Battle of Noemfoor

Coordinates: 0°58′50″S 134°53′32″E / 0.980482°S 134.892197°E

Battle of Noemfoor
Part of the Pacific War of World War II
AWM 017402 Noemfoor radio

Noemfoor, 12 July 1944. A U.S. soldier points out the direction in which Japanese troops have retreated, to a comrade using a walkie-talkie. (Photographer: Allan F. Anderson)
Date2 July – 31 August 1944
Location
Result Allied victory
Belligerents
 United States
 Australia
 Netherlands
Empire of Japan Japan
Commanders and leaders
United States Walter Krueger
United States Edwin D. Patrick (land)
United States Russell S. Berkey (naval)
Australia Frederick Scherger (air)
Empire of Japan Suesada Shimizu
Strength
10,000 2,000 (US estimates)
Casualties and losses
66 killed/missing;
343 wounded
~1,714 killed;
186 prisoners

The Battle of Noemfoor was a battle of World War II that took place on the island of Noemfoor, in Dutch New Guinea, between 2 July and 31 August 1944. United States and Australian forces attacked to capture Japanese bases on the island.

Background

Noemfoor is an elliptical, almost circular shape. It is approximately 11 mi (18 km) in diameter and encircled by coral reefs.[1][2][3][4] The landscape is dominated by limestone and coral terraces, topped by a 670 ft (200 m) tall hill, which is covered by tropical rainforest, like much of the interior.[5] Noemfoor lies just north of Cenderawasih Bay (Geelvink Bay), between the island of Biak and the east coast of the Doberai Peninsula (Vogelkop/Bird's Head Peninsula), on mainland New Guinea.

The island was occupied by Japanese forces in December 1943.[2] The indigenous civilian population numbered about 5,000 people, most of whom lived a subsistence lifestyle in coastal villages.[4][6][7]

The island was also hosting about 1,100 laborers taken to Noemfoor by the Japanese: a 600-strong Formosan (Taiwanese) auxiliary labor unit and 500 Indonesian civilian forced laborers. According to the official U.S. Army history, over 3,000 Indonesian men, women, and children were shipped to Noemfoor by the Japanese military.[7][8] Most came from Soerabaja (Surabaya) and other large cities on Java. These Javanese civilians were forced to construct roads and airfields, mostly by hand. Little food, clothing, shelter or medical attention were provided. Many attempted to steal Japanese supplies, and were executed. Others died from starvation and preventable disease. Survivors also alleged that sick Javanese were buried alive.[8] The Formosan labor troops had originally numbered about 900 men.[7][8] They had also worked on airfield and road construction, on ½ the ration of rice issued to regular Japanese troops.[8] When they became ill from exhaustion, hunger, or tropical diseases, they were put in a convalescent camp. In the words of the U.S. official history: "There, their rations were again cut in half, and the shelter and blankets provided covered but a fraction of the inmates. Medical care was given only to the worse cases, and then was inadequate."[8]

The Japanese built three airfields on the island, turning it into a significant air base.[2][3]

  • Kornasoren Airfield/Yebrurro Airfield, located toward the northern end of the island
  • Kamiri Airfield, on the northwestern edge of the island
  • Namber Airfield, on the west coast of the island.

Bombing of the island by the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) and Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) began as early as April 1944.[9]

Noemfoor was also used as a staging area for Japanese troops moving to reinforce Biak,[4] which was invaded by the Allies in May 1944. Japanese barges could travel from Manokwari to Noemfoor—about 60 nmi (69 mi; 110 km)—during one night. Japanese forces on Biak had been defeated by 20 June.

In describing his preparations for the Western New Guinea campaign, General Douglas MacArthur wrote in his memoirs that: "[t]he Hollandia Invasion initiated a marked change in the tempo of my advance westward. Subsequent assaults against Wakde, Biak, Noemfoor, and Sansapor were mounted in quick succession, and, in contrast to previous campaigns, I planned no attempt to complete all phases of one operation before moving on to the next objective."[10]

Ultimately, Noemfoor was selected for invasion for four reasons:[11]

  • Allied commanders believed that Japanese troops equivalent to less than one battalion would be based there;
  • the Allies were already experiencing a shortage of amphibious vessels and Noemfoor could be seized without large-scale operations;
  • it also had the greatest number of useful airfields in the smallest area and;
  • Japanese air defences in western New Guinea were almost negligible. (At the end of June, RAAF HQ reported that although the Namber and Kamiri airfields were serviceable, they were barely being used and "a possibly generous" estimate suggested that only 19 Japanese bombers and 37 fighters remained in New Guinea.)

Forces

MacArthur selected the 158th Regimental Combat Team, primarily units from the Arizona National Guard, United States Army—commanded by Major General Edwin D. Patrick—to assault the island in Operation Cyclone, from 2 July.[2][9][12][13]

In mid-June, No. 10 Operational Group RAAF, under Air Commodore Frederick Scherger, was designated the controlling Allied air force unit for Operation Cyclone.[14] The USAAF units attached to 10 OG for the invasion comprised: the 58th and 348th Fighter Groups and the 307th, 309th and 417th Bombardment Groups.

The 8,000-strong invasion force – composed primarily of the 158th RCT and No. 62 Works Wing RAAF[15] – was known as Cyclone Task Force. A 40-strong contingent of Dutch civil administration personnel was also included.

Facing them were approximately 2,000 Japanese troops, mostly from the 219th Infantry Regiment as well as some from the 222nd Infantry Regiment, who had been in transit to Biak. The garrison was commanded by Colonel Suesada Shimizu, also CO of the 219th Regiment.

At the beginning of July 1944, various kinds of Japanese aircraft were at the Noemfoor airfields.[16] It appears that elements of 61° Hiko Sentai ("No. 61 Air Group"/"61st Flying Regiment") in particular, flying Mitsubishi Ki-21 ("Sally") bombers, were based at Kamiri.[2][16] (However, Japanese aircraft played no significant role in the ensuing battle; see below.)

