Battle of Ong Thanh

The Battle of Ong Thanh was fought at the stream of that name (Ông Thành) on the morning of 17 October 1967, in Chơn Thành District, at the time part of Bình Dương Province, South Vietnam, today in Bình Phước Province.

During the first few months of 1967, the Viet Cong (VC) absorbed heavy losses as a result of large-scale search and destroy missions conducted by the United States Army, and it prompted North Vietnamese leaders to review their war strategy in South Vietnam. In light of the setbacks which People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) and VC forces had experienced early in 1967, PAVN General Trần Văn Trà suggested that PAVN and VC forces could still be victorious if they inflicted as many casualties as possible on U.S. military units, hoping that the Americans would conclude that the war was too costly and withdraw from Vietnam. Thus, towards mid-1967, the VC 7th and 9th Divisions returned to the battlefield again, with the objective of inflicting casualties on U.S. military formations in III Corps. On June 12, the U.S. 1st Infantry Division launched Operation Billings to destroy elements of the VC 9th Division, which had built-up strength around northern Phước Vĩnh. When the operation concluded on June 26, the 1st Infantry Division had lost 57 killed while the VC had lost 347 killed. Then in September, following a string of attacks on allied military installations by VC and PAVN troops, Major General John H. Hay decided to temporarily stop conducting large-scale operations until the true intentions of PAVN/VC forces were known. Towards October, the VC 271st Regiment marched into the Long Nguyen Secret Zone, to rest and refit for their next major operation. To disrupt the VC's resting period, General Hay launched Operation Shenandoah II to clear a section of Highway 13 which stretched from Chơn Thành to Lộc Ninh.

Starting from 28 September, elements of the 1st Infantry Division were air-lifted into positions around Long Nguyen, but again only few contacts were made with the VC. However, on 16 October, the 2nd Battalion, 28th Infantry Regiment found a major VC bunker system located south of their night defensive position near the Ong Thanh Stream, and a short fire fight broke out. To avoid fighting a long battle, the commander of the 2nd Battalion decided to pull back, and made preparations for a frontal assault on the next day. On the morning of 17 October, two rifle companies of the 2nd Battalion returned to the bunker system they had found the previous day, but they were defeated by the VC 271st Regiment which had set up an ambush in anticipation of the American attack.

Background

In the first half of 1967, United States military forces in Vietnam had inflicted losses on the VC, both in terms of infrastructure and manpower, through major ground operations such as Cedar Falls, Junction City and Manhattan. For North Vietnamese military leaders such as Generals Võ Nguyên Giáp and Nguyễn Chí Thanh, the operations carried out by the Americans in South Vietnam had been disastrous for their forces. Furthermore, the military situation in North Vietnam also prompted North Vietnamese leaders to question their war strategy.[3] In 1967 the United States expanded their Rolling Thunder bombing campaign, which enabled American airpower to destroy rather than just threaten Hanoi's limited industrial infrastructure. Consequently, North Vietnamese leaders feared that if the Red River dikes were targeted by the Americans, Hanoi and the surrounding farmlands would be flooded.[3] At the same time, the North Vietnamese government was afraid the VC may split in order to accommodate a resolution with the Saigon government, because the U.S.-backed government in the South was showing no sign of collapse.[3]

Despite the unfavorable developments in South Vietnam, PAVN General Trần Văn Trà believed North Vietnam could still win the war if they pursued a strategy of attrition.[3] In other words, the PAVN/VC would have to fight on for as long as possible, until the United States recognized that the war was unwinnable and would disengage from the conflict in Vietnam. To achieve that objective at the tactical level, Tra argued that PAVN and VC forces would have to destroy American military units, and cause as many casualties as possible until they got tired and left.[3]:66 Indeed, towards mid-1967 General Thanh, who had the VC 7th and 9th Division at his disposal, was out to do just that. In June, U.S. military forces in III Corps began to detect the build-up of VC troops in northern Phước Vĩnh located War Zone D.[4]:339 To stop a major enemy attack on Phước Vĩnh, Major General John H. Hay—commander of the 1st Infantry Division launched Operation Billings with the objective of trapping three VC battalions in War Zone D.[4][5] On June 26, Operation Billings concluded, the Americans killed 347 VC and captured one, at a cost of 57 U.S. dead and 197 wounded.[5]:211

