Battle of Landriano

The Battle of Landriano took place on 21 June 1529, between the French army under Francis de Bourbon, Comte de St. Pol and the Imperial–Spanish army commanded by Don Antonio de Leyva, Duke of Terranova[2] in the context of the War of the League of Cognac. The French army was destroyed and marked the temporary end of the ambitions of Francis I of France to vie for control of northern Italy with Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor.[3]

Battle of Landriano
Part of the War of the League of Cognac
Date21 June 1529
Location
Landriano, Lombardy
(present-day Italy)
Result Decisive Imperial–Spanish victory[1][2]
Belligerents
 Kingdom of France
Republic of Florence Republic of Florence
Flag of the Duchy of Milan (1450).svg Duchy of Milan

Charles V Arms-personal.svg Empire of Charles V:

Commanders and leaders
Comte de St. Pol  (POW) Antonio de Leyva

Background

In 1528 the Genoese Admiral, Andrea Doria, after deserting in favour of Emperor Charles V, managed to break up the French siege of Naples; his efforts were helped by the plague, which decimated the French besiegers, among them General Odet of Foix, Viscount of Lautrec, who died on 15 August.[4] After his death, the French army was commanded by the Giovanni Ludovico of Saluzzo, who, under the circumstances ordered his troops to withdraw on 29 August, but eventually the Imperial–Spanish forces led by Philibert of Châlon, Prince of Orange, caught up with them and decimated them.[4] Shortly after the whole French army in the south of Italy capitulated.[2]

Between August 1528 and June 1529, intense diplomatic activities between King Francis I of France and Holy Roman Emperor Charles V resulted in the Treaty of Barcelona.[4]

Armoiries François Ier d'Estouteville
Coat of arms of the Count of St. Pol.

Battle

On 21 June 1529 King Francis I still had his troops stationed in Landriano, a region of Lombardy, near Pavia, scene of the decisive confrontation which resulted in a total French defeat in Italy.[2]

The Count of St. Pol's reserve French troops were intercepted and neutralised by the Spanish troops commanded by Don Antonio de Leyva, Duke of Terranova.[3] The French army was left destroyed, which ended Francis's hopes of regaining his hold on Italy.[5] The French commander, Francis de Bourbon, was also captured, leaving the Duchy of Milan under the complete control of the Emperor.[3]

Hostilities continued however, although without any French participation, with the Imperial–Spanish army led by Philibert of Châlon, Prince of Orange, against the Republic of Florence and installing Alessandro de' Medici as the ruler of Florence.[6]

Aftermath

With France's defeat in Landriano and the Treaty of Barcelona, Francis I of France felt obliged to begin negotiations with the Emperor.[2]

On 3 August, the King of France's mother, Louise of Savoy, and the Emperor's aunt, Margaret of Austria, signed the Treaty of Cambrai.[2] Francis obtained the restitution of his sons,[3] but on the condition that he had to abandon Italy,[3] persuade the Venetians and the Duke of Ferrara to restore the occupied lands to the Emperor and the Pope Clement VII,[3] not to interfere in the affairs of Italy and Germany,[3] and to cooperate in the fight against the Protestants,[3] to provide compensation of 200,000 ducats[3] and send 4 ships, 12 galleys and 4 galleons for when the Emperor planned to go to Italy for his coronation.[3]

The Treaty made no reference to the Duchy of Burgundy, evening out with this silence the humiliating situation that was put to Francis in the Treaty of Madrid.[2][3]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ M. Galandra: The Italian Wars
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Arthur Hassall p.105
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Cadenas y Vincent p.290
  4. ^ a b c Cadenas y Vincent p.289
  5. ^ Blockmans V.63
  6. ^ Guicciardini. The History of Italy p.432

References

  • Cadenas y Vicent, Vicente. España en Italia. La Herencia Imperial de Carlos V en Italia: El Milanesado (1978) Madrid.
  • Hassall, Arthur. France Mediaeval and Modern a History [1] (2009) BiblioBazaar. LLC.
  • Konstam, Angus. Pavia 1525: The Climax of the Italian Wars. Oxford: Osprey Publishing (1996) ISBN 1-85532-504-7
  • Taylor, Frederick Lewis. The Art of War in Italy (1494–1529). Greenwood Press (1973) ISBN 0-8371-5025-6
  • Guicciardini, Francesco. The History of Italy. Translated by Sydney Alexander. Princeton: Princeton University Press (1984) ISBN 0-691-00800-0
  • Blockmans, Wim. Emperor Charles V (1500–1558). Translated by Isola van den Hoven-Vardon. New York: Oxford University Press (2002) ISBN 0-340-73110-9

Coordinates: 45°19′00″N 9°16′00″E / 45.3167°N 9.2667°E

1520s

The 1520s decade ran from January 1, 1520, to December 31, 1529.