Invasion

LST-67-unloads-tanks
U.S. Army M4 Sherman tanks and other vehicles disembarking from LSTs onto Noemfoor

From 04:30 on 2 July, warships from the U.S.-Australian Task Forces 75 and 74—under Rear Admiral Russell S. Berkeybombarded Japanese positions on Noemfoor.[17] TF 74 was commanded for the first time by Commodore John Collins, making him the first graduate of the Royal Australian Naval College to command a naval squadron in action.[18]

At 08:00,[19] the 158th RCT was taken to the beach by TF 77, made up of LCMs and LCTs under R.Adm. William Fechteler.[20] The initial landings were near Kamiri airfield, on the northwest edge of the island. Although the island is surrounded by "an almost solid ring" of coral, newspapers reported "almost no loss" of troops before reaching the shore.[21]

Although there were extensive Japanese defensive preparations in the Kamiri area,[22] there was little resistance at Kamiri Airfield.[19] In the words of the U.S. Navy official history: "Japanese encountered around the airfield were so stunned from the effects of the bombardment that all the fight was taken out of them."[22][23] Kamiri was captured within hours of the landing. Reports indicated that approximately 45 Japanese soldiers were killed, and about 30 Japanese planes captured, although all of these were damaged as a result of the earlier bombardment and bombing.[21]

The following day, as a precaution against Japanese resistance elsewhere, the 2,000 paratroopers of the U.S. 503rd Parachute Regiment were dropped onto the island.[2][24]

The second base captured by US forces, Yebrurro airstrip was secured by 4 July. That same day, the first elements of No. 10 Operational Group arrived on Noemfoor.[25] There were no Japanese air attacks until the night of 4 July, when a light bomber dropped three bombs near Kamiri, without effect.[25] A few days later, four single-engined fighters dropped about 40 incendiary bombs, causing some damage to Allied materiel.

On 5 July, there was an unsuccessful counter-attack by Japanese ground forces.[2][26] That same day, a detachment of U.S. forces from Noemfoor also secured the smaller neighboring island of Manim.[26] Namber Airfield came under Allied control, without resistance, on 6 July. The island was officially declared secure on 7 July.[12] However, individual Japanese soldiers continued guerrilla activities, and it was 31 August before all fighting had ceased.[17]

Casualties

By 31 August, Cyclone Task Force had lost 66 killed or missing and 343 wounded. It had killed approximately 1,714 Japanese and taken 186 prisoners.[17]

According to the U.S. Army official history, only 403 of the original 3,000 Javanese civilian laborers were alive by 31 August.[8] About 10–15 were reported to have been killed accidentally by Allied forces. The rest had died from mistreatment before the invasion.[8]

About 300 Formosan labor troops had died before the invasion.[8] Others fought the Allies, allegedly as a result of Japanese coercion. Over 550 surrendered; more than half of these were suffering from starvation and tropical diseases.[8] Less than 20 were reported killed by Allied action.

According to the U.S. Army historian, Allied personnel found evidence that human bodies, of Japanese, Formosan and Allied personnel, had been partly eaten by starving Japanese and Formosans.[8]

Aftermath

Allied airfield repair and construction work by the RAAF and U.S. Army Engineers began on 2 July.[27]

On the afternoon of 6 July, before the formal cessation of hostilities on the ground, an RAAF P-40 fighter squadron had landed at Kamiri,[8] supporting operations on Noemfoor and becoming the first of many Allied air force units to be based there.

Namber Airfield was assessed as too rough and badly graded to be effectively used by Allied aircraft.[28] It was abandoned in favor of expansion and improvements at Kornasoren. On 25 July, a USAAF P-38 Lighting fighter group was able to land there. By 2 September, two parallel 7,000 ft (2,100 m) runways had been completed; soon afterwards, B-24 Liberator heavy bombers began operating from Kornasoren Airfield, against Japanese petroleum facilities at Balikpapan, Borneo.[28]

Allied aircraft based on Noemfoor played an important role in the battles of Sansapor and Morotai.[28]