In August, the VC were back in action again; this time the 165th Regiment of the 7th Division targeted the Tong Le Chon Special Forces Camp, located southeast of the 1st Infantry Division's area of operations. Just after midnight on 7 August, the 165th Regiment attacked Tong Le Chon and was able to penetrate the Camp, but was forced to flee after an ammunition bunker exploded. That night the VC assaulted the base several times more, but on each occasion they were repelled by artillery fire and close air-support.[4]:347 By September, the scale of VC and PAVN activities in III Corps had perplexed the U.S. commanders of Military Assistance Command, Vietnam. In the meantime, however, Hay decided to put an end to large-scale operations which had proven to be unproductive, until the enemy's real intentions were known. Instead, Hay continued to commit his 2nd Brigade to pacification efforts in southern Bình Dương Province, while the 3rd Brigade provided protection for engineers clearing Highway 13.[4]:346

Following various engagements with the U.S. 1st Infantry Division during the previous months, Colonel Vo Minh Triet, commander of the VC 271st Regiment, was ordered to move his troops into an area known as the Long Nguyen Secret Zone, which was situated between National Highway 13 and the Michelin Rubber Plantation. It was located about 56 kilometers (35 mi) northwest of Saigon, in Bình Dương Province. There, Triet's regiment was supposed to receive troop replacements and food supplies, to prepare for a major offensive against an unspecified target in War Zone D.[4]:349 In previous years, the VC 9th Division had often used the month of September and October to rest and prepare for their winter-spring offensives, and 1967 was no different. For that reason Hay was determined to disrupt the VC's resting period by launching Operation Shenandoah II, with the objective of clearing Highway 13 from Chon Thanh to Loc Ninh.[4]:349

Vo Minh Triet
Colonel Võ Minh Triết led the 271st Regiment in the Battle of Ong Thanh.

On September 29, Hay ordered Colonel George E. Newman—commander of the 1st Brigade—to place the 1st Battalion, 2nd Infantry Regiment and the 1/28th Infantry Regiment, in the northern portion of Long Nguyen. On the next day, Colonel Frank E. Blazey, commander of the 3rd Brigade, was ordered to deploy the 2/2nd Infantry and the 2/28th Infantry to the southern half of the area.[4]:349 In the early stages of Shenandoah II, U.S. forces only made a few contacts with the VC. On 2 October, an ARVN unit operating east of Highway 13 near Chon Thanh made significant contact with a large VC formation and absorbed heavy casualties.[4]:350 Enemy documents obtained by the ARVN indicated they had clashed with a battalion-sized unit from the VC 272nd Regiment, sent to attack Chon Thanh in order to cover the movement of the 271st Regiment into the Long Nguyen area.[4]:350 Early in October, the 271st Regiment had arrived in Long Nguyen but they could not obtain their much-needed food supplies, as a result of allied search-and-destroy operations which had created significant food shortages for VC units in the region.[4]:350

Triet then marched his starving soldiers southward toward the Ong Thanh Stream to link up with Rear Service Group 83, but local VC units also lacked adequate food supplies of their own, so the 271st Regiment was forced to wait in the area for the arrival of rice and other essential supplies.[2]:27 Meanwhile, on 4 October 1/2nd Infantry made contact with a company-sized VC formation about 9 kilometers (5.6 mi) south-west of Chon Thanh, and claimed to have killed 12 enemy soldiers.[4]:350 To pursue the retreating VC formation, Lt. Col. Richard E. Cavazos, commander of the 1st Battalion, 18th Infantry Regiment, was instructed to conduct an air-assault into a clearing located about 2 kilometers (1.2 mi) west of 1/2nd Infantry, in order to block enemy troops. 1/18th Infantry landed unopposed, and they immediately set up their standard field position with wire entanglements to protect the base.[4]:349 On 6 October, the 1/18th Infantry position was subjected to VC mortar bombardment; even though the shells had caused little damage, Cavazos believed it was part of the VC's final preparations for a major ground attack later that evening.[4]:350

Terry Allen Jr.
Lieutenant Colonel Terry Allen Jr. (center) and Sergeant Major Francis Dowling (right) were both killed on October 17, 1967.

