Battle of Kings Mountain

The Battle of Kings Mountain was a military engagement between Patriot and Loyalist militias in South Carolina during the Southern Campaign of the American Revolutionary War, resulting in a decisive victory for the Patriots. The battle took place on October 7, 1780, 9 miles (14 km) south of the present-day town of Kings Mountain, North Carolina in what is now rural Cherokee County, South Carolina, where the Patriot militia defeated the Loyalist militia commanded by British Major Patrick Ferguson of the 71st Foot. The battle has been described as "the war’s largest all-American fight".[3]

Ferguson had arrived in North Carolina in early September 1780 to recruit troops for the Loyalist militia and protect the flank of Lord Cornwallis' main force. Ferguson issued a challenge to the rebel militias to lay down their arms or suffer the consequences. In response, the Patriot militias led by Benjamin Cleveland, James Johnston, William Campbell, John Sevier, Joseph McDowell and Isaac Shelby rallied for an attack on Ferguson.

Receiving intelligence on the oncoming attack, Ferguson decided to retreat to the safety of Lord Cornwallis' army. However, the Patriots caught up with the Loyalists at Kings Mountain near the border with South Carolina. Achieving a complete surprise, the Patriot militiamen attacked and surrounded the Loyalists, inflicting heavy casualties. After an hour of battle, Ferguson was fatally shot while trying to break the rebel line, after which his men surrendered. Some Patriots gave no quarter until the rebel officers re-established control over their men; they were said to be seeking revenge for alleged killings by Banastre Tarleton's militiamen at the Battle of Waxhaws, under the slogan "Remember Tarleton's Quarter." Although victorious, the Patriots had to retreat quickly from the area for fear of Cornwallis' advance. Later they executed nine Loyalist prisoners after a short trial.

The battle was a pivotal moment in the Southern campaign. The surprising victory of the American patriot militia over the Loyalists came after a string of rebel defeats at the hands of Lord Cornwallis, and greatly raised the Patriots' morale. With Ferguson dead and his Loyalist militia destroyed, Cornwallis was forced to abandon his plan to invade North Carolina and retreated into South Carolina.

Prelude to battle

Major Patrick Ferguson was appointed Inspector of Militia on May 22, 1780. His task was to march to the old Tryon County area, raise and organize Loyalist units from the Tory population of the Carolina Backcountry, and protect the left flank of Lord Cornwallis' main body at Charlotte, North Carolina.[4][5]

Battle of Musgrove's Mill

On the morning of August 18, 1780, two hundred mounted Patriot partisans under joint command of Colonels Isaac Shelby, James Williams, and Elijah Clarke prepared to raid a Loyalist camp at Musgrove’s Mill, which controlled the local grain supply and guarded a ford of the Enoree River. The Battle of Musgrove Mill, August 19, 1780, occurred near a ford of the Enoree River, near the present-day border between Spartanburg, Laurens and Union Counties in South Carolina.[6] The Patriots anticipated surprising a garrison of about an equal number of Loyalists, but a local farmer informed them that the Tories had recently been reinforced by about a hundred Loyalist militia and two hundred provincial regulars on their way to join British Major Patrick Ferguson.[7] The whole battle took perhaps an hour and within that period, sixty-three Tories were killed, an unknown number wounded, and seventy were taken prisoner.[8] The Patriots lost only about four dead and twelve wounded.[9]

Some Whig leaders briefly considered attacking the Tory stronghold at Ninety Six, South Carolina; but they hurriedly dispersed after learning that a large Patriot army had been defeated at Camden three days previous.

Pursuit of Shelby

Shelby’s forces covered sixty miles with Ferguson in hot pursuit before making their escape.[10] In the wake of General Horatio Gates’ blundering defeat at Camden, the victory at Musgrove Mill heartened the Patriots and served as further evidence that the South Carolina backcountry could not be held by the Tories.

Shelby and his Overmountain Men crossed back over the Appalachian Mountains and retreated back into the territory of the Watauga Association at Sycamore Shoals in present day Elizabethton, Tennessee, and by the next month on September 25, 1780, Colonels Shelby, John Sevier, and Charles McDowell and their 600 Overmountain Men had combined forces with Col. William Campbell and his 400 Virginia men at the Sycamore Shoals muster in advance of the October 7, 1780, Battle of Kings Mountain north of present day Blacksburg, South Carolina in North Carolina.