References

  1. ^ Gill, G. Hermon (1968). "Chapter 14—The Assault Armadas Strike" (PDF). Royal Australian Navy, 1942–1945 (1st edition). Australia in the War of 1939–1945. Canberra: Australian War Memorial. p. 442. Retrieved 22 January 2008.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g "Noemfoor (Noemfoer) Island". Pacific Wreck Database. Archived from the original on 29 December 2007. Retrieved 26 December 2007.
  3. ^ a b "Last Noemfoor Air Base Seized". Chicago Daily Tribune. 8 July 1944. Retrieved 26 December 2007.
  4. ^ a b c Smith, Robert Ross (1953). "Operations on Noemfoor Island". United States Army in World War II: The War in the Pacific; The Approach to the Philippines. Chapter XVII. Washington, D.C.: United States Army Center of Military History. p. 397. Retrieved 22 January 2008.
  5. ^ Kluckhohn, Frank L. (4 July 1944). "Doughboys Land on Numfor, Swiftly Win Main Airfield". The New York Times. Retrieved 26 December 2007.
  6. ^ Smith, Robert Ross (1953). "Operations on Noemfoor Island". United States Army in World War II: The War in the Pacific; The Approach to the Philippines. Chapter XVII. Washington, D.C.: Center of Military History, United States Army. p. 400.
  7. ^ a b c "Japanese Forced into Hills in New Guinea; Try Flanking Move to Escape Aitape Trap". The New York Times. 20 July 1944. 1504769. Retrieved 26 December 2007.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Smith, Robert Ross (1953). "Operations on Noemfoor Island". United States Army in World War II: The War in the Pacific; The Approach to the Philippines. Chapter XVII. Washington, D.C.: Center of Military History, United States Army. pp. 421–2.
  9. ^ a b "American Missions Against Noemfoor Island [General References]". Pacific Wreck Database. Retrieved 26 December 2007.
  10. ^ "Bayonets Westward". Chicago Tribune. 18 September 1964. Retrieved 26 December 2007.
  11. ^ Odgers, George (1968) [1957]. "Chapter 15—To Noemfoor and Morotai" (PDF). Air War Against Japan, 1943–1945. Australia in the War of 1939–1945. Canberra: Australian War Memorial. pp. 236–7. Retrieved 31 January 2008.
  12. ^ a b Chen, Peter C. "WW2DB: New Guinea Campaign". World War II Database. Retrieved 26 December 2007.
  13. ^ "Gen. Hanford MacNider Dies; Hero of 2 World Wars Was 78". The New York Times. 18 February 1968. 1518594. Retrieved 26 December 2007.
  14. ^ Odgers, George (1968) [1957]. "Chapter 15—To Noemfoor and Morotai". Air War Against Japan, 1943–1945. Australia in the War of 1939–1945. Canberra: Australian War Memorial. p. 237.
  15. ^ Later known as No. 62 (Airfield Construction) Wing.
  16. ^ a b "Japanese Operations at Wakde Island Aerodrome". Pacific Wreck Database. Archived from the original on 21 October 2006. Retrieved 3 February 2008.
  17. ^ a b c Gill, G. Hermon (1968). "Chapter 14—The Assault Armadas Strike". Royal Australian Navy, 1942–1945 (1st edition). Australia in the War of 1939–1945. Canberra: Australian War Memorial. p. 443.
  18. ^ Gill, G. Hermon (1968). "Chapter 14—The Assault Armadas Strike". Royal Australian Navy, 1942–1945 (1st edition). Australia in the War of 1939–1945. Canberra: Australian War Memorial. p. 441.
  19. ^ a b Smith, Robert Ross (1953). "Operations on Noemfoor Island". United States Army in World War II: The War in the Pacific; The Approach to the Philippines. Chapter XVII. Washington, D.C.: Center of Military History, United States Army. p. 408.
  20. ^ Gill, G. Hermon (1968). "Chapter 14—The Assault Armadas Strike". Royal Australian Navy, 1942–1945 (1st edition). Australia in the War of 1939–1945. Canberra: Australian War Memorial. pp. 442–3.
  21. ^ a b Veysey, Arthur (4 July 1944). "MacArthur Invades New Isle Off Guinea, Takes Air Field". Chicago Daily Tribune. 6033662.
  22. ^ a b Smith, Robert Ross (1953). "Operations on Noemfoor Island". United States Army in World War II: The War in the Pacific; The Approach to the Philippines. Chapter XVII. Washington, D.C.: Center of Military History, United States Army. p. 411.
  23. ^ Morison, Samuel Eliot (2002). "New Guinea and the Marianas, March 1944 – August 1944". History of United States Naval Operations in World War II. Volume Eight. University of Illinois Press. p. 138. ISBN 978-0-252-07038-9. Retrieved 22 January 2008.
  24. ^ Smith, Robert Ross (1953). "Operations on Noemfoor Island". United States Army in World War II: The War in the Pacific; The Approach to the Philippines. Chapter XVII. Washington, D.C.: Center of Military History, United States Army. p. 412.
  25. ^ a b Odgers, George (1968) [1957]. "Chapter 15—To Noemfoor and Morotai". Air War Against Japan, 1943–1945. Australia in the War of 1939–1945. Canberra: Australian War Memorial. p. 239.
  26. ^ a b "Yanks Occupy Isle Flanking Noemfoor Japs". Chicago Daily Tribune. 7 July 1944. 6033692. Retrieved 26 December 2007.
  27. ^ Smith, Robert Ross (1953). "Operations on Noemfoor Island". United States Army in World War II: The War in the Pacific; The Approach to the Philippines. Chapter XVII. Washington, D.C.: Center of Military History, United States Army. p. 422.
  28. ^ a b c Smith, Robert Ross (1953). "Operations on Noemfoor Island". United States Army in World War II: The War in the Pacific; The Approach to the Philippines. Chapter XVII. Washington, D.C.: Center of Military History, United States Army. p. 423.
158th Infantry Regiment (United States)

The 158th Infantry Regiment ("Bushmasters") is an infantry unit of the Arizona National Guard. The regiment has served abroad in World War I, World War II and Afghanistan.

In 1967 then Governor of Arizona Jack Williams signed into law that 3 December would be "Bushmaster Day" in the State of Arizona in honor of the regiment's service.

17th Special Operations Squadron

The 17th Special Operations Squadron (17 SOS) is part of the 353d Special Operations Group at Kadena Air Base, Japan. It operates MC-130J Commando II aircraft providing special operations capability. Air crews are specially trained in day and night, low-level delivery of troops and equipment via airdrop or airland operations and flying using night vision goggles.

The squadron traces its lineage back to the 17th Observation Squadron, constituted and activated in 1942 during World War II. After being redesignated as the 17th Reconnaissance Squadron (Bombardment), the squadron flew North American B-25 Mitchells in the New Guinea campaign, the Philippines Campaign, and over Japan on armed reconnaissance missions. The 17th was inactivated after the end of the war. It was reactivated and inactivated unmanned as the 17th Liaison Squadron in the early 1950s. The 17th Special Operations Squadron was activated in 1969 to provide AC-119G Shadow gunship air support during the Vietnam War. It was inactivated in 1971 with the drawdown of United States forces in Vietnam. During the 1980s the lineages of the 17th Reconnaissance Squadron (Bombardment), 17th Liaison Squadron, and the 17th Special Operations Squadron were consolidated as the 17th Special Operations Squadron, and it was activated in 1989 at Kadena.

503rd Infantry Regiment (United States)

The 503rd Infantry Regiment, formerly the 503rd Parachute Infantry Regiment (503rd PIR) and the 503rd Airborne Infantry Regiment (503rd AIR), is an airborne infantry regiment of the United States Army. The regiment served as an independent regiment in the Pacific War during World War II; at Fort Campbell, Kentucky; in Okinawa, Japan; and in Germany. Regimental elements have been assigned to the 2nd Infantry Division, the 11th Airborne Division, the 24th Infantry Division, 25th Infantry Division, the 82nd Airborne Division, 101st Airborne Division, and the 173rd Airborne Brigade Combat Team. Regimental elements have participated in campaigns in the Vietnam War, Operation Enduring Freedom–Afghanistan, and Operation Iraqi Freedom. The regiment claims 15 Medal of Honor recipients: two from World War II, 10 from Vietnam, and three from Afghanistan. A parent regiment under the U.S. Army Regimental System. The regiment's 1st and 2nd Battalions are active, assigned to the 173rd Airborne Brigade, based at Caserma Ederle, Vicenza, Italy.