At around 6:00 pm the rain began to fall and the VC started attacking the 1/18th Infantry's position from different directions, but Cavazos' men were able to hold their ground, with the support of artillery and mortar fire. By 12:00 am the fight was over, and U.S. casualties were 5 killed and 4 wounded. Three weeks later a captured VC soldier from the 2nd Battalion, 271st Regiment, revealed that his unit lost 59 soldiers killed and 56 wounded, in battle with Cavazos' battalion.[4]:351 On 8 October, Hay pulled 1/2nd Infantry back to Phuoc Vinh to act as the division's reaction force. Lieutenant Colonel Terry D. Allen—commander of the 2/28th Infantry—was then ordered to depart from Lai Khê with three of his rifle companies (A, B and D) and air-lifted into a site about 21 kilometers (13 mi) northwest of Chon Thanh village, and 3 kilometers (1.9 mi) north-west of 1/18th Infantry. Company C was detached from Allen's 2/28th Infantry to protect the supporting 15th Field Artillery Regiment.[1]:34

Two days later, 1/2nd Infantry was deployed into new blocking positions, as VC units were believed to be moving toward the Michelin Rubber Plantation. On October 11, 2 companies of 1/18th Infantry went on a northward probe, and they were immediately attacked by the VC. While under heavy fire, Cavazos ordered the lead company to pull back behind a perimeter formed by the second company. As the lead company fell back, artillery and air support were called in to pummel the VC's attacking formation. When the battle was over, 21 VC were found dead, whereas U.S. casualties for the day were 1 killed and 4 wounded. Shortly afterwards, 1/18th Infantry pulled back to Phuoc Vinh for rest and refitting.[4]:352 By mid-October, Hay believed the VC 271st Regiment had suffered a major defeat and was ready to withdraw from the Long Nguyen Secret Zone, so he was ready to terminate Shenandoah II, however increased VC activity near the Ong Thanh Stream, where the 1st Brigade made most of its contacts, had indicated otherwise.[4]:353–354

Battle

Ong Thanh Oct. 17 1967
Map of the Battle of Ong Thanh

On the morning of 16 October, Allen led Companies B and D, 2/28th Infantry out from their temporary night defensive position along the Ong Thanh Stream to patrol an area to the southeast, which was covered by thick jungle canopy. After marching for about 2 kilometers (1.2 mi), the battalion found a fortified VC bunker, so Allen ordered his men to pull back and directed airstrikes against VC positions. When the bombing runs were over, Allen's men entered the camp and a firefight broke out with VC snipers firing down from trees in the surrounding areas. Again, Allen ordered his men to pull back and form a perimeter to protect their wounded soldiers, as artillery strikes were called in against VC bunker positions. The 2nd Battalion re-entered the camp, and they discovered the bodies of 17 VC. Allen's men then moved through the western end of the camp, and another fire-fight broke out with an estimated 60 VC.[4]:353

Later that afternoon Allen decided to break contact and return to base, to avoid fighting a battle that could last until the evening. In the meantime, however, he called in air-strikes to inflict further damage on the base camp of his primary target, the 271st Regiment. That evening BG William Coleman and other senior officers of the 1st Infantry Division visited the 2/28th Infantry's camp, where they praised Allen's men for their efforts, and presented First Lieutenant Clark Welch—commander of Company D—with a Silver Star for his actions earlier in the day. Allen then decided to launch a full-frontal attack against the 271st Regiment's base camp, to determine if the enemy unit was still there. However, due to the lack of sufficient manpower, Welch suggested that Allen should either call off the assault or get more soldiers on the ground for the operation. Allen dismissed Welch's suggestions, and responded by giving Captain James George—commander of Company A—the responsibility of leading the attack instead of Welch.[1]

