Battle of Mohács

The Battle of Mohács (Hungarian: [ˈmohaːt͡ʃ]; Hungarian: Mohácsi csata, Turkish: Mohaç Meydan Muharebesi) was one of the most consequential battles in Central European history. It was fought on 29 August 1526 near Mohács, Kingdom of Hungary, between the forces of the Kingdom of Hungary, led by Louis II, and those of the Ottoman Empire, led by Suleiman the Magnificent. The Ottoman victory led to the partition of Hungary for several centuries between the Ottoman Empire, the Habsburg Monarchy, and the Principality of Transylvania. Further, the death of Louis II as he fled the battle marked the end of the Jagiellonian dynasty in Hungary and Bohemia, whose dynastic claims passed to the House of Habsburg. The Battle of Mohács marked the end of the Middle Ages in Hungary.

Battle of Mohács
Part of the Ottoman wars in Europe and Ottoman–Hungarian wars
1526-Suleiman the Magnificent and the Battle of Mohacs-Hunername-large

Battle of Mohács 1526, Ottoman miniature[1]
Date29 August 1526
Location
Result

Decisive Ottoman victory;

Belligerents

Fictitious Ottoman flag 2.svg Ottoman Empire

Coa Hungary Country History (14th century).svg Kingdom of Hungary
Coat of arms of Croatia 1495.svg Kingdom of Croatia
Kingdom of Bohemia Crown of Bohemia
 Holy Roman Empire
Bavaria Duchy of Bavaria
 Papal States

POL Przemysł II 1295 COA.svg Kingdom of Poland
Commanders and leaders
Fictitious Ottoman flag 2.svg Suleiman I
Fictitious Ottoman flag 2.svg Pargalı Ibrahim Pasha
Fictitious Ottoman flag 2.svg Malkoçoğlu Bali Bey
Devlet I Giray
Fictitious Ottoman flag 2.svg Gazi Hüsrev Bey
Fictitious Ottoman flag 2.svg Behram Pasha
Coa Hungary Country History (14th century).svg Louis II of Hungary 
Coa Hungary Country History (14th century).svg Pál Tomori 
Coa Hungary Country History (14th century).svg György Zápolya 
Coa Hungary Country History (14th century).svg Stephen VII Báthory
Strength
55,000–70,000 men[2][3][4]
200 guns
25,000–30,000 men[3][4]
80 guns (only 50 arrived on time)
Casualties and losses
~1,500-2,000[5][6] ~ 14,000 to 20,000+[7][8]

Background

Decline of royal power (1490–1526)

After the death of the absolutist King Matthias Corvinus in 1490, the Hungarian magnates, who did not want another heavy-handed king, procured the accession of Vladislaus II (reigned 1490–1516), King of Bohemia, because of his notorious weakness. He was known as King Dobře, or Dobrzse in Hungarian orthography (meaning "all right"), for his habit of accepting, without question, every petition and document laid before him.[9] The freshly elected King Vladislaus II donated most of the royal estates, régales and royalties to the nobility. By this method, the king tried to stabilize his new reign and preserve his popularity amongst the magnates. After the naive fiscal and land policy of the royal court, the central power began to experience severe financial difficulties, largely due to the enlargement of feudal lands at his expense. The noble estate of the parliament succeeded in reducing their tax burden by 70–80%, at the expense of the country's ability to defend itself.[10] Vladislaus became the magnates' helpless "prisoner"; he could make no decision without their consent.[11] The standing mercenary army (the Black Army) of Matthias Corvinus was dissolved by the aristocracy. The magnates also dismantled the national administration systems and bureaucracy throughout the country. The country's defenses sagged as border guards and castle garrisons went unpaid, fortresses fell into disrepair, and initiatives to increase taxes to reinforce defenses were stifled.[12] Hungary's international role declined, its political stability shaken, and social progress was deadlocked. The early appearance of Protestantism further worsened internal relations in the country.

The strongest nobles were so busy oppressing the peasants and quarreling with the gentry class in the parliament that they failed to heed the agonized calls of King Louis II against the Turks.

In 1514, the weakened and old King Vladislaus II faced a major peasant rebellion led by György Dózsa, which was ruthlessly crushed by the nobles, led by John Zápolya. After the Dózsa Rebellion, the brutal suppression of the peasants greatly aided the 1526 Turkish invasion as the Hungarians were no longer a politically united people. The resulting degradation of order paved the way for Ottoman pre-eminence.

King Louis II of Hungary married Mary of Habsburg in 1522. The Ottomans saw that alliance as a threat to their power in the Balkans and worked to break it. After Suleiman I came to power, the High Porte made the Hungarians at least one and possibly two offers of peace. It is unclear why Louis refused. It is possible that King Louis was well aware of Hungary's situation (especially after the Battle of Chaldiran and Polish-Ottoman peace from 1525) and he believed that war was a better option than peace. Even in peacetime the Ottomans raided Hungarian lands and conquered small territories (with border castles), but a final battle still offered a glimmer of hope. To such ends, in June 1526, an Ottoman expedition advanced up the Danube.