Airborne forces

Airborne forces are military units moved by aircraft and "dropped" into battle, typically by parachute, almost anywhere with little warning. Formations are limited only by the number and size of their aircraft; a huge force can appear "out of nowhere" behind enemy lines in minutes, an action known as vertical envelopment.

On the other hand, airborne forces typically lack supplies for prolonged combat; they are much better equipped for an airhead than for long-term occupation. Airborne operations are particularly sensitive to weather. Advances in helicopter technology since World War II have brought increased flexibility, and air assaults have largely replaced parachutists (and entirely gliders).

Asiatic-Pacific Theater

The Asiatic-Pacific Theater, was the theater of operations of U.S. forces during World War II in the Pacific War during 1941–45. From mid-1942 until the end of the war in 1945, there were two U.S. operational commands in the Pacific. The Pacific Ocean Areas (POA), divided into the Central Pacific Area, the North Pacific Area and the South Pacific Area, were commanded by Admiral Chester W. Nimitz, Commander-in-Chief Pacific Ocean Areas. The South West Pacific Area (SWPA) was commanded by General Douglas MacArthur, Supreme Allied Commander South West Pacific Area. During 1945, the United States added the United States Strategic Air Forces in the Pacific, commanded by General Carl A. Spaatz.

Because of the complementary roles of the United States Army and the United States Navy in conducting war in the Pacific Theater, there was no single Allied or U.S. commander (comparable to General Dwight D. Eisenhower in the European Theater of Operations). There was no actual command; rather, the Asiatic-Pacific Theater was divided into SWPA, POA, and other forces and theaters, such as the China Burma India Theater.

Frederick Scherger

Air Chief Marshal Sir Frederick Rudolph William Scherger, (18 May 1904 – 16 January 1984) was a senior commander in the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF). He served as Chief of the Air Staff, the RAAF's highest-ranking position, from 1957 until 1961, and as Chairman of the Chiefs of Staff Committee, forerunner of the role of Australia's Chief of the Defence Force, from 1961 until 1966. He was the first RAAF officer to hold the rank of air chief marshal.Born in Victoria of German origins, Scherger graduated from the Royal Military College, Duntroon, before transferring to the Air Force in 1925. He was considered one of the top aviators between the wars, serving as a fighter pilot, test pilot, and flying instructor. He held senior training posts in the late 1930s and the early years of World War II, earning the Air Force Cross in June 1940. Promoted to group captain, Scherger was acting commander of North-Western Area when Darwin suffered its first air raid in February 1942. Praised for his actions in the aftermath of the attack, he went on to lead the RAAF's major mobile strike force in the South West Pacific, No. 10 Operational Group (later the Australian First Tactical Air Force), and was awarded the Distinguished Service Order in September 1944 for his actions during the assaults on Aitape and Noemfoor in Western New Guinea.

After the war, Scherger served in senior posts, including Deputy Chief of the Air Staff, Head of the Australian Joint Services Staff in Washington, D.C., and commander of Commonwealth air forces during the Malayan Emergency. In 1957, he was promoted to air marshal and became Chief of the Air Staff (CAS), presiding over a significant modernisation of RAAF equipment. Completing his term as CAS in 1961, he was the Air Force's first appointee to the position of Chairman of the Chiefs of Staff Committee (COSC). As Chairman of COSC, Scherger became Australia's first air chief marshal in 1965, and played a leading role in the commitment of troops to the Vietnam War. Leaving the military the following year, he was appointed chairman of the Australian National Airlines Commission and, from 1968, of the Commonwealth Aircraft Corporation. Popularly known as "Scherg", he retired in 1975 and lived in Melbourne until his death in 1984 at the age of seventy-nine.

Index of World War II articles (B)

B-17 Flying Fortress

B-17, Queen of the Skies

B-24 Liberator

B-29 Superfortress

B-Reactor

Błyskawica radiostation

Błyskawica submachine gun

Børge Mathiesen

BA-10

BA-11

BA-20

BA-21

BA-27

BA-3

BA-30

BA-6

BA-64

BA-I armoured car

Babi Yar: A Document in the Form of a Novel

Babi Yar

Baldur von Schirach

Bali Holocaust Conference

Balkan ethnic conflict in the 1940s

Balkans Campaign German order of battle

Balkans Campaign

Baltic Sea Campaigns (1939-1945)

Banat (1941–1944)

Band of Brothers (TV miniseries)

Banjica concentration camp

Banka Island massacre

Bardufoss concentration camp

Barefoot Gen

Baron Blitzkrieg

Battery Lothringen

Battery Moltke

Battle at Borodino Field

Battle between HMAS Sydney and German auxiliary cruiser Kormoran

Battle for Australia

Battle for Brest

Battle for Caen

Battle for Czech Radio

Battle for Germany

Battle for Henderson Field

Battle for Kharkov

Battle for Soviet Ukraine

Battle for The Hague

Battle for Velikiye Luki (1943)

Battle of Łódź (1939)

Battle of Åndalsnes

Battle of Aachen

Battle of Alam el Halfa

Battle of Ambon

Battle of Angaur

Battle of Anzio

Battle of Arawe

Battle of Arracourt

Battle of Arras (1940)

Battle of Badung Strait

Battle of Balikpapan (1942)

Battle of Balikpapan (1945)

Battle of Bamianshan

Battle of Baoying

Battle of Barking Creek

Battle of Bataan (1945)

Battle of Bataan

Battle of Bautzen (1945)

Battle of Beiping-Tianjin

Battle of Beirut (1941)

Battle of Belgorod

Battle of Berlin (air)

Battle of Białystok-Minsk

Battle of Biak

Battle of Bir Hakeim

Battle of Blackett Strait

Battle of Bloody Gulch

Battle of Borneo (1941–42)

Battle of Borowa Góra

Battle of Brisbane

Battle of Britain (film)