Meanwhile, the 1,200-strong 271st Regiment was joined by 200 soldiers from the C1 Company of Rear Service Group 83—under the command of Captain Nguyen Van Lam—and they set up a three-sided ambush and waited for the arrival of a reported U.S. battalion.[2]:27 At around 8:00 am on the morning of 17 October, 2/28th Infantry departed from their night defensive position with Company A in the lead followed by the Battalion Command Group, and the tail of the formation was covered by Company D. Company B stayed behind to protect the battalion's base, along with the mortar sections of Alpha and Delta Companies. In accordance with the 1st Brigade's policy, Allen personally led his unit out as part of the Battalion Command Group, although he preferred to supervise actions from a helicopter. For artillery support, Company A was authorized to call upon the 105mm and 155mm howitzers located at Fire Support Bases Caisson V, Caisson III-S and Lorraine III.[4]:355

Allen's men marched southward from the base, with the intention of entering the enemy base camp from a slightly different direction to the west. Preceded by marching artillery fire, they stopped periodically to conduct cloverleaf patrols to their front, rear and both flanks. At 9:56 am the lead element of Company A stumbled upon a northeast-southwest trail, which appeared to have been used within the last hour. The 1st Platoon Leader then requested and received permission to make cloverleaf patrols to the east and west of the trail. Almost immediately, the 1st Platoon sighted a VC soldier while scouting west of the trail and another group of VC soon appeared. George then ordered the 1st Platoon to set up a hasty ambush across the trail, but by the time they were in position the VC had disappeared and everything was quiet. About 10–15 minutes later, the 1st Platoon Leader reported that trees were moving, in addition to the sound of weapons clicking and the rattle of ammunition.[4]:355

In response, George ordered the 1st Platoon to reinforce their ambush position. While that was happening Company A's right flank, which was covered by the 2nd Platoon, began to receive sporadic fire. The rest of the 1st Platoon was then pinned down when the VC, from within concealed bunker positions, fired on them using captured M60 machine-guns. The VC steadily increased their fire which came in the form of various small arms, .50 caliber and 12.7mm machine guns. Unable to communicate with the 1st and 2nd Platoons, George moved forward with the 3rd Platoon only to find his lead platoons held in their positions by enemy fire. A claymore mine then exploded in front of Company A's command element, killing the radio operator and severely wounding both George and his Forward Artillery Observer. At around 10:40 am gunfire had died down, but Company A was virtually destroyed during 30 minutes of fighting, with the company commander wounded and the leaders of 1st and 2nd Platoons both killed.[4]:357

To break contact with the VC units which fired on Company A from the western flank, First Sergeant Jose Valdez quickly organized an assembly area on the eastern side to round up the survivors. Shortly after the assembly area was established George, who was severely wounded from the Claymore explosion, turned his company over to Valdez. Allen then ordered Valdez to lead the survivors of Company A northward to join the rest of the battalion. The survivors, mostly from the 2nd and 3rd Platoons of Company A, were then ordered to withdraw through a perimeter formed by Company D. As the surviving elements of Company A pulled back, Company D began to receive sporadic fire from their southern flank, so Allen ordered his command group to remain in place near a prominent anthill with the 1st and 2nd Platoons of Company D. The 3rd Platoon, on the other hand, was instructed to move forward to assist the wounded men from Company A.[4]:358

As VC fire increased in intensity, the soldiers of Company D picked up the distinctive sound of a U.S.-made M-60 machine-gun firing from the southern flank. Allen assumed that Company A was approaching his perimeter, so he ordered them to cease-fire because he feared his rifle companies were firing on each other. However, the order was also passed down along the formation of Company D, which enabled the 271st Regiment to gain fire superiority. At around 11:35 am, Triet unleashed his 2nd Battalion which was placed in reserve during the battle, and they attacked Welch's Company D from three different directions. During that time Allen tried to request artillery support, but that had become impossible due to the close proximity between U.S. and VC soldiers. In a scene that had characterized the destruction of Company A earlier, both Allen and Welch were wounded in battle as VC snipers fired down from the trees. Nonetheless, just before 12:00 pm, Allen instructed Company D to begin a northward march toward the battalion's base, and Company B to move forward to cover the withdrawal.[4]:358–9