European events, and the Franco-Ottoman alliance

King Francis I of France was defeated at the Battle of Pavia on 24 February 1525 by the troops of the Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V. After several months in prison, Francis I was forced to sign the Treaty of Madrid.

In a watershed moment in European diplomacy, Francis formed a formal Franco-Ottoman alliance with Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent as an ally against Charles V. The French-Ottoman strategic, and sometimes tactical, alliance lasted for about three centuries.[13]

To relieve the Habsburg pressure on France, in 1525 Francis asked Suleiman to make war on the Holy Roman Empire, and the road from Turkey to the Holy Roman Empire led across Hungary. The request of the French king coincided well with the ambitions of Suleiman in Europe and gave him an incentive to attack Hungary in 1526, leading to the Battle of Mohács.[13]

Partition of Hungary
Kingdom of Hungary before 1526, and the 3 parts into which it was divided after the Battle of Mohács: Royal Hungary, Transylvania, and the part that was annexed by the Ottoman Empire.

Preparations

Lajos II
Louis II of Hungary, who died at the Battle of Mohács, painted by Titian

The Hungarians had long opposed Ottoman expansion in southeastern Europe, but in 1521 the Turks advanced up the Danube River and took Nándorfehérvár (present-day Belgrade, Serbia) – the strongest Hungarian fortress on the Danube – and Szabács (now Šabac, Serbia). This left most of southern Hungary indefensible.

The loss of Nandorfehervar caused great alarm in Hungary, but the huge 60,000 strong royal army – led by the king, but recruited too late and too slowly – neglected to take food along. Therefore, the army disbanded spontaneously under pressure from hunger and disease without even trying to recapture Belgrade from the newly installed Turkish garrisons. In 1523, Archbishop Pál Tomori, a valiant priest-soldier, was made Captain of Southern Hungary. The general apathy that had characterized the country forced him to lean on his own bishopric revenues when he started to repair and reinforce the second line of Hungary's border defense system. Pétervárad fell to the Turks on July 15, 1526 due to the chronic lack of castle garrisons. For about 400 km along the Danube between Pétervárad and Buda there was no single Hungarian town, village, or fortification of any sort.

Three years later, an Ottoman army set out from Istanbul on 16 April 1526, led by Suleiman the Magnificent personally. The Hungarian nobles, who still did not realize the magnitude of the approaching danger, did not immediately heed their King's call for troops. Eventually, the Hungarians assembled in three main units: the Transylvanian army under John Zápolya, charged with guarding the passes in the Transylvanian Alps, with between 8,000 and 13,000 men; the main army, led by Louis himself (beside numerous Spanish, German, Czech and Serbian mercenaries); and another smaller force, commanded by the Croatian count Christoph Frankopan, numbering around 5,000 men. The Ottomans deployed the largest field artillery of the era, comprising some 300 cannons, while the Hungarians had only 85 cannons,[14] though even this number was greater than other contemporary Western European armies deployed in the battlefields.

The geography of the area meant that the Hungarians could not know the Ottomans' ultimate goal until the latter crossed the Balkan Mountains, and when they did, the Transylvanian and Croatian forces were farther from Buda than the Ottomans were. Contemporary historical records, though sparse, indicate that Louis preferred a plan of retreat, in effect ceding the country to Ottoman advances, rather than directly engaging the Ottoman army in open battle. The Hungarian war council – without waiting for reinforcements from Croatia and Transylvania only a few days march away – made a serious tactical error by choosing the battlefield near Mohács, an open but uneven plain with some swampy marshes.

The Ottomans had advanced toward Mohács almost unopposed. While Louis waited in Buda, they had besieged several towns (Petervarad, Ujlak, and Eszek), and crossed the Sava and Drava Rivers. At Mohács the Hungarians numbered some 25,000 to 30,000 soldiers. The only external help was a small contingent of Polish troops (1,500 soldiers and knights) led by the royal captin Lenart Gnoiński (but organized and equipped by the Papal State).[15] The Ottoman army numbered perhaps 50,000,[3][4] though some contemporary and modern-day historians put the number of the Ottoman troops at 100,000.[16][17][18][19][20][21][22] Most of the Ottoman Balkan forces registered before this battle were described as Bosnians or Croats.[23]

The Hungarian army was arrayed to take advantage of the terrain and hoped to engage the Ottoman army piecemeal. They had the advantage that their troops were well-rested, while the Turks had just completed a strenuous march in scorching summer heat. But rather than attacking the fatigued enemy immediately, the Hungarians let them struggle through the marshy terrain. It would have been "unchivalrous" to attack the enemy when they were not yet ready for battle.[24]

Battle

Battle of Mohács, Turkish miniature
The battle of Mohács, on an Ottoman miniature
Tomori pál
General Pál Tomori, the captain of the army, in his golden renaissance armour (1526)
II. Lajos holttestének megtalálása (Székely Bertalan, 1860)
Discovery of the Corpse of King Louis II