On September 2, Ferguson and the militia he had already recruited marched west in pursuit of Shelby toward the Appalachian Mountain hill country on what is now the Tennessee/North Carolina border.[11] By September 10, Ferguson had established a base camp at Gilbert Town, North Carolina and, according to Shelby[12] issued a challenge to the Patriot leaders to lay down their arms or he would "lay waste to their country with fire and sword."[13]

North Carolina Patriot militia leaders Isaac Shelby and John Sevier, from the Washington District (now northeast Tennessee), met and agreed to lead their militiamen against him.[14]

Muster at Sycamore Shoals

Patriot leaders also sent word to a Virginia militia leader, William Campbell, asking him to join them at Sycamore Shoals.[14] Campbell called on Benjamin Cleveland to bring his Wilkes County, North Carolina militia to the rendezvous.[15] The detachments of Shelby, Sevier and Campbell were met by 160 North Carolina militiamen led by Charles McDowell and his brother Joseph.[15] Campbell's cousin, Arthur Campbell, brought 200 more Virginians.[16] About 1,100 volunteers from southwest Virginia and today's northeast Tennessee, known as the "Overmountain Men" because they had settled into the wilderness west of the Appalachian Mountains ridgeline, mustered at the rendezvous on September 25, 1780, at Sycamore Shoals near the modern city of Elizabethton, Tennessee. Their movement had been made possible by easing tensions with the Cherokee, thanks to diplomacy by Benjamin Cleveland's brother-in-law, Indian agent Joseph Martin.[17][18][19] The Overmountain Men crossed Roan Mountain the next day, and proceeded in a southerly direction for about thirteen days in anticipation of fighting the British Loyalist forces. By September 30, they had reached Quaker Meadows, the Burke County, North Carolina home of the McDowell brothers, where they united with Benjamin Cleveland and 350 men.[20] Now 1400 strong, the Patriots marched to South Mountain, North Carolina,[21] The five colonels leading the Patriot force (Shelby, Sevier, William Campbell, Joseph McDowell and Cleveland) chose William Campbell as the nominal commander, but they agreed that all five would act in council to command their combined army.[22]

Gathering-of-overmountain-men-branson-tn1
Gathering of Overmountain Men at Sycamore Shoals, a black and white reproduction of Lloyd Branson's 1915 depiction of the Patriot militias joining up

Meanwhile, two deserters from the Patriot militia reached Patrick Ferguson and informed him of the large body of militia advancing towards him. Waiting three days for reasons that are still unclear, Ferguson ordered a retreat to Lord Cornwallis and the British main forces in Charlotte, sending a message to Cornwallis requesting reinforcements. The request did not reach Cornwallis until one day after the battle. On October 1, Ferguson reached North Carolina's Broad River, where he issued another pugnacious public letter, calling the local militia to join him lest they be "pissed upon by a set of mongrels" (the Overmountain Men).[23]

On October 4, the Patriot militia reached Ferguson's former camp at Gilbert Town,[24] where thirty Georgia militiamen joined them, anxious for action.[25] On October 6, they reached Cowpens, South Carolina, (site of the future Battle of Cowpens), where they received word that Ferguson was east of them, heading towards Charlotte and Cornwallis. They hurried to catch him.[26] Rebel spies reported Ferguson was making camp on Kings Mountain with some 1200 men.[27] Ferguson, rather than pushing on until he reached Charlotte and safety (just a day's march away), camped at Kings Mountain and sent Cornwallis another letter asking for reinforcements.[28] Kings Mountain is one of many rocky forested hills in the upper Piedmont, near the border between North and South Carolina. It is shaped like a footprint with the highest point at the heel, a narrow instep, and a broad rounded toe. The Loyalists camped on a ridge west of Kings Pinnacle, the highest point on Kings Mountain.