The withdrawal quickly descended into a scene of chaos, as U.S. soldiers scrambled to avoid heavy enemy fire. During the last moments of the battle, Allen was struck in the head by machine-gun fire which grazed his helmet, and was finally killed when another burst of machine-gun fire hit him. At around 12:20 pm Newman flew into Ong Thanh to assume command of the battalion, while Coleman took control of the 1st Brigade.[4]:357 Meanwhile, Company A had linked up with Company B, which had taken up positions about 450 meters (1,480 ft) to the south of the battalion's night defensive position with the task of assisting the wounded. At around 2:00 pm that afternoon, Company C, 2/28th Infantry was airlifted into Ong Thanh from FSB Caisson V, as Company B moved into the battle area to help evacuate the wounded. Coleman, who was coordinating the evacuation of U.S. casualties from a helicopter, decided to assemble the bodies of the dead in an area and protect it with artillery fire. By that stage, however, Triet's 271st Regiment had withdrawn from the battlefield, and medevac flights were only challenged by sporadic sniper fire.[4]:361

Aftermath

At around 12:00 pm Triet had already ordered his troops to disengage from the battle without annihilating the remaining Americans caught in his ambush. His men were tired and hungry and he was behind schedule in his movement toward his next assignment. Moreover, he feared that American air power and artillery would begin to inflict heavy casualties on his unit.[2]:296

The battle at Ong Thanh was a costly affair for the soldiers of the 2/28th Infantry. During two hours of fighting the battalion lost 64 men killed, including Lt. Col. Terry Allen and every member of the Battalion Command Group, as well as 75 wounded and 2 missing.[1]:36 For their efforts in the battle, 13 American soldiers were awarded the Silver Star, while Allen and Welch received the Distinguished Service Cross. Forward Observer Second Lieutenant Harold B. Durham, who was attached to the battalion on the day from the 15th Field Artillery Regiment, was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor for his heroic actions.[1]:36 Despite the losses that had been inflicted on the 2nd Battalion by the VC, the U.S. military told the media that the fight at Ong Thanh had resulted in a major American victory.[6]

General Hay initially portrayed Ong Thanh as an American victory and cited 101 enemy dead in the battle. However, American veterans who survived the ordeals of the battle were adamant they were ambushed and defeated by the VC 271st Regiment. The estimate of 101 enemy dead officially provided by the U.S. military was likely much inflated to emphasize the scale of the 'American victory'.[2]:341 For retired U.S. Army Brigadier General James E. Shelton, who was then a major and served as an Operations Officer with the 2/28th Infantry, the lack of reliable intelligence and overconfidence on the part of Allen as the battalion commander, were some of the factors that led to the disastrous outcome in the Ong Thanh battle.[6] Furthermore, the soldiers under Allen's command lacked fighting experience, whereas the VC of the 9th Division were tough and experienced light infantry. The 271st Regiment, after their victory at Ong Thanh, withdrew back towards their base area near the Cambodian border.[7]

Meanwhile, the rest of the VC 9th Division was planning for a major attack on Loc Ninh, with the objective of capturing the district town and the Special Forces Camp. To accomplish their goals the VC deployed the 272nd and 273rd Regiments, reinforced with two battalions from the 165th Regiment and the PAVN 84th Artillery Regiment.[8] During the days before the battle, U.S. military intelligence had noticed the build-up of VC units around Loc Ninh. Hay, in response, planned to insert four battalions of the 1st Infantry Division and position them around Loc Ninh, thereby trapping the VC inside the town. On the evening of 28 October, the 272nd Regiment marched into position from the northeast, and the 273rd Regiment from west. At 1:15 am on 29 October, the 273rd Regiment began assaulting the Loc Ninh Special Forces Camp, but they were quickly repelled by U.S.-led Special Forces.[8] At around 6:30 am the remaining elements of Companies B and C, 2/28th Infantry Regiment, were airlifted onto the Loc Ninh airfield, to set up a firebase at the field's south-western end.

The soldiers of Companies A and D, 2/28th Infantry were sent back to their Base Camp at Lai Khe to adjust to the losses they had suffered, and to be kept away from enemy activity.[7]:41

See also

References

 This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Army Center of Military History.