Battle of Britain Aircraft

Battle of Britain Airfields

Battle of Britain II: Wings of Victory

Battle of Britain Memorial Flight

Battle of Britain Memorial, Capel-le-Ferne

Battle of Britain Monument in London

Battle of Britain RAF squadrons

Battle of Britain

Battle of Brody (1941)

Battle of Broekhuizen

Battle of Bryansk (1941)

Battle of Brześć Litewski

Battle of Budapest

Battle of Bukit Timah

Battle of Buna-Gona

Battle of Calabria

Battle of Cape Bon (1941)

Battle of Cape Esperance

Battle of Cape Gloucester

Battle of Cape Matapan

Battle of Cape Passero (1940)

Battle of Cape Spada

Battle of Cape Spartivento

Battle of Cape St. George

Battle of Carentan

Battle of Central Henan

Battle of Changde

Battle of Changsha (1939)

Battle of Changsha (1941)

Battle of Changsha (1942)

Battle of Changsha (1944)

Battle of Cherbourg

Battle of Chojnice (1939)

Battle of Christmas Island

Battle of Cisterna

Battle of Cocos

Battle of Corregidor (1945)

Battle of Corregidor

Battle of Crete

Battle of Crucifix Hill

Battle of Dachen Archipelago

Battle of Dakar

Battle of Dalushan Islands

Battle of Damascus (1941)

Battle of Damour

Battle of Dazhongji

Battle of Debrecen

Battle of Deir ez-Zor

Battle of Demyansk (1943)

Battle of Dengbu Island

Battle of Dombås

Battle of Dong-Yin

Battle of Dongshan Island

Battle of Drøbak Sound

Battle of Dražgoše

Battle of the Transdanubian Hills

Battle of Driniumor River

Battle of Dunkirk

Battle of Dutch Harbor

Battle of Edson's Ridge

Battle of El Guettar

Battle of Elsenborn Ridge

Battle of Empress Augusta Bay

Battle of Eniwetok

Battle of Flers-Courcelette

Battle of Fort Eben-Emael

Battle of France

Battle of Gabon

Battle of Gallipoli

Battle of Gazala

Battle of Gdańsk Bay

Battle of Gdynia

Battle of Gemmano

Battle of Gondar

Battle of Gratangen

Battle of Greece

Battle of Grodno (1939)

Battle of Groningen

Battle of Grudziądz

Battle of Guadalcanal order of battle

Battle of Guam (1941)

Battle of Guam (1944)

Battle of Guanzhong (1946–1947)

Battle of Guilin-Liuzhou

Battle of Halbe

Battle of Hannut

Battle of Hayes Pond

Battle of Hegra Fortress

Battle of Hel

Battle of Hill 70

Battle of Hong Kong

Battle of Honkaniemi

Battle of Houmajia

Battle of Huaiyin-Huai'an

Battle of Hurtgen Forest

Battle of Ilomantsi

Battle of Imphal

Battle of Iwo Jima

Battle of Jarosław

Battle of Java (1942)

Battle of Jezzine (1941)

Battle of Jianmenguan

Battle of Jinzhou

Battle of Jitra

Battle of Jiulianshan

Battle of Jordanów

Battle of Kępa Oksywska

Battle of Königsberg

Battle of Kałuszyn

Battle of Kaiapit

Battle of Kampar

Battle of Kampinos Forest

Battle of Kelja

Battle of Keren

Battle of Khalkhin Gol

Battle of Kissoué

Battle of Kobryń

Battle of Kock (1939)

Battle of Kohima

Battle of Kolberg (1945)

Battle of Kollaa

Battle of Kolombangara

Battle of Koromokina Lagoon

Battle of Kos

Battle of Kozara

Battle of Kranji

Battle of Krasnobród

Battle of Krasny Bor

Battle of Kufra (1941)

Battle of Kula Gulf

Battle of Kuningtou

Battle of Kunlun Pass

Battle of Kursk order of battle

Battle of Kwajalein

Battle of Lanfeng

Battle of Lanzerath ridge

Battle of Lasy Królewskie

Battle of Le Transloy

Battle of Lenino

Battle of Leros

Battle of Leyte Gulf

Battle of Leyte

Battle of Lingbi

Battle of Lone Tree Hill (1944)

Battle of Los Angeles

Battle of Luzon

Battle of Lwów (1939)

Battle of Mława

Battle of Maastricht

Battle of Madagascar

Battle of Mairy

Battle of Makassar Strait

Battle of Makin

Battle of Malaya

Battle of Manado

Battle of Manila (1945)

Battle of Manners Street

Battle of Marseille

Battle of Meiktila and Mandalay

Battle of Memel

Battle of Merdjayoun

Battle of Midtskogen

Battle of Midway

Battle of Mikołów

Battle of Milne Bay

Battle of Mindanao

Battle of Mindoro

Battle of Modlin

Battle of Moerbrugge

Battle of Mokra

Battle of Mont Sorrel

Battle of Monte Cassino

Battle of Monte Castello

Battle of Morotai

Battle of Mount Austen, the Galloping Horse, and the Sea Horse

Battle of Muar

Battle of Mura

Battle of Murowana Oszmianka

Battle of Nan'ao Island

Battle of Nanchang

Battle of Nancy (1944)

Battle of Nanking

Battle of Nanpēng Archipelago

Battle of Nanpéng Island

Battle of Nanri Island

Battle of Narva - Battle for the Narva Bridgehead (1944)

Battle of Narva - Battle of the Tannenberg Line (1944)

Battle of Narva (1944)

Battle of Neretva

Battle of New Georgia

Battle of Niangziguan

Battle of Nietjärvi

Battle of Nikolayevka

Battle of Noemfoor

Battle of North Borneo

Battle of North Cape

Battle of Northern and Eastern Henan

Battle of Northern Burma and Western Yunnan

Battle of Okinawa

Battle of Oktwin

Battle of Ormoc Bay

Battle of Ortona

Battle of Osuchy

Battle of Overloon

Battle of Pęcice

Battle of Palembang

Battle of Palmyra

Battle of Pasir Panjang

Battle of Peleliu

Battle of Petsamo (1939)