1528 in France

Events from the year 1528 in France

1529

Year 1529 (MDXXIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Francis de Bourbon, Count of St. Pol

Francis I de Bourbon, Count of St. Pol, Duke of Estouteville (6 October 1491 – 1 September 1545), was a French prince and important military commander during the Italian Wars.

Francis was the second son of Francis, Count of Vendôme and Marie de Luxembourg, Countess of Saint-Pol. As such he was a prince du sang in France. His appanage, the countship of St. Pol, came from his mother's Luxembourg inheritance.

His marriage on the 9 February 1534 with the heiress Adrienne, Dame d’Estouteville, brought him several baronies which comprised the lands of the Norman House of Estouteville; Vallemont, Varengeville, Berneval and Cleuville. These were erected for Francis into the dukedom of Estouteville by royal letters patent registered 12 September 1534 in the Parlement of Rouen, the couple's marriage contract being registered by the Parlement of Paris on 16 April 1540. In 1537 he exchanged the countship of St. Pol for that of Montfort-l'Amaury with King Francis I, but in 1544 it was returned to him to enjoy as before the war.

He was knighted by Pierre Terrail, seigneur de Bayard after the Battle of Marignano in 1515. He participated in the defence of Mézières in 1521, fought under Bonnivet and Bayard at the lost Battle of the Sesia (1524) and was made prisoner at the Battle of Pavia in 1525.

In 1527 he became governor of the Dauphiné, and was as such responsible for the French operations against Savoy and Piedmont. His army was destroyed and he was taken prisoner in the Battle of Landriano, until the Treaty of Cambrai in 1529.

He was present at the meeting between Francis I of France and Pope Clement VII in Marseille in 1533.

In 1542, he joined the Dauphin at Picardy and Luxembourg. In 1543, he was part of the French command against the English and Spanish in Picardy. In the Italian War of 1542–1546, he was charged with the conquest of Savoy. He advised against the Battle of Ceresole (1544), but was overruled by Blaise de Lasseran-Massencôme, seigneur de Montluc, who won the battle.

June 21

June 21 is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 193 days remain until the end of the year.

This day usually marks the summer solstice in the Northern Hemisphere and the winter solstice in the Southern Hemisphere, which is the day of the year with the most hours of daylight in the Northern Hemisphere and the fewest hours of daylight in the Southern Hemisphere.

Landriano

Landriano is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Pavia in the Italian region Lombardy, located about 20 kilometres (12 mi) southeast of Milan and about 15 kilometres (9 mi) northeast of Pavia.

Landriano borders the following municipalities: Bascapè, Carpiano, Siziano, Torrevecchia Pia, Vidigulfo. It is located on the left shore of the Lambro, which here forms an islet which is the site of the old town's castle.

In 1529 it was the location of the battle of Landriano between France and Spain.

List of battles involving France in the Renaissance

This is a chronological list of the battles involving France in the Renaissance.

For earlier and later conflicts, see List of battles involving France. These lists do not include the battles of the French civil wars (as the Wars of Religion, the Fronde, the War in the Vendée) unless a foreign country is involved; this list includes neither the peacekeeping operations (such as Operation Artemis, Operation Licorne) nor the humanitarian missions supported by the French Armed Forces.

The list gives the name, the date, the present-day location of the battles, the French allies and enemies, and the result of these conflicts following this legend:

French military victory

French military defeat

Indecisive or unclear outcome

List of wars involving France

The following is an incomplete list of French wars and battles from the Gauls to modern France.

List of wars involving Spain

This is a list of wars fought by the Kingdom of Spain or on Spanish territory.

Spanish Empire

The Spanish Empire (Spanish: Imperio Español; Latin: Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy (Spanish: Monarquía Hispánica) and as the Catholic Monarchy (Spanish: Monarquía Católica), was one of the largest empires in history. From the late 15th century to the early 19th, Spain controlled a huge overseas territory in the New World and the Asian archipelago of the Philippines, what they called "The Indies" (Spanish: Las Indias). It also included territories in Europe, Africa and Oceania. The Spanish Empire has been described as the first global empire in history, a description also given to the Portuguese Empire. It was the world's most powerful empire during the 16th and first half of the 17th centuries, reaching its maximum extension in the 18th century. The Spanish Empire was the first empire to be called "the empire on which the sun never sets".Castile became the dominant kingdom in Iberia because of its jurisdiction over the overseas empire in the Americas and the Philippines. The structure of empire was established under the Spanish Habsburgs (1516–1700) and under the Spanish Bourbon monarchs, the empire was brought under greater crown control and increased its revenues from the Indies. The crown's authority in The Indies was enlarged by the papal grant of powers of patronage, giving it power in the religious sphere. An important element in the formation of Spain's empire was the dynastic union between Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon, known as the Catholic Monarchs, which initiated political, religious and social cohesion but not political unification. Iberian kingdoms retained their political identities, with particular administration and juridical configurations.