Hungary built up an expensive but obsolete army, structured similarly to that of King Francis I at the Battle of Pavia and mostly reliant on old fashioned heavily armoured knights on armoured horses (gendarme knights). The Hungarian battlefront consisted of two lines. The first had a center of mercenary infantry and artillery and the majority of the cavalry on either flank. The second was a mix of levy infantry and cavalry.[25] The Ottoman army was a more modern force built around artillery and the elite, musket-armed Janissaries. The remainder consisted of feudal Timarli cavalry and conscripted levies from Rumelia and the Balkans.[26]

The length of the battle is as uncertain as the number of combatants. It started between 1:00 PM and 2:00 PM, but the endpoint is difficult to ascertain. While some historians have placed the length of the battle at two to three hours, this seems unlikely given several important factors. The Ottoman army did not retreat from the field to camp after the battle; instead, they remained on the field all night without food, water, or shelter. Since the Ottoman historians all note that it was raining, it seems likely that had the battle ended early in the afternoon, the sultan would have ordered his army to camp or at least to return to their baggage. The few reliable sources indicate that Louis left the field at twilight and made his escape under cover of darkness. Since the sun would not have set until 6:27 PM on 29 August 1526,[27] this would imply that the battle lasted significantly longer than two to three hours (perhaps as long as four or five).

As the first of Suleiman's troops, the Rumelian army, advanced onto the battlefield, they were attacked and routed by Hungarian troops led by Pál Tomori. This attack by the Hungarian right caused considerable chaos among the irregular Ottoman troops, but even as the Hungarian attack pressed forward, the Ottomans rallied with the arrival of Ottoman regulars deployed from the reserves. While the Hungarian right advanced far enough at one time to place Suleiman in danger from Hungarian bullets that struck his cuirass, the superiority of the Ottoman regulars and the timely charge of the Janissaries, the elite troops of the Ottomans, probably overwhelmed the attackers, particularly on the Hungarian left. The Hungarians took serious casualties from the skillfully handled Turkish artillery and musket volleys. The Hungarians could not hold their positions, and those who did not flee were surrounded and killed or captured. The result was a disaster, with the Hungarians advancing into withering fire and flank attacks, and falling into the same trap that John Hunyadi had so often used successfully against the Ottomans.[28] The king left the battlefield sometime around twilight but was thrown from his horse in a river at Csele and died, weighed down by his heavy armor. Some 1,000 other Hungarian nobles and leaders were also killed. It is generally accepted that more than 14,000 Hungarian soldiers were killed in the initial battle.[7][8]

Suleiman could not believe that this small, suicidal army was all that the once powerful country could muster against him, so he waited at Mohacs for a few days before moving cautiously against Buda.[29]

Jousting Sallet Made for Louis II (1506–1526), King of Hungary and Bohemia MET DP272458
Sallet of king Louis
Janissary
Janissary uniform

Aftermath

Mohacs Monument at the Battlefield 2004
Battle Monument in Mohács
Mohácsi Történelmi Emlékpark 11
Markers at the Mohacs Monument show where bodies of nobles, knights, soldiers, and horses were found

The victory did not give the Ottomans the security they wanted. Buda was left undefended; only the French and Venetian ambassadors waited for the Sultan to congratulate him on his great victory.[24] Though they entered the unguarded evacuated Buda and pillaged the castle and surroundings, they retreated soon afterwards. It was not until 1541 that the Ottomans finally captured and occupied Buda following the 1541 Siege of Buda. However, for all intents and purposes, the Battle of Mohács meant the end of the independent Kingdom of Hungary as a unified entity. Amid political chaos, the divided Hungarian nobility elected two kings simultaneously, John Zápolya in 1526 and Ferdinand of Austria in 1527. The Ottoman occupation was contested by the Habsburg Archduke of Austria, Ferdinand I, Louis's brother-in-law and successor by treaty with King Vladislaus II.

Bohemia fell to the Habsburgs, who also dominated the northern and western parts of Hungary and the remnants of the Kingdom of Croatia, while the Ottomans held central Hungary and suzerainty over semi-independent Transylvania. This provided the Hungarians with sufficient impetus to continue to resist the Ottoman occupation, which they did for another seventy years.

The Austrian branch of Habsburg monarchs needed the economic power of Hungary for the Ottoman wars. During the Ottoman wars the territory of the former Kingdom of Hungary shrunk by around 70%. Despite these territorial and demographic losses, the smaller, heavily war-torn Royal Hungary had remained economically more important than Austria or the Kingdom of Bohemia even at the end of the 16th century.[30] Of Ferdinand's territories, the depleted Kingdom of Hungary was at that time his largest source of revenue.[31]

The subsequent near constant warfare required a sustained commitment of Ottoman forces, proving a drain on resources that the largely rural and war-torn kingdom proved unable to repay. Christian armies besieged Buda several times during the 16th century, and Suleiman himself died of natural causes in Hungary during the Battle of Szigetvár in 1566. There were also two unsuccessful Ottoman sieges of Eger, which did not fall until 1596, seventy years after the Ottoman victory at Mohács. The Turks proved unable to conquer the northern and western parts of Hungary, which belonged to the Habsburg monarchs.

