The Battle of Manila (Filipino: Labanan sa Maynila, Spanish: Batalla de Manila) was fought during the Seven Years' War, from 24 September 1762 to 6 October 1762, between the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Spain in and around Manila, the capital of the Philippines, a Spanish colony at that time. The British won, leading to a twenty-month occupation of Manila.
The British Ministry approved Col. Draper's plans for invading the Philippine Isles and HMS Seahorse, under Capt. Cathcart Grant, was sent to intercept Manila bound vessels. The first portion of the invasion fleet sailed from India on 21 July, under Commodore Teddinson, followed by the remainder under Admiral Sir Samuel Cornish, 1st Baronet, and Col. Draper on 1 August. HMS Norfolk served as the admiral's flagship.
On 1 August 1762, a British fleet of eight ships of the line, three frigates, and four store ships, sailed away from Madras with a force of 6,839 regulars, sailors and marines. The commander of the expedition was Brigadier-General William Draper. He was assisted by Colonel Monson as second in command, Major Scott as adjutant-general and Captain Fletcher as brigade-major of the East India Company. The expeditionary force consisted of:
Manila was garrisoned by the Life Guard of the Governor-General of the Philippines, the 2nd Battalion of the King's regiment under Don Miguel de Valdez, Spanish marines, a corps of artillery under Lt. Gen. Don Felix de Eguilux, seconded by Brig. the Marquis de Villa Medina, a company of Pampangos, and a company of cadets.
Admiral Cornish's fleet, fourteen vessels, of which ten carried more than fifty guns, anchored in Manila Bay on 23 September. A landing was planned two miles south of the city, covered by HMS Argo, under Captain King, HMS Seahorse, under Captain Grant, and HMS Seaford under Captain Pelghin. The three-pronged landing force of 274 marines was led by Colonel Draper, center, Major More, right, and Colonel Monson, left. The next day, they were joined by 632 seamen under Captains Collins, Pitchford and Ouvry.
Fort Polverina was captured on 25 September. Further reconnaissance revealed that the fortifications of Manila were not formidable, in fact they were incomplete. "In many places the ditch had never been finished, the covered way was out of repair, the glacis was too low, some of the outworks were without cannon..."
On 30 September, a British storeship arrived with entrenching tools, but was driven ashore by a gale. She had run aground so that she screened the rear of Draper's camp from a large force of Filipinos. Her stores were landed with greater speed and safety than would have been possible had she remained afloat for the gale continued for several days and forbade the passage of boats through the surf.:44
A strong gale started on 1 October, cutting off communication with the British fleet. On the morning of 4 October, a force of 1,000 local Pampangos attacked a cantonment built by the British overnight but was beaten back with 300 Filipinos killed. After this failure, all except 1,800 of the Pamgangos abandoned the city. "The fire from the garrison now became faint, while that of the besiegers was stronger than ever, and ere long a breach became practicable." On 6 October, 60 volunteers under Lieutenant Russell advanced through the breach in the Bastion of St. Andrew. Engineers and pioneers followed, then came Colonel Monson and Major More with two divisions of the 79th, the seamen and then another division of the 79th.
"The humanity and generosity of the British commanders saved Manila from a general and justly merited pillage. A ransom of four millions of dollars only was demanded for this relaxation of the laws of war. Thus the whole archipelago of the Philippines fell with the wealthy city of Manila."
The British occupation of Manila lasted until Manila was returned to Spain according to the 1763 Treaty of Paris. News that it had been lost did not reach Spain until after the cessation of hostilities between the two powers. Oidor Don Simon Anda y Salazar had been dispatched to Bulacan in order to organize resistance. There he organized an army of 10,000 Filipinos under the command of Jose Busto.:49,58
Manila was placed under the authority of civilian Deputy Governor Dawsonne Drake, appointed by the East India Company as the leader of the Manila Council. Major Fell commanded the garrison as another member of the council:58,60
During their time in the Philippines, the British found themselves confined to Manila and Cavite in a deteriorating situation, unable to extend British control over the islands and unable to make good their promised support for an uprising led first by Diego Silang:58,87,90 and later by his wife Gabriela, which was crushed by Spanish forces.