Although the power of the Spanish sovereign as monarch varied from one territory to another, the monarch acted as such in a unitary manner over all the ruler's territories through a system of councils: the unity did not mean uniformity. In 1580, when Philip II of Spain succeeded to the throne of Portugal (as Philip I), he established the Council of Portugal, which oversaw Portugal and its empire and "preserv[ed] its own laws, institutions, and monetary system, and united only in sharing a common sovereign." The Iberian Union remained in place until in 1640, when Portugal overthrew Habsburg rule and reestablished independence under the House of Braganza. Under Philip II, Spain, rather than the Habsburg empire, was identified as the most powerful nation in the world, easily eclipsing France and England. Furthermore, despite attacks from other European states, Spain retained its position of dominance with apparent ease.

The Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis (1559) confirmed the inheritance of Philip II in Italy (the Mezzogiorno and the Duchy of Milan). Spain's claims to Naples and Sicily in southern Italy dated back to the Aragonese presence in the 15th century. Following the peace reached in 1559, there would be no Neapolitan revolts against Spanish rule until 1647. The Duchy of Milan formally remained part of the Holy Roman Empire but the title of Duke of Milan was given to the King of Spain. The death of the Ottoman emperor Suleiman the Magnificent in 1566 and the naval victory over the Ottoman Empire at the Battle of Lepanto in 1571 gave Spain a claim to be the greatest power not just in Europe but also in the world.

The Spanish Empire in the Americas was formed after conquering large stretches of land, beginning with Christopher Columbus in the Caribbean Islands. In the early 16th century, it conquered and incorporated the Aztec and Inca Empires, retaining indigenous elites loyal to the Spanish crown and converts to Christianity as intermediaries between their communities and royal government. After a short period of delegation of authority by the crown in the Americas, the crown asserted control over those territories and established the Council of the Indies to oversee rule there. Some scholars consider the initial period of the Spanish conquest as marking the most egregious case of genocide in the history of mankind. The death toll may have reached some 70 million indigenous people (out of 80 million) in this period. However, other scholars believe the vast majority of indigenous deaths were due to the low immunological capacity of native populations to resist exogenous diseases. Many native tribes and their cultures were entirely wiped out by the Spanish conquest and disease epidemics.The structure of governance of its overseas empire was significantly reformed in the late 18th century by the Bourbon monarchs. Although the crown attempted to keep its empire a closed economic system under Habsburg rule, Spain was unable to supply the Indies with sufficient consumer goods to meet demand, so that foreign merchants from Genoa, France, England, Germany, and The Netherlands dominated the trade, with silver from the mines of Peru, Bolivia and Mexico flowing to other parts of Europe. The merchant guild of Seville (later Cadiz) served as middlemen in the trade. The crown's trade monopoly was broken early in the seventeenth century, with the crown colluding with the merchant guild for fiscal reasons in circumventing the supposedly closed system. Spain was unable to defend the territories it claimed in the Americas, with the Dutch, the English, and the French taking Caribbean islands, using them to engage in contraband trade with the Spanish populace in the Indies. In the seventeenth century, the diversion of silver revenue to pay for European consumer goods and the rising costs of defense of its empire meant that "tangible benefits of America to Spain were dwindling...at a moment when the costs of empire were climbing sharply."The Bourbon monarchy attempted to expand the possibilities for trade within the empire, by allowing commerce between all ports in the empire, and took other measures to revive economic activity to the benefit of Spain. The Bourbons had inherited "an empire invaded by rivals, an economy shorn of manufactures, a crown deprived of revenue... [and tried to reverse the situation by] taxing colonists, tightening control, and fighting off foreigners. In the process, they gained a revenue and lost an empire." The Napoleonic invasion of the Iberian peninsula precipitated the Spanish American wars of independence (1808-1826), resulting the loss of its most valuable colonies. In its former colonies in the Americas, Spanish is the dominant language and Catholicism the main religion, enduring cultural legacies of the Spanish Empire.

Timeline of Austrian history

This is a timeline of Austrian history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Austria and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of Austria.

War of the League of Cognac

The War of the League of Cognac (1526–30) was fought between the Habsburg dominions of Charles V—primarily the Holy Roman Empire and Habsburg Spain—and the League of Cognac, an alliance including the Kingdom of France, Pope Clement VII, the Republic of Venice, the Kingdom of England, the Duchy of Milan and the Republic of Florence.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.