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Keating, Susan K. (2006). Battle of Ong Thanh. VFW Magazine. p. 34.
  2. ^ a b c d e Maraniss, David (2010). Into the Story: A Writer's Journey through Life, Politics, Sport and Loss. Simon & Schuster. p. 415. ISBN 9781439160022.
  3. ^ a b c d e Robbins, James S. (2010). This Time We Win: Revisiting the Tet Offensive. Encounter Books. p. 65. ISBN 9781594032295.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x MacGarrigle, George L. (1998). Combat Operations: Taking the Offensive: October 1966 to October 1967. United States Army Center of Military History. ISBN 9780160495403. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  5. ^ a b Willbanks, James H. (2009). Vietnam War Almanac. Facts On File. p. 210. ISBN 9780816071029.
  6. ^ a b McPhee, John; Rigolot, Carol, eds. (2011). The Princeton Reader: Contemporary Essays by Writers and Journalists at Princeton University. Princeton University Press. p. 358. ISBN 9780691143071.
  7. ^ a b Dockery, Patrick H. (2002). Vietnam Was More Than Just the Killing: The Untold Day to Day History. Trafford Publishing. p. 43. ISBN 1553692446.
  8. ^ a b Rottman, Gordon L (2005). Special Forces Camps in Vietnam 1961–1970. Osprey Publishing. p. 54. ISBN 1841768391.

External links

15th Field Artillery Regiment (United States)

The 15th Field Artillery Regiment (15th FAR) is a field artillery regiment of the United States Army first formed in 1916. A parent regiment under the U.S. Army Regimental System, the 15th FAR currently has two active battalions: the 1st Battalion, 15th Field Artillery Regiment is assigned to the 1st Brigade Combat Team, 2nd Infantry Division, while the 2nd Battalion, 15th Field Artillery Regiment is assigned to the 2nd Brigade Combat Team, 10th Mountain Division

1967

1967 (MCMLXVII)

was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1967th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 967th year of the 2nd millennium, the 67th year of the 20th century, and the 8th year of the 1960s decade.

1st Infantry Division (United States)

The 1st Infantry Division is a combined arms division of the United States Army, and is the oldest continuously serving in the Regular Army. It has seen continuous service since its organization in 1917 during World War I. It was officially nicknamed "The Big Red One" (abbreviated "BRO") after its shoulder patch and is also nicknamed "The Fighting First". However, the division has also received troop monikers of "The Big Dead One" and "The Bloody First" as puns on the respective officially sanctioned nicknames. It is currently based at Fort Riley, Kansas.

28th Infantry Regiment (United States)

Since the establishment of the United States Army in 1775, three regiments have held the designation 28th Infantry Regiment. The first was a provisional unit that was constituted on 29 January 1813 and served during The War of 1812. The second was a reorganization and redesignation of 2nd Battalion, 19th Infantry Regiment on 1 October 1866 for the American Indian Wars. This incarnation of the 28th Infantry Regiment lasted until 15 March 1869, when it was consolidated back into the 19th Infantry Regiment. The third version of the 28th Infantry Regiment is the one that has the permanent designation and history, and is the one this article is about.

9th Division (Vietnam)

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American Experience (season 18)

Season eighteen of the television program American Experience originally aired on the PBS network in the United States on October 17, 2005 and concluded on May 22, 2006. The season contained 13 new episodes and began with the film Two Days in October.

Chơn Thành District

Chơn Thành is a rural district of Bình Phước Province, in the region of Vietnam. As of 2003 the district had a population of 59,856. The district covers an area of 415 km². The district capital lies at Chơn Thành.The stream Ông Thành was location of the Battle of Ông Thành in the Vietnam War.

David Maraniss

David Maraniss ( MARR-ə-niss; born 1949) is an American journalist and author, currently serving as an associate editor for The Washington Post.

He received a Pulitzer Prize for National Reporting in 1993 for his coverage of then-candidate Bill Clinton during the 1992 United States presidential election.

Maraniss received an honorary degree from the University of Wisconsin-Madison at the Spring commencement ceremony on May 16, 2014.

Don Holleder

Donald Walter Holleder (August 3, 1934 – October 17, 1967) was an American college football star while attending the United States Military Academy and later assistant football coach for the United States Military Academy, who was later killed in the Vietnam War.