Needing to hurry, the Patriot militia put 900 men on horseback and rode for Kings Mountain.[27] They left immediately, marching through the night of the 6th and morning of the 7th, even though the rain never stopped. By sunrise of the 7th, they forded the Broad River, fifteen miles from Kings Mountain.[29] By early afternoon they arrived and immediately surrounded the ridge and attacked.[30]

Battle

Kings Mountain Battle Diagram
Kings Mountain Battle layout

The battle opened about 3 p.m.,[31] when the 900 Patriots (including John Crockett, father of Davy Crockett), approached the steep base of the western ridge. They formed eight detachments of 100 to 200 men each. Ferguson was unaware that the Patriots had caught up to him and his 1,100 men. He was the only regular British soldier in the command,[32] composed entirely of Loyalist Carolina militia, except for the 100 or so red-uniformed Provincials (enlisted colonials)[33] from New York. He had not thought it necessary to fortify his camp.[34]

The Patriots caught the Loyalists by surprise. Loyalist officer Alexander Chesney later wrote he didn't know the Patriots were anywhere near them until the shooting started.[34] As the screaming Patriots charged up the hill, Captain Abraham de Peyster turned to Ferguson and said, "These things are ominous — these are the damned yelling boys!"[31] Two parties, led by Colonels John Sevier and William Campbell, assaulted the mountain's "heel"—the smallest in area, but its highest point. The other detachments, led by Colonels Shelby, Williams, Lacey, Cleveland, Hambright, Winston and McDowell, attacked the main Loyalist position, surrounding the "ball" base beside the "heel" crest of the mountain.[35]

No one in the Patriot army held command once the fighting started. Each detachment fought independently under the previously agreed to plan to surround and destroy the Loyalists.[36] The Patriots crept up the hill and fired from behind rocks and trees. Ferguson rallied his troops and launched a desperate bayonet-charge against Campbell and Sevier. Lacking bayonets, the Patriots ran down the hill and into the woods. Campbell soon rallied his troops, returned to the hill, and resumed firing. Ferguson ordered two more bayonet charges during the battle. This became the pattern of the battle; the Patriots would charge up the hill, then the Tories would charge down the hill with fixed bayonets, driving the Patriots off the slopes and into the woods. Once the charge was spent and the Tories returned to their positions, the Patriots would reform in the woods, return to the base of the hill, and charge up the hill again.[36] During one of the charges, Colonel Williams was killed, and Colonel McDowell was wounded. Firing was difficult for the Loyalists, since the Patriots constantly moved using cover and concealment to their advantage. Furthermore, the downhill angle of the hill contributed to the Loyalists overshooting their marks.[37]

After an hour of combat,[38] Loyalist casualties were heavy. Ferguson rode back and forth across the hill, blowing a silver whistle he used to signal charges. Shelby, Sevier and Campbell reached the top of the hill behind the Loyalist position and attacked Ferguson's rear. The Loyalists were driven back into their camp, where they began to surrender. Ferguson drew his sword and hacked down any small white flags that he saw popping up, but he appeared to know that the end was near. In an attempt to rally his faltering men, Ferguson shouted out "Hurrah, brave boys, the day is ours!" [sic][39] He gathered a few officers together and tried to cut through the Patriot ring, but Sevier's men fired a volley and Ferguson was shot and dragged by his horse behind the Patriot line.[40] There he was confronted by an opposing rebel officer, who demanded a surrender from the major. Ferguson shot and killed the man with his pistol in a final act of defiance, but was immediately shot dead by multiple Patriots on the spot. When the Patriots recovered his corpse, they counted seven bullet wounds.[41]

Seeing their leader fall, the Loyalists began to surrender. Some Patriots did not want to take prisoners, as they were eager to avenge the Battle of Waxhaws or 'Tarleton's Quarter,' in which Banastre Tarleton's forces killed a sizable number of Abraham Buford's Continental soldiers after the latter tried to surrender. (At Waxhaws, Tarleton's horse was shot, pinning him to the ground and leading his men to believe their commanding officer had been killed under a white flag of surrender.)[42] Also, other Patriots were seemingly unaware that the Loyalists were trying to surrender.[39]