A book on the Turkish culture was written by Georgius Bartholomaeus with information obtained from Christian troops released by the Ottomans after the battle.[32][33][34]

Legacy

Mohács is seen by many Hungarians as the decisive downward turning point in the country's history, a national trauma that persists in the nation's folk memory. For moments of bad luck, Hungarians still say: "more was lost at Mohács" (Több is veszett Mohácsnál). Hungarians view Mohács as marking the end of an independent and powerful European nation.

Whilst Mohács was a decisive loss, it was the aftermath that truly put an end to independent Hungary. The ensuing two hundred years of near constant warfare between the two empires, Habsburg and Ottoman, turned Hungary into a perpetual battlefield. The countryside was regularly ravaged by armies moving back and forth, in turn devastating the population. Only in the 19th century would Hungary regain some degree of autonomy, with full independence coming only after the First World War; however, the Treaty of Trianon awarded much of its former land to other states (such as Romania, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia), and Hungary has never regained its former political power.

In the 464 years from 1525 to 1989, Hungary spent the vast majority of the time under the direct or indirect domination of a foreign power. These foreign powers were, successively, the Ottoman Empire (1525–1686), the Holy Roman Empire (1686–1804), the Austrian Empire (1804–1867), and the Soviet Union (1945–1989); furthermore, between 1867 and 1918 Hungary was widely considered the "junior" partner in the Austro-Hungarian Empire: autonomy was granted, but stopped well short of independence.

The battlefield, beside the village of Sátorhely, became an official national historical memorial site in 1976 on the 450th anniversary of the battle. The memorial was designed by architect György Vadász.[35] A new reception hall and exhibition building, also designed by Vadász and partially funded by the European Union, was completed in 2011.[36]