Battle of Phoenix Peak

Battle of Pindus

Battle of Pingxingguan

Battle of Piva Forks

Battle of Pokoku and Irrawaddy River operations

Battle of Poljana

Battle of Porkuni

Battle of Poznań (1945)

Battle of Prachuab Khirikhan

Battle of Prokhorovka

Battle of Przemyśl (1939)

Battle of Pszczyna

Battle of Różan

Battle of Raate road

Battle of Rabaul (1942)

Battle of Radom

Battle of Radzymin (1944)

Battle of Ramree Island

Battle of Raseiniai

Battle of Rehe

Battle of Remagen

Battle of Rennell Island

Battle of Rovaniemi

Battle of Rugao-Huangqiao

Battle of Rugao

Battle of Saipan order of battle

Battle of Saipan

Battle of Salla (1939)

Battle of San Pietro Infine

Battle of Saranda

Battle of Saumur (1940)

Battle of Savo Island

Battle of Shangcai

Battle of Shanggao

Battle of Shanghai

Battle of Shaobo

Battle of Shicun

Battle of Sidi Bou Zid

Battle of Singapore

Battle of Siping

Battle of Skerki Bank

Battle of Slater's Knoll

Battle of Slim River

Battle of South Guangxi

Battle of South Henan

Battle of South Shanxi

Battle of Stalingrad in the media

Battle of Stalingrad

Battle of Studzianki

Battle of Suixian-Zaoyang

Battle of Sunda Strait

Battle of Suomussalmi

Battle of Sutjeska

Battle of Szack

Battle of Tachiao

Battle of Taierzhuang

Battle of Taiyuan

Battle of Tali-Ihantala

Battle of Tangtou-Guocun

Battle of Tarakan (1942)

Battle of Tarakan (1945)

Battle of Taranto

Battle of Tarawa

Battle of Tashan

Battle of Tassafaronga

Battle of Tehumardi

Battle of the Admin Box

Battle of the Afsluitdijk

Battle of the Ancre Heights

Battle of the Argenta Gap

Battle of the Atlantic

Battle of the Barents Sea

Battle of the Bay of Viipuri

Battle of the Beams

Battle of the Bismarck Sea

Battle of the Border

Battle of the Bulge (1991 game)

Battle of the Bulge (film)

Battle of the Bulge order of battle

Battle of the Bulge

Battle of the Bzura

Battle of the Caribbean

Battle of the Caucasus

Battle of the Cigno Convoy

Battle of the Coral Sea

Battle of the Denmark Strait

Battle of the Duisburg Convoy

Battle of the Dukla Pass

Battle of the Eastern Solomons

Battle of the Espero Convoy

Battle of the Green Islands

Battle of the Java Sea

Battle of the Kasserine Pass

Battle of the Kerch Peninsula

Battle of the Komandorski Islands

Battle of the Kuril Islands

Battle of the Last Panzer

Battle of the Litani River

Battle of the Malacca Strait

Battle of the Mediterranean

Battle of the Netherlands

Battle of the Oder-Neisse

Battle of the Philippine Sea

Battle of the Philippines (1941–42)

Battle of the pips

Battle of the Reichswald

Battle of the River Plate

Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands

Battle of the Scheldt

Battle of the Seelow Heights

Battle of the St. Lawrence

Battle of the Tarigo Convoy

Battle of the Tenaru

Battle of the Tennis Court

Battle of the Treasury Islands

Battle of the Visayas

Battle of Thermopylae (1941)

Battle of Tianmen

Battle of Tianquan

Battle of Tienhaara

Battle of Timor

Battle of Tinian

Battle of Tokyo Bay

Battle of Tolvajärvi

Battle of Tomaszów Lubelski

Battle of Tomaszów Mazowiecki

Battle of Tornio

Battle of Toungoo

Battle of Troina

Battle of Tuchola Forest

Battle of Tulagi and Gavutu-Tanambogo

Battle of Târgul Frumos

Battle of Uman

Battle of Vella Gulf

Battle of Verrières Ridge

Battle of Vevi (1941)

Battle of Villers-Bocage

Battle of Vimy Ridge

Battle of Vinjesvingen

Battle of Voronezh (1942)

Battle of Voronezh (1943)

Battle of Vuosalmi

Battle of Węgierska Górka

Battle of Wólka Węglowa

Battle of Wake Island

Battle of Walcheren Causeway

Battle of Wanjialing

Battle of Wau

Battle of West Henan-North Hubei

Battle of West Hubei

Battle of West Hunan

Battle of West Suiyuan

Battle of West Ukraine (1944)

Battle of Westerplatte

Battle of Wilno (1939)

Battle of Wizna

Battle of Wola Cyrusowa

Battle of Wuhan

Battle of Wuhe

Battle of Wuyuan

Battle of Wytyczno

Battle of Xiangshuikou

Battle of Xinkou

Battle of Xiushui River

Battle of Xuzhou

Battle of Yenangyaung

Battle of Yijiangshan Islands

Battle of Yinji

Battle of Yiwu

Battle of Yongjiazhen

Battle of Yunnan-Burma Road

Battle of Zaoyang-Yichang

Battle of Zeeland

Battle off Horaniu

Battle off Samar

Battle on Lijevča field

Battlefield (documentary series)

Battlefield 1942: Secret Weapons Of WWII

Battlefield 1942

Battleground (film)

Battlehawks 1942

Battles and operations of the Indian National Army

Battles of Arkan

Battles of Narvik

Battles of Rzhev

Battles of the Imperial Japanese Navy

Batu Lintang camp

Bazooka

BBC History of World War II

BBC People's War

Beer Hall Putsch

Begleitkommando-SS

Behind Enemy Lines (book)

Belfast Blitz

Belgian armoured fighting vehicles of World War II

Belgian Congo in World War II

Belgian Holocaust denial law

Belgian National Movement

Belgian government in exile

Belgian Resistance

Belgium in World War II

Belorussian Front

Belsen Trial

Belsen Was a Gas

Belzec extermination camp

Benito Mussolini

Berg concentration camp

Bergen-Belsen concentration camp

Bergen-Belsen displaced persons camp

Berghof (Hitler)

Berlin (comics)

