbach and Leipzig in 1813 and Vauchamps, Gué-à-Tresmes, Laon and Paris in 1814. He was governor of Western Siberia in 1822–1827 and the following year he led a corps of Siberian militia. He is buried at the church in Nikolskoye, Sakmarsky District, Orenburg Oblast.

Wojciech Chrzanowski

Wojciech Chrzanowski (14 January 1793 – 26 February 1861) was a Polish general who participated in Napoleon's Russian campaign and in the battles of Leipzig, Paris, and Waterloo. After Napoleon's final defeat he served in the national army of Poland, and served in the Imperial Russian Army under Hans Karl von Diebitsch against the Ottoman Empire in 1828/29. He was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Order of Virtuti Militari.

Chrzanowski was born on 14 January 1793 in Biskupice. He was made Governor of Warsaw in 1831. He was suspected of being untrustworthy in his conduct with the Russians and was shunned by many of the people, emigrating to Paris at the end of 1831.

Charles Albert, King of Sardinia, called Chrzanowski after the armistice that concluded the 1848 campaign of the First Italian War of Independence as Chief of Staff of the Piedmontese army; this caused friction in the ranks, as he was largely seen as the King's creature, and his figure and attitude did not command much respect. After Eusebio Bava was removed as General in Chief, he was officially named Generale maggiore (Major general, not a rank but a title for the head of staff) for the upcoming campaign (although de facto he would lead the army). The 1849 campaign was however a complete insuccess, as he was outmaneuvered and defeated by Josef Radetzky in the Battle of Novara. General Girolamo Ramorino was blamed for the defeat, and subsequently executed; however Chrzanowski did not escape censure and was dismissed from Sardinian service. He lived for a time in Louisiana but died in Paris (26 February 1861). He published several works in Polish.

Étienne Pierre Sylvestre Ricard

Étienne Pierre Sylvestre Ricard (31 December 1771 – 6 November 1843) was a prominent French division commander during the 1814 Campaign in Northeast France. In 1791 he joined an infantry regiment and spent several years in Corsica. Transferred to the Army of Italy in 1799, he became an aide-de-camp to Louis-Gabriel Suchet. He fought at Pozzolo in 1800. He became aide-de-camp to Marshal Nicolas Soult in 1805 and was at Austerlitz and Jena where his actions earned a promotion to general of brigade. From 1808 he functioned as Soult's chief of staff during the Peninsular War, serving at Corunna, Braga, First and Second Porto. During this time he sent a letter to Soult's generals asking them if the marshal should assume royal powers in Northern Portugal. When he found out, Napoleon was furious and he sidelined Ricard for two years.

In 1811 Soult got Ricard reinstated and he fought at Tarragona. He participated in the 1812 French invasion of Russia, was promoted general of division and fought at Krasnoi. In 1813 he led a division in the III Corps at Lützen, Bautzen, Leipzig and Hanau, briefly leading the corps that winter. In 1814 he led a VI Corps division at La Rothière, Champaubert, Montmirail, Vauchamps, Gué-à-Tresmes, Laon, Reims, Fère-Champenoise and Paris. During the Hundred Days he went into exile with Louis XVIII, after which he was made a count by the restored king. He led troops in the 1823 French invasion of Spain. His surname is one of the names inscribed under the Arc de Triomphe, on Column 26.

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