See also

  • The Ottomans: Europe's Muslim Emperors

Notes

  1. ^ Lokman (1588). "Suleiman the Magnificent and the Battle of Mohac (1526)". Hünernâme.
  2. ^ Ágoston, Gábor (2009). "Mohács, Battle of". In Ágoston, Gábor; Bruce Masters (eds.). Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire. New York: Facts on File. pp. 388–389.
  3. ^ a b c Stavrianos, Balkans Since 1453, p. 26 "The latter group prevailed, and on 29 August 1526 the fateful battle of Mohacs was fought: 25,000 to 30,000 Hungarians and assorted allies on the one side, and on the other 45,000 Turkish regulars supported by 10,000 lightly armed irregulars."
  4. ^ a b c Nicolle, David, Hungary and the fall of Eastern Europe, 1000–1568, p. 13 "Hungary mustered some 25,000 men and 85 bore cannons (only 53 being used in actual battle), while for various reasons the troops from Transylvania and Croatia failed to arrive.
  5. ^ Cathal J. Nolan, The Age of Wars of Religion, 1000–1650: An Encyclopedia of Global Warfare and Civilization, Vol. 2, (Greenwood Press, 2006), 602.
  6. ^ https://www.britannica.com/event/Battle-of-Mohacs
  7. ^ a b Turner & Corvisier & Childs, A Dictionary of Military History and the Art of War, pp. 365–366 "In 1526, at the battle of Mohács, the Hungarian army was destroyed by the Turks. King Louis II died, along with 7 bishops, 28 barons and most of his army (4,000 cavalry and 10,000 infantry)."
  8. ^ a b Minahan, One Europe, many nations: a historical dictionary of European national groups, p. 311 "A peasant uprising, crushed in 1514, was followed by defeat by the Ottoman Turks at the battle of Mohacs in 1526. King Louis II and more than 20,000 of his men perished in battle, which marked the end of Hungarian power in Central Europe."
  9. ^ "Hungary". Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 27 December 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-21.
  10. ^ Francis Fukuyama: Origins of Political Order: From Pre-Human Times to the French Revolution
  11. ^ http://www.history.com/topics/hungary/page4
  12. ^ "A Country Study: Hungary". Geography.about.com. Archived from the original on 2012-07-08. Retrieved 2010-08-29.
  13. ^ a b Merriman, p.132
  14. ^ Jeremy Black (2013). War and Technology. Indiana University Press. p. 85. ISBN 9780253009890.
  15. ^ http://www.mohacs.hu/en/info/attractions/monument/lengyel-hosi-emlekmu.html
  16. ^ Spencer Tucker Battles That Changed History: An Encyclopedia of World Conflict, page: 166 (published 2010)
  17. ^ Gábor Ágoston,Bruce Alan Masters: Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire, page: 583 (published: 2009
  18. ^ Christian P. Potholm: Winning at war: seven keys to military victory throughout history, page 117 (published in 2009)
  19. ^ William J. Duiker, Jackson J. Spielvogel: World History, Volume: I page: 419, (published: 2006)
  20. ^ Stanley Lane-Poole: Turkey, page:179 (published 2004)
  21. ^ Stephen Turnbull: The Ottoman Empire, 1326–1699, page:46
  22. ^ Battle of Mohács article Encyclopædia Britannica
  23. ^ Fine, John V. A. (5 February 2010). When Ethnicity Did Not Matter in the Balkans: A Study of Identity in Pre-Nationalist Croatia, Dalmatia, and Slavonia in the Medieval and Early-Modern Periods. University of Michigan Press. p. 215. ISBN 0-472-02560-0.
  24. ^ a b Zoltán Bodolai (1978). "9. Darkness After Noon". The Timeless Nation – The History, Literature, Music, Art and Folklore of the Hungarian Nation. Hungaria Publishing Company. Retrieved 19 November 2015.
  25. ^ "The Battle of Mohacs: The Fall of the Hungarian Empire", by Richard H. Berg, published in Against the Odds, Volume 3, Number 1, September 2004
  26. ^ Ottoman army wikipedia page
  27. ^ Cornwall, C., Horiuchi, A., and Lehman, C. Sunrise/Sunset Calculator. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Accessed August 31, 2008, using the Gregorian date of the battle, September 8, 1526. Also entered were the coordinates 45° 56′ 29″ N, 18° 38′ 50″ E and a "time zone" of 1.243 hours before Greenwich, since at the time of the battle, time zones had not been invented.
  28. ^ David Nicolle and Angus McBride: Hungary and the fall of Eastern Europe 1000–1568 PAGE: 14
  29. ^ ZOLTÁN BODOLAI: The timeless nation (Sydney, 1978)
  30. ^ Robert Evans, Peter Wilson (2012). The Holy Roman Empire, 1495–1806: A European Perspective Volume 1 van Brill's Companions to European History. BRILL. p. 263. ISBN 9789004206830.
  31. ^ Dr. István Kenyeres: The Financial Administrative Reforms and Revenues of Ferdinand I in Hungary, English summary at page 92 Link1: [1] Link2: [2]
  32. ^ Georgius Bartholomaeus (1567). De Turcarum moribus epitome. apud Ioan. Tornaesium. pp. 26–.
  33. ^ Alois Richard Nykl (1948). Gonzalo de Argote y de Molina's Discurso sobre la poesía castellana contenida en este libro (i.e. El libro de Patronio o El conde Lucanor) and Bartholomaeus Gjorgjević. J.H. Furst. p. 13.
  34. ^ N. Melek Aksulu (2005). Bartholomäus Georgievićs Türkenschrift"De Turcarum ritu et caeremomiis"(1544) und ihre beiden deutschen Übersetzungen von 1545: Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des Türkenbildes in Europa. Verlag Hans-Dieter Heinz. p. 142. ISBN 978-3-88099-422-5.
  35. ^ "Historical Memorial at Mohács". Hungarystartshere.com. Archived from the original on 2009-01-24. Retrieved 2010-08-29.
  36. ^ "Visitors' center at Mohács battlefield memorial site inaugurated – Caboodle.hu". Archived from the original on 3 September 2014. Retrieved 23 February 2012.

References

  • Stavrianos, L.S. Balkans Since 1453, C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, 2000.
  • Nicolle, David, Hungary and the fall of Eastern Europe, 1000–1568, Osprey Publishing, 1988.
  • Stephen Turnbull, The Ottoman Empire 1326–1699, Osprey Publishing, 2003.
  • Molnár, Miklós, A Concise History of Hungary, Cambridge University Press, 2001.
  • Minahan, James B. One Europe, many nations: a historical dictionary of European national groups, Greenwood Press, 2000.
  • Palffy, Geza. The Kingdom of Hungary and the Habsburg Monarchy in the Sixteenth Century (East European Monographs, distributed by Columbia University Press, 2010) 406 pages; Covers the period after the battle of Mohacs in 1526 when the Kingdom of Hungary was partitioned in three, with one segment going to the Habsburgs.
  • History Foundation, Improvement of Balkan History Textbooks Project Reports (2001) ISBN 975-7306-91-6

External links

Coordinates: 45°56′29″N 18°38′50″E / 45.94139°N 18.64722°E

Ayas Mehmed Pasha

Ayas Mehmed Pasha (1483–1539) was an Ottoman statesman and grand vizier of the Ottoman Empire from 1536 to 1539. He was an Albanian born in Himare region. His father was from city of Shkodra, in the north of Albania, and his mother was from Vlora, in the south of Albania. He was taken to Istambul under the Devşirme practice, and eventually became Agha of the Janissaries. He participated in the Battle of Chaldiran (1514), and Ottoman–Mamluk War (1516–17). During 1520–1521 he was beylerbey of Anatolia Eyalet and governor of Damascus. During the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, he served as beylerbey of Rumelia Eyalet and was made a vizier after the Ottoman conquest of Rhodes in 1522. He also participated in the Battle of Mohács, Siege of Vienna, and the war in Iraq (1534–1535).He became grand vizier in 1536 after the execution of Pargali Ibrahim Pasha and kept this position until his death in 1539. Under his administration, the Ottomans undertook the Corfu campaign (1537) and waged war against the Habsburgs in Vienna (1537–1540). Additionally, his native Vlore region was put under full Ottoman control, and the Sanjak of Delvina was created. He died of plague in Istanbul and was buried in the Eyüp Sultan Mosque.