Berlin 1939-1945 Commonwealth War Graves Commission Cemetery

Berlin Air Safety Center

Berlin Embassy (book)

Berlin Declaration (1945)

Berlin: The Downfall 1945

Bernard Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein

Berthold Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg

Beyond Castle Wolfenstein

Białystok Ghetto Uprising

Białystok Ghetto

Big Stink (B-29)

Birth of the B-29

Biscari massacre

Bismarck-class battleship

Black Book (film)

Black Book (World War II)

Black Brigades

Black Fox: The Rise and Fall of Adolf Hitler

Black Friday (1945)

Black May (1943)

Black Rain (Japanese film)

Black Rain (novel)

Black Rain

Black Sea Campaigns (1941-44)

Black Sun: The Nanking Massacre

Black triangle (badge)

Blazing Angels 2: Secret Missions of WWII

Blazing Angels: Squadrons of WWII

Bleiburg repatriations

Blitzkrieg (video game)

Blitzkrieg 2

Blitzkrieg

Blockleiter

Blood and soil

Blood, toil, tears, and sweat

Bloody Sunday (1939)

Bobrek concentration camp

Bockscar

Boeing B-17 Survivors

Boeing B-29 survivors

Bomber B

Bombing of Augsburg in World War II

Bombing of Belgrade in World War II

Bombing of Berlin in World War II

Bombing of Braunschweig in World War II

Bombing of Bucharest in World War II

Bombing of Chongqing

Bombing of Cologne in World War II

Bombing of Darmstadt in World War II

Bombing of Darwin (February 1942)

Bombing of Dresden in World War II

Bombing of Dublin in World War II

Bombing of Duisburg in World War II

Bombing of Essen in World War II

Bombing of Frampol

Bombing of Frankfurt am Main in World War II

Bombing of Gelsenkirchen in World War II

Bombing of Hamburg in World War II

Bombing of Hanau in World War II

Bombing of Helsinki in World War II

Bombing of Hildesheim in World War II

Bombing of Innsbruck in World War II

Bombing of Königsberg in World War II

Bombing of Kassel in World War II

Bombing of Kobe in World War II

Bombing of Konigsberg in World War II

Bombing of Lübeck in World War II

Bombing of Mannheim in World War II

Bombing of Minsk in World War II

Bombing of Nagoya in World War II

Bombing of Naples in World War II

Bombing of Osaka in World War II

Bombing of Peenemünde in World War II

Bombing of Pforzheim in World War II

Bombing of Podgorica in World War II

Bombing of Prague in World War II

Bombing of Prague

Bombing of Rabaul (1942)

Bombing of Rabaul (November 1943)

Bombing of Romania in World War II

Bombing of Rome in World War II

Bombing of Rothenburg in World War II

Bombing of Schaffhausen in World War II

Bombing of Schwäbisch Hall in World War II

Bombing of Sofia in World War II

Bombing of Stalingrad in World War II

Bombing of Stuttgart in World War II

Bombing of Tallinn in World War II

Bombing of Tokyo in World War II

Bombing of Treviso in World War II

Bombing of Ulm in World War II

Bombing of Vienna in World War II

Bombing of Warsaw in World War II

Bombing of Wesel in World War II

Bombing of Wewak

Bombing of Wieluń

Bombing of Würzburg in World War II

Bombing of Wuppertal in World War II

Bombing of Zara in World War II

Bombings of Heilbronn in World War II

Bombings of Switzerland in World War II

Bon Voyage (1944 film)

Boogie Woogie Bugle Boy

Borneo Campaign (1945) order of battle

Borneo campaign (1945)

Bougainville campaign (1943–45)

Bowmanville POW camp

Brazzaville Conference of 1944

Bredtvet concentration camp

Breendonk

Breitenau concentration camp

Breton nationalism and World War II

Breton Social-National Workers' Movement

Bretteville-sur-Laize Canadian War Cemetery

Brigadeführer

Bristol Beaufighter

Bristol Blitz

Britannia Theatre

British 51st (Highland) Infantry Division (World War II)

British anti-invasion preparations of World War II

British Armies in World War II

British armoured fighting vehicle production during World War II

British armoured fighting vehicles of World War II

British Army Aid Group

British Army Groups in World War II

British Army Groups in WWII

British Army of the Rhine

British Brigades in World War II

British Commandos

British Commonwealth Air Training Plan

British Commonwealth Occupation Force

British Corps in World War II

British Divisions in World War II

British Expeditionary Force order of battle (1940)

British Expeditionary Force (World War II)

British Far East Command

British First Army order of battle, 20 April 1943

British First Army order of battle, 4 May 1943

British Free Corps

British Guards Division

British hardened field defences of World War II

British Home Guard

British Motor Minesweepers (BYMS)

British Ninth Army

British occupation of the Faroe Islands in World War II

British Official Armour Specification

British propaganda during World War II

British S-class submarine (1914)

British S-class submarine (1931)

British Salonika Army

British U-class submarine

British V-class submarine (1914)

British V-class submarine

British World War II destroyers

Brittany American Cemetery and Memorial

Bronze Star Medal

Brotherhood of War (novel series)

Brothers in Arms (N-Gage 2.0)

Brothers in Arms DS

Brothers in Arms: Art of War

Brothers in Arms: D-Day

Brothers in Arms: Double Time

Brothers in Arms: Earned in Blood

Brothers in Arms: Hell's Highway

Brothers in Arms: Road to Hill 30

Buchenwald concentration camp

Budapest ghetto

Budapest Offensive

Bugs & Daffy: The Wartime Cartoons

Bugs Bunny Nips the Nips

Bulgarian Air Force

Bulgarian National Socialist Party

Bulgarian resistance movement during World War II

Burma Campaign 1942-1943

Burma Campaign 1944-1945

Burma Campaign 1944

Burma Campaign

Bény-sur-Mer Canadian War Cemetery

John Augustine Collins

Vice-Admiral Sir John Augustine Collins, (7 January 1899 – 3 September 1989) was a Royal Australian Navy (RAN) officer who served in both World Wars, and who eventually rose to become a vice admiral and Chief of Naval Staff. Collins was one of the first graduates of the Royal Australian Naval College to attain flag rank. During the Second World War, he commanded the cruiser HMAS Sydney in the Mediterranean campaign. He led the Australian Naval Squadron in the Pacific theatre and was wounded in the first recorded kamikaze attack, in 1944.