The British expedition was rewarded after the capture of the treasure ship Filipina, carrying American silver from Acapulco, and in a battle off Cavite on October 2, 1762 the Spanish ship Santísima Trinidad which carried China goods. However, when Cornish sailed for Madras with the East Indies Squadron in early 1763, he had only collected $516,260 of the $2 million ransom. The balance consisted of bills of exchange, though Spain never did pay the Manila ransom.:76,81,122
Ama-Ron or Amaron is a character in Philippine mythology of whom little is known. His story is more common in the southern parts of Luzon, figuring mostly in folk songs. Like most male Filipino mythological heroes, he is described as an attractive, well-built man who exemplifies great strength. Ama-ron is unique, however, due to his apparent lack of an origin myth.Battle of Manila (1258)
The legendary Battle of Manila in 1258 (Filipino: Labanan sa Maynila) is recounted in oral histories of the Tagalog people, as documented by Filipino historians Mariano Henson in the 1950s and Cesar Adib Majul in the 1950s. It is notable for marking one of the earliest proposed dates for the foundation of the pre-colonial polity at Maynila.According to these legends, a Bruneian naval commander named Rajah Ahmad, established pre-colonial Maynila as a Muslim principality in 1258 after defeating its commander, a Majapahit ruler named Anuj Avirjirkaya.Battle of Manila (1500)
The Battle of Manilla (1500s) (Filipino: Labanan sa Maynila) was fought in Manila between forcess of the Kingdom of Tondo led by their Senapati, Lakan Sukwo, and the soldiers of the Sultanate of Brunei led by Sultan Bolkiah, the singing captain. The aftermath of the battle was the formation of an alliance between the newly established Kingdom of Maynila (Selurong) and the Sultanate of Brunei, to crush the power of the Kingdom of Tondo and the subsequent installation of the Pro-Islamic Rajah Sulaiman into power. Furthermore, Sultan Bolkiah's victory over Sulu and Seludong (modern day Manila), as well as his marriages to Laila Mecanai, the daughter of Sulu Sultan Amir Ul-Ombra (an uncle of Sharifa Mahandun married to Nakhoda Angging or Maharaja Anddin of Sulu), and to the daughter of Datu Kemin, widened Brunei's influence in the Philippines.Cassandra Ponti
Cassandra "Cass" Ponti (born Lejanie Palma Anigan; 1 March 1980, in Tagum City, Davao del Norte) is a Filipino actress, dancer, model, and reality TV contestant. After spending 112 days inside the house on Pinoy Big Brother, Ponti garnered 214,188 votes, 18.9% of total votes, to place third in the Big Night finale.
Ponti was an FHM model with the screen name Honey V. She's well known for her passion in cooking, Visayan accent, and her caring for others, especially inside the Pinoy Big Brother house. She was the cover model of the October 2006 issue of Maxim Philippines and the November 2008 issue of Playboy Philippines.Cassandra Ponti studied at Saint Mary's College in Tagum City, Davao del Norte and was an entertainer in Japan before she became model and actress.Daragang Magayon
Daragang Magayon (English: Beautiful Maiden) is the heroine that appears in the legend of Mt. Mayon in Albay, Philippines.Datu Daya
Datu Daya was a legendary tribal chief in Kandaya, the place that is now known as Daanbantayan, Cebu, in the Philippines. According to oral tradition, Datu Daya was the leader of the first Malayan settlers in northern Cebu. The new settlers cleared forests and in a few years were able to establish a progressive Indianized local polity. Moro pirates continually attacked the community and kidnapped women and children until a bantayan (watchtower) was constructed to defend the town. For his leadership of the community, Datu Daya was idolized.Datu Sikatuna
Datu Sikatuna (or Catunao) as the Datu (chief of the Indianized Philippine polity) in the island of Bohol in the Philippines. His real name was "Katuna" but "Si" was added to his name as this is a nominative marker for a Filipino. He made a blood compact ("Sanduguan") and alliance with the Spanish explorer Miguel López de Legazpi on March 16, 1565 near the modern town of Loay.There is a monument commemorating this pact called The Sandugo Blood Compact Site, which is located in the Bohol district of Tagbilaran City.Filipinos in India
Filipinos living in India consists of migrants from the Philippines to India. As of March 2013, there are about 3,500 Filipinos living in the country.Gat Pangil
Gat Pangil was a legendary Tagalog ruler whom legends say ruled in the area now known as Laguna Province, Philippines.Pangil plays a part in the town founding myths for the municipalities of Bay, Laguna, Pangil, Laguna, Pakil, Laguna and Mauban, Quezon, – all of which are said to have been part of his dominions.HMS Seaford
Four ships of the Royal Navy have borne the name HMS Seaford, after the coastal town of Seaford, now in East Sussex. A fifth was planned, but was not completed for the navy:
HMS Seaford (1695) was a 24-gun sixth rate purchased in 1695 and captured by the French in 1697.