Battle of Mohács (1687)

The Second Battle of Mohács, also known as the Battle of Harsány Mountain, was fought on 12 August 1687 between the forces of Ottoman Sultan Mehmed IV, commanded by the Grand-Vizier Sari Süleyman Paşa, and the forces of Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I, commanded by Charles of Lorraine. The result was a crushing defeat for the Ottomans.

Bibliotheca Corviniana

Bibliotheca Corviniana was one of the most renowned libraries of the Renaissance world, established by Matthias Corvinus, King of Hungary, in Buda Castle between 1458 and 1490. It was destroyed after the Hungarian defeat by the Ottomans in the Battle of Mohács in 1526.

Croats in Slovakia

The Croats (Croatian: Hrvati; Slovak: Chorváti) are an ethnic minority in Slovakia, numbering 850 people according to the 2001 census, although the relatively compact Croatian community may number as many as 3500 people. The Croatian minority has a member in the Slovak Council for Minorities.Croats mainly live in the Bratislava Region. They went there during the Ottoman wars in Croatia, with most arriving between 1530 and 1570. This emigration started after the Battle of Mohács in 1528, with most of the migrants coming from the Sisak region, Kostajnica, Čazma, Križevci, Slunj, and Slavonia.Traditionally Croat-populated villages in Slovakia are Chorvátsky Grob (Hrvatski Grob), Čunovo, Devínska Nová Ves (Devinsko Novo Selo), Rusovce (Rosvar) and Jarovce (Hrvatski Jandrof).

Croatian organisations in Slovakia include the Croatian Cultural Alliance as well as several smaller folklore groups. The writer of the first Croatian-Slovak dictionary, Ferdinand Takač is a Croat from Chorvátsky Grob.Since Slovak independence, the Croats of Slovakia have maintained good ties with other autochthonous Croatian communities in Austria, the Czech Republic and Hungary.The former President of Slovakia Ivan Gašparovič is of Croat descent.

Election in Cetin

The election in Cetin (Croatian: Cetinski sabor, meaning Parliament on Cetin or Parliament of Cetin) was an assembly of the Croatian Parliament in the Cetin Castle in 1527. It followed a succession crisis in the Kingdom of Hungary caused by the death of Louis II, and which resulted in the Kingdom of Croatia joining the Habsburg Monarchy. The charter electing the Habsburg Archduke of Austria Ferdinand I as King of Croatia was confirmed with the seals of six Croatian nobles and four representatives of the Archduke.

Hungarian campaign of 1527–1528

The Hungarian campaign of 1527–1528 was launched by Ferdinand I, Archduke of Austria and King of Hungary and Bohemia against the Ottoman Turks. Following the Battle of Mohács, the Ottomans were forced to withdraw as events elsewhere in their now massive Empire required the Sultan's attention. Seizing upon their absence, Ferdinand I attempted to enforce his claim as King of Hungary. In 1527 he drove back the Ottoman vassal John Zápolya and captured Buda, Győr, Komárom, Esztergom, and Székesfehérvár by 1528. Meanwhile, the Ottoman Sultan, Suleiman the Magnificent, took no action at this stage despite the pleas of his vassal.

István Dobó

Baron István Dobó de Ruszka (c. 1502 - Szerednye (today, Середнє (Szerednye / Serednie, Ukraine), mid-June 1572) was a Hungarian soldier, best known as the successful defender of Eger against the Ottomans in 1552. Dobó was a member of the Hungarian land-owning nobility, with holdings in northern Hungary. In the dynastic succession struggles after the Battle of Mohács in 1526, Dobó was consistently on the side of the Habsburg King Ferdinand I rather than that of John Zápolya.

János Wass

János Wass (Hungarian pronunciation: [ˈjaːnoʃ ˈvɒʃ]), or "Prince" John, (16th century) was an illegitimate son of King Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia, the ill-fated king, who died young and in mysterious circumstances at the Battle of Mohács by a liaison with his mother, Anne of Foix-Candale's former lady's maid, Angelitha Wass.

Louis II of Hungary

Louis II (Czech: Ludvík, Croatian: Ludovik, Hungarian: Lajos, Slovak: Ľudovít; 1 July 1506 – 29 August 1526) was King of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia from 1516 to 1526. He was killed during the Battle of Mohács fighting the Ottomans, whose victory led to the Ottoman annexation of Hungary. He had no legitimate issue.