Leslie Douglas Jackson

Leslie Douglas (Les) Jackson, DFC & Bar (24 February 1917 – 17 February 1980) was an Australian fighter ace of World War II, credited with five aerial victories. Born in Brisbane, he was a businessman when he joined the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) Reserve in 1937. Called up for active duty shortly after the outbreak of war in September 1939, he served with No. 23 Squadron in Australia before posting to the South West Pacific theatre with No. 21 Squadron in Singapore. In March 1942 he joined No. 75 Squadron in Port Moresby, New Guinea, flying P-40 Kittyhawks under the command of his eldest brother, John. During the ensuing Battle of Port Moresby, Les shot down four Japanese aircraft.

Jackson took over command of No. 75 Squadron after his brother was killed in action on 28 April 1942, leading it in the Battle of Milne Bay later that year. Credited with a fifth aerial victory, he became the RAAF's first ace in the New Guinea campaign, and was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross (DFC). By 1944, Jackson was wing leader of No. 78 (Fighter) Wing in Western New Guinea, gaining promotion to wing commander in September that year. Awarded a bar to his DFC in March 1945, he served as chief flying instructor at No. 8 Operational Training Unit in Australia, and saw out the war as commander of Air Defence Headquarters, Madang. After leaving the RAAF in 1946, Jackson returned to the business world, running two garages. He died in Southport, Queensland, in 1980.

List of World War II battles

This is a list of World War II battles, sorted by front location.

New Guinea campaign

The New Guinea campaign of the Pacific War lasted from January 1942 until the end of the war in August 1945. During the initial phase in early 1942, the Empire of Japan invaded the Australian-administered territories of the New Guinea Mandate (23 January) and Papua (8 March) and overran western New Guinea (beginning 29/30 March), which was a part of the Netherlands East Indies. During the second phase, lasting from late 1942 until the Japanese surrender, the Allies—consisting primarily of Australian and US forces—cleared the Japanese first from Papua, then the Mandate and finally from the Dutch colony.

The campaign resulted in a crushing defeat and heavy losses for the Empire of Japan. As in most Pacific War campaigns, disease and starvation claimed more Japanese lives than enemy action. Most Japanese troops never even came into contact with Allied forces, and were instead simply cut off and subjected to an effective blockade by the US Navy. Garrisons were effectively besieged and denied shipments of food and medical supplies, and as a result, some claim that 97% of Japanese deaths in this campaign were from non-combat causes.According to John Laffin, the campaign "was arguably the most arduous fought by any Allied troops during World War II".

No. 77 Wing RAAF

No. 77 Wing was a Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) wing of World War II. It formed part of No. 10 Operational Group (later the Australian First Tactical Air Force) at its establishment in November 1943, when it comprised three squadrons equipped with Vultee Vengeance dive bombers. No. 77 Wing commenced operations in early 1944, flying out of Nadzab, Papua New Guinea. Soon afterwards, however, the Vengeance units were withdrawn from combat and replaced with squadrons flying Douglas Bostons, Bristol Beaufighters and Bristol Beauforts. The wing saw action in the assaults on Noemfoor, Tarakan, and North Borneo, by which time it was an all-Beaufighter formation made up of Nos. 22, 30 and 31 Squadrons. It was to have taken part in the Battle of Balikpapan in June 1945, but unsuitable landing grounds meant that the Beaufighter units were withdrawn to Morotai, sitting out the remainder of the war before returning to Australia, where they disbanded, along with the wing headquarters, in 1946.

South West Pacific theatre of World War II

The South West Pacific theatre, during World War II, was a major theatre of the war between the Allies and the Axis. It included the Philippines, the Dutch East Indies (except for Sumatra), Borneo, Australia and its mandate Territory of New Guinea (including the Bismarck Archipelago) and the western part of the Solomon Islands. This area was defined by the Allied powers' South West Pacific Area (SWPA) command.

In the South West Pacific theatre, Japanese forces fought primarily against the forces of the United States and Australia. New Zealand, the Netherlands (mainly the Dutch East Indies), the Philippines, United Kingdom, and other Allied nations also contributed forces.

The South Pacific became a major theatre of the war following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941. Initially, US warplans called for a counteroffensive across the Central Pacific, but this was disrupted by the loss of battleships at Pearl Harbor. During the First South Pacific Campaign, US forces sought to establish a defensive perimeter against additional Japanese attacks. This was followed by the Second South Pacific Campaign, which began with the Battle of Guadalcanal.

Walkie-talkie

A walkie-talkie (more formally known as a handheld transceiver, or HT) is a hand-held, portable, two-way radio transceiver. Its development during the Second World War has been variously credited to Donald L. Hings, radio engineer Alfred J. Gross, and engineering teams at Motorola. First used for infantry, similar designs were created for field artillery and tank units, and after the war, walkie-talkies spread to public safety and eventually commercial and jobsite work.Typical walkie-talkies resemble a telephone handset, with a speaker built into one end and a microphone in the other (in some devices the speaker also is used as the microphone) and an antenna mounted on the top of the unit. They are held up to the face to talk. A walkie-talkie is a half-duplex communication device. Multiple walkie-talkies use a single radio channel, and only one radio on the channel can transmit at a time, although any number can listen. The transceiver is normally in receive mode; when the user wants to talk they must press a "push-to-talk" (PTT) button that turns off the receiver and turns on the transmitter.

Western New Guinea campaign

The Western New Guinea campaign was a series of actions in the New Guinea campaign of World War II. Dutch East Indies KNIL, United States and Australian forces assaulted Japanese bases and positions in the northwest coastal areas of Netherlands New Guinea and adjoining parts of the Australian Territory of New Guinea. The campaign began with Operations Reckless and Persecution, which were amphibious landings by the U.S. I Corps at Hollandia and Aitape on 22 April 1944. Fighting in western New Guinea continued until the end of the war.

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