Harold Bascom Durham Jr.

Harold Bascom Durham Jr. (October 12, 1942 – October 17, 1967) was a United States Army officer and a recipient of the United States military's highest decoration—the Medal of Honor—for his actions in the Vietnam War.

Holleder Memorial Stadium

Holleder Memorial Stadium was a 20,000 seat football stadium in Rochester, New York.

Located on Ridgeway Avenue, at the south east corner of Mount Read Blvd., it was built in 1949 to serve as the home of Aquinas Institute football.

Originally named Aquinas Memorial Stadium, it was renamed in 1974, in memory of former Aquinas and Army quarterback Don Holleder, who was killed in October, 1967, in the Battle of Ong Thanh.

The first ever win for the Buffalo Bills of the American Football League was held at the stadium; on August 13, 1960, the Bills won an exhibition game against the Denver Broncos. The Bills continued to host occasional exhibition games at the stadium through the 1960s.

Holleder Stadium was the home pitch for professional soccer's Rochester Lancers, who played at Holleder from 1967–69 as members of the American Soccer League, and 1970–80 while in the NASL. On August 21, 1977, 20,005 people, the largest crowd to attend a Lancers game at Holleder Stadium, watched Pelé lead his Cosmos to a 2–1 victory over the hometown Lancers in the first round of the 1977 NASL playoffs. It was also the host of the first match of the NASL Final 1970.

Holleder Stadium also hosted the Rochester Flash soccer team, who called Holleder Stadium home in 1981–82 (ASL) and 1984 (USL).

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Operation Shenandoah II

Operation Shenandoah II was a security operation conducted during the Vietnam War by the U.S. 1st Infantry Division to secure and repair Highway 13, South Vietnam from 29 September to 19 November 1967.

Outline of the Vietnam War

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the Vietnam War:

Vietnam War – Cold War-era proxy war that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. This war followed the First Indochina War (1946–54) and was fought between North Vietnam—supported by the Soviet Union, China and other communist allies—and the government of South Vietnam—supported by the United States, Philippines and other anti-communist allies. The Viet Cong (also known as the National Liberation Front, or NLF), a South Vietnamese communist common front aided by the North, fought a guerrilla war against anti-communist forces in the region. The People's Army of Vietnam, also known as the North Vietnamese Army (NVA), engaged in a more conventional war, at times committing large units to battle.

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Terry de la Mesa Allen Jr. (1929–1967), son of retired U.S. Army Major General Terry de la Mesa Allen Sr., was a fourth-generation soldier. He achieved the rank of lieutenant colonel in the U.S. Army. He served with the 1st Infantry Division, which his father had commanded with distinction during World War II. Allen was killed in an ambush in South Vietnam on Tuesday 17 October 1967 while leading his battalion against the Viet Cong near Lai Khe, northwest of Saigon at the Battle of Ong Thanh.

They Marched Into Sunlight

They Marched Into Sunlight: War and Peace, Vietnam and America, October 1967 is a 2004 book written by David Maraniss. The book centers around the Battle of Ong Thanh and a protest at the University of Wisconsin–Madison.

It was a finalist for the Pulitzer Prize for History in 2004, and won the J. Anthony Lukas Book Prize that same year.

Timeline of Vietnamese history

This is a timeline of Vietnamese history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Vietnam and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of Vietnam.

Two Days in October

Two Days in October is a 2005 documentary film about the Battle of Ong Thanh and the protest at the University of Wisconsin–Madison during the Vietnam War. The film aired on the PBS series American Experience during season 18. The film is based on the book, They Marched Into Sunlight written by David Maraniss. The film won a Peabody Award in 2005.The film consists of interviews with American soldiers, their families, Viet Cong soldiers, protesting students, police officers, and university faculty and administrators. Soldiers discuss the deadly jungle ambush of American troops by a much larger Viet Cong force, while those who were at the University of Wisconsin-Madison describe how a protest against Dow Chemical, the maker of napalm, turned violent when police began clubbing protesters. Both the soldiers and students were surprised to see news stories telling a very different version of events than what they had experienced.

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