HMS Seaford (1697) was a 24-gun sixth rate launched in 1697, rebuilt in 1724 and broken up in 1740.
HMS Seaford (1741) was a 24-gun sixth rate launched in 1741 and broken up by 1754.
HMS Seaford (1754) was a 20-gun sixth rate launched in 1754, participated in the Battle of Manila (1762), and sold in 1784.
HMS Seaford was to have been a Bangor-class minesweeper. She was laid down in 1941, renamed HMS Waglan later that year, and captured while under construction by the Japanese during the Fall of Hong Kong in late 1941. She was completed by them and launched as 102. Returned to the Royal Navy in 1947, she was scrapped in 1948.Irong-Irong
Irong-Irong (or Ilong-Ilong) appears in the Maragtas legend of the coming of ten Bornean datus (i.e., chieftains) to the island of Panay. The datus bartered with a local Ati chieftain for the plains and valleys of the island, offering gold in return.
One datu, Paiburong, was given the territory of Irong-Irong, which is now the province of Iloilo in the Philippines.Maharadia Lawana
The Maharadia Lawana (sometimes spelled Maharadya Lawana or Maharaja Rāvaṇa) is a Maranao epic which tells a local version of the Indian epic Ramayana. Its English translation is attributed to Filipino Indologist Juan R. Francisco, assisted by Maranao scholar Nagasura Madale, based on Francisco's ethnographic research in the Lake Lanao area in the late 1960s.It narrates the adventures of the monkey-king, Maharadia Lawana, whom the Gods have gifted with immortality.Francisco first heard the poem being sung by Maranao bards around Lake Lanao in 1968. He then sought the help of Maranao scholar Nagasura Madale, resulting in a rhyming English translation of the epic.Francisco believed that the Ramayana narrative arrived in the Philippines some time between the 17th to 19th centuries, via interactions with Javanese and Malaysian cultures which traded extensively with India.By the time it was documented in the 1960s, the character names, place names, and the precise episodes and events in Maharadia Lawana's narrative already had some notable differences from those of the Ramayana. Francisco believed that this was a sign of "indigenization", and suggested that some changes had already been introduced in Malaysia and Java even before the story was heard by the Maranao, and that upon reaching the Maranao homeland, the story was "further indigenized to suit Philippine cultural perspectives and orientations."Parul Shah
Parul Quitola Shah is an Indian-Filipino model and beauty pageant titleholder who represented her province of Pangasinan and was crowned Binibining Pilipinas Tourism 2014 at the Binibining Pilipinas 2014 pageant held on March 30, 2014 at the Smart Araneta Coliseum, Quezon City, Philippines. Parul was awarded the title with Mary Jean Lastimosa, Miss Universe Philippines 2014; Mary Anne Bianca Guidotti as Binibining Pilipinas International 2014; Yvethe Marie Santiago as Binibining Pilipinas Supranational 2014; and Kris Tiffany Janson as Binibining Pilipinas Intercontinental 2014. In 2015 she is now as Binibining Pilipinas Grand International 2015.Rajah Gambang
Rajah Gambang (Baybayin: ᜄᜋ᜔ᜊᜅ᜔) (r. 1390–1420), was a sovereign of the Indianized Kingdom of Tondo. He was the grandson of Rajah Alon and later fathered Dayang Kalangitan. He was the last ruler of an indianized Tondo, since afterwards, the Muslims from the Sultanate of Brunei invaded and set-up Seludong as a puppet state to rival Tondo.Rajah Lontok
Rajah Lontok (Baybayin: ᜎᜓᜈ᜔ᜆᜓᜃ᜔) (r. 1430–1450) was the husband and co-regent of Dayang Kalangitan of the indianized Kingdom of Tondo and Namayan. During his reign, Tondo had many achievements and became more powerful; his reign also saw the enlargement of the state's territory.Sharmaine Arnaiz
Sharmaine Arnaiz (born Sharmila Velasco Pribhdas-Shahani; November 1, 1974 in Davao City, Davao Del Sur, Philippines) is a Filipino-Indian actress.Zia Marquez
Izabella Krizia Dayot Marquez, more popularly known as Zia Marquez (born May 10, 1992), is a Filipina actress. She is currently a member of ABS-CBN's elite circle of homegrown talents collectively known as Star Magic.