Malkoçoğlu Balı Bey

Malkoçoğlu Bali Bey (1495–1555), also known as Malkoç Bey, was an Ottoman military commander and governor, serving Suleiman the Magnificent. The son of Malkoçoğlu Yaya Pasha who had served as Beylerbey of Anatolia and Rumelia and attained the rank of vizier, marrying a daughter of Bayezid II. His younger brother was Malkoçoğlu Mehmet Bey. He distinguished himself at the Battle of Mohács (1526). He then served as the governor (beylerbey) of the Budin Eyalet after 1541. Balı Bey was the commander of akıncı and gazis.He was portrayed by Cüneyt Arkın classic movie series in Malkoçoğlu and actor Burak Özçivit in the Muhteşem Yüzyıl (2011–14) series.

Petar Keglević

Petar Keglević of Bužim (died in 1554 or 1555) was the ban of Croatia and Slavonia from 1537 to 1542.He was captain from 1521 to 1522 and later ban of Jajce. In 1526, some months before the battle of Mohács, he got the jus gladii, even though he did not take part in the battle (he arrived too late). From 25 May 1533 to 9 December 1537, he was the royal commissary for Croatia and Slavonia as attorney general. From 1537 to 1542, he was the ban of Croatia and Slavonia.

The battle of Mohács was very traumatic. The history of the persons who were relevant after that - among them also Petar Keglević - is described again and again. A part of Zagreb is still named after him. He distinguished himself in battles against the Ottoman Empire and he achieved a special agreement. After the battle of Mohács, he sided with Emperor Ferdinand against János Szapolyai. Zápolya had made a Franco-Hungarian alliance. Petar Keglević made a special agreement with the Ottoman Empire. The result was a Franco-Ottoman alliance and as an unintended consequence moved Jeronimo Bassano from Venice to England (see also: Ottoman–Venetian War ). This architecture of Europe should kept for centuries.

He increased his family's holdings through purchases (Kostel and Krapina) and royal gifts (Bijela Stijena near Pakrac, Lobor, Novigrad (the permission to build novi grad, i.e. "new towns"), Zsámbék, Perbál, Tök and Fürstenfeld).After the death of Keglević's son-in-law Caspar Ernuszt, he assumed ownership of his possessions in Međimurje.

In 1542 he was sentenced as an infidel by the Diet in Pressburg, because of his special agreement with the Ottoman Empire and because of the unlawful ownership of Međimurje. Emperor Ferdinand removed him from his position as ban and confiscated his properties in 1542 (see also: Little War in Hungary (1543)). One of the sons of Petar Keglević moved to Valladolid (see: Conflicts with the Ottoman Empire) and Mehmed-paša Sokolović became Commander of the Imperial Squires and later Grand Vizier. Emperor Ferdinand imprisoned Keglević in 1546 in house arrest in one of his own houses of his own choice. In 1548 he was granted an amnesty and was returned all of his goods along with his grandfather's Bužim. In the year 1552 Emperor Ferdinand visited him as a private person and brought him news from Valladolid.

He was not involved in the dynastic fight between the Habsburgs and the Jagiellonians, although he made the business with George, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach, so that this one pulled back from Hungary and Croatia.

Petar Keglević was married to Barbara Strezsemley from Streza (today Pavlin Kloštar near Bjelovar), from family Bissenus de Streza. Streza was the uncle (brother of mother) of king Dmitar Zvonimir. Streza descended from Bissenus de genere Aba, who was a descendant of the Hungarian king Samuel Aba, a grandson of Géza, Grand Prince of the Hungarians.

He died in 1554 or 1555.

Pál Tomori

Pál Tomori (c. 1475 – 29 August 1526) was a Catholic monk and archbishop of Kalocsa, Hungary. He defeated an Ottoman army near Sremska Mitrovica (Hungarian: Szávaszentdemeter-Nagyolaszi) in 1523.Pál Tomori was elected commander-in-chief (jointly with György Szapolyai) of the Hungarian army in the battle of Mohács in 1526. He died there while trying to stop fleeing soldiers.

Radič Božić

Radič Božić (Serbian: Радич Божић ; fl. 1502 - September 1528) was the Despot of Serbia in 1527 until his death in September 1528. He ruled a territory under the Hungarian crown, and was the voivode of a large army that fought the Ottoman Empire in several battles, most notably the Battle of Mohács.

Sarı Süleyman Pasha

Sarı Süleyman Paşa (Bosnian: Sari Sulejman-paša; died 14 October 1687) was the grand vizier of the Ottoman Empire from 18 November 1685 to 18 September 1687. He was executed after the defeat of the Ottoman forces in the Battle of Mohács (1687).

In Turkish, his epithet sarı means "blond (haired)".

Siege of Belgrade (1521)

The Siege of Belgrade occurred from 25 June - 29 August 1521. Sultan Suleiman laid siege to the Hungarian fortress of Belgrade. The walls were undermined by mining and seven days of heavy bombardment. Thereafter the city was assaulted and conquered without great difficulty and with little loss of soldiers. Belgrade became an important military base for further operations in Europe and the seat of the Pashalik of Belgrade. During Ottoman rule Belgrade became one of Europe's largest cities. The conquest eventually led to the Battle of Mohács and to the conquest of a large part of the Kingdom of Hungary by the Ottomans.

Siege of Klis

The Siege of Klis or Battle of Klis (Croatian: Opsada Klisa, Bitka kod Klisa, Turkish: Klise Kuşatması) was a siege of Klis Fortress in the Kingdom of Croatia within Habsburg Monarchy. The siege of the fortress, which lasted for more than two decades, and the final battle near Klis in 1537, were fought as a part of the Ottoman–Habsburg wars between the defending Croatian–Habsburg forces under the leadership of Croatian feudal lord Petar Kružić, and the attacking Ottoman army under the leadership of the Ottoman general Murat-beg Tardić.

After decisive Ottoman victory at the Battle of Krbava Field in 1493, and especially after the Battle of Mohács in 1526, the Croats continued defending themselves against the Ottoman attacks. The Ottoman conquest during the early years of the 16th century prompted the formation of the Uskoks, which were led by Croatian captain Petar Kružić, also called (Prince of Klis). As a part of the Habsburg defensive system, Uskoks used the base at Klis as an important defensive position. They fought almost alone against the Ottomans, and for more than two decades defended the fortress against the Ottoman attacks.After the final battle, which resulted in an Ottoman victory and in Petar Kružić's death, the Klis defenders, who were lacking in water supplies, finally surrendered to the Ottomans in exchange for their freedom on 12 March 1537. Citizens fled the town, while the Uskoci retreated to the city of Senj, where they continued fighting the Ottoman army. Klis became an administrative centre or sanjak (Sanjak of Klis) of the Bosnia Eyalet, and would remain so for a century.

Siege of Vienna

The Siege of Vienna in 1529 was the first attempt by the Ottoman Empire, led by Suleiman the Magnificent, to capture the city of Vienna, Austria. The siege came in the aftermath of the 1526 Battle of Mohács, which had resulted in the death of the King of Hungary and the descent of the kingdom into civil war, with rival factions supporting the Habsburg Archduke Ferdinand I of Austria and others supporting the Ottoman backed John Zápolya. The Ottoman attack on Vienna was part of their intervention into the Hungarian conflict, intended in the short term to secure Zápolya's position. Historians disagree in their interpretation of Ottoman long-term goals and regarding what motivations lay behind the choice of Vienna in particular as the target of the campaign. The failure of the siege marked the beginning of 150 years of bitter military tension and reciprocal attacks, culminating in a second siege of Vienna in 1683.

There is speculation by some historians that Suleiman's main objective in 1529 was actually to assert Ottoman control over the whole of Hungary, the western part of which (known as Royal Hungary) was under Habsburg control. The decision to attack Vienna after such a long interval in Suleiman's European campaign is viewed as an opportunistic manoeuvre after his decisive victory in Hungary. Other scholars theorise that the suppression of Hungary simply marked the prologue to a later, premeditated invasion of Europe.

Stephen VIII Báthory

Stephen VIII Báthory (Hungarian: Báthory István, pronounced [ˈbaːtori ˈiʃtvaːn]) (1477–1534) was a Hungarian noble.

He was a son of Nicholas Báthory (1462–1500) of the Somlyó branch of the Báthory family.

He was appointed in In 1521 adjoint of the Voivode of Transylvania, and served under the Voivode John Zápolya. After the Battle of Mohács in 1526, Stephen supported Zápolya's claim to the Kingship of Hungary and in 1529 was made Voivode of Transylvania.

He fathered eight children with his wife Catherine Telegdi.

Nicholas

Catharine

Andrew (died 1563)

Sophia

Anna (? –1570), who apparently was born after her father's death, the mother of the "Blood Countess" Elizabeth Báthory.

Elizabeth (? –1562), who apparently was born well after her father's death

Christopher (1530–1581), who governed Transylvania in the absence of his younger brother Stefan.

Stephen (1533–1586), who became Voivode (and later Prince) of Transylvania and King of Poland.

The Shadow of the Vulture

"The Shadow of the Vulture" is a short story by American writer Robert E. Howard, first published in The Magic Carpet Magazine, January 1934. The story introduces the character of Red Sonya of Rogatino, who later became the inspiration for the popular character Red Sonja, archetype of the chainmail-bikini clad female warrior.

Unlike Howard's better-known fantasy work, "The Shadow of the Vulture" is historical fiction, set in the 16th century. It uses the career of Ottoman sultan Suleiman the Magnificent (also known as Sultan Suleiman I), the aftermath of the Battle of Mohács (1526) and the later Siege of Vienna of 1529 as a backdrop for imaginary characters and events.

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