Loyalist Captain de Peyster, in command after Ferguson was killed, sent out an emissary with a white flag, asking for quarter. For several minutes, the Patriots rejected de Peyster's white flag and continued firing, many of them shouting, "Give 'em Tarleton's Quarter!" and "Give them Buford's play!" A significant number of the surrendering Loyalists were killed or wounded including the white flag emissary.[43] When de Peyster sent out a second white flag, a few of the rebel officers, including Campbell and Sevier, ran forward and took control by ordering their men to cease fire.[44] They took about 700 Loyalist prisoners.[45]

Aftermath

SCMap-doton-Blacksburg
Map spot for Blacksburg, South Carolina

The Battle of Kings Mountain lasted 65 minutes.[46] The Loyalists suffered 290 killed, 163 wounded, and 668 taken prisoner. The Patriot militia suffered 28 killed and 60 wounded.[1] The Patriots had to move out quickly for fear that Cornwallis would advance to meet them.[47] Loyalist prisoners well enough to walk were herded to camps several miles from the battlefield. The dead were buried in shallow graves and wounded were left on the field to die. Ferguson's corpse was later reported to have been desecrated and wrapped in oxhide before burial.[48] Both victors and captives came near to starvation on the march due to a lack of supplies in the hastily organized Patriot army.[47]

On October 14, the retreating Patriot force held drumhead courts-martial of Loyalists on various charges (treason, desertion from Patriot militias, incitement of Indian rebellion). Passing through the Sunshine community in what is now Rutherford County, N.C., the retreat halted on the property of the Biggerstaff family. Aaron Biggerstaff, a Loyalist, had fought in the battle and been mortally wounded. His brother Benjamin was a Patriot and was being held as a prisoner-of-war on a British ship docked at Charleston, S.C. Their cousin John Moore was the Loyalist commander at the earlier Battle of Ramsour's Mill (modern Lincolnton, N.C.), in which many of the combatants at Kings Mountain had participated on one side or the other.

While stopped on the Biggerstaff land, the rebels convicted 36 Loyalist prisoners. Some were testified against by Patriots who had previously fought alongside them and later changed sides. Nine of the prisoners were hanged before Isaac Shelby brought an end to the proceedings.[49] His decision to halt the executions came after an impassioned plea for mercy from one of the Biggerstaff women, although accounts vary as to whether it was Martha Biggerstaff, Aaron's wife, or Mary Van Zant Biggerstaff, Benjamin's wife.[50] Many of the Patriots dispersed over the next few days, while all but 130 of the Loyalist prisoners escaped while being led in single file through woodlands. The column finally made camp at Salem, North Carolina.[51]

Kings Mountain was a pivotal moment in the history of the American Revolution. Coming after a series of disasters and humiliations in the Carolinas—the fall of Charleston and capture of the American army there, the destruction of another American army at the Battle of Camden, the Waxhaws Massacre—the surprising decisive victory at Kings Mountain was a great boost to Patriot morale. The Tories of the Carolina back country were broken as a military force.[52] Additionally, the destruction of Ferguson's command and the looming threat of Patriot militia in the mountains caused Lord Cornwallis to cancel his plans to invade North Carolina; he instead evacuated Charlotte and retreated to South Carolina.[52] He would not return to North Carolina until early 1781, when he was chasing Nathanael Greene after the Americans had dealt British forces another defeat at the Battle of Cowpens.

In The Winning of the West, Theodore Roosevelt wrote of Kings Mountain, "This brilliant victory marked the turning point of the American Revolution." Thomas Jefferson called it, "The turn of the tide of success." President Herbert Hoover at Kings Mountain said,

This is a place of inspiring memories. Here less than a thousand men, inspired by the urge of freedom, defeated a superior force entrenched in this strategic position. This small band of Patriots turned back a dangerous invasion well designed to separate and dismember the united Colonies. It was a little army and a little battle, but it was of mighty portent. History has done scant justice to its significance, which rightly should place it beside Lexington, Bunker Hill, Trenton and Yorktown.[53]

In 1931, the Congress of the United States created the Kings Mountain National Military Park at the site of the battle. The park headquarters is in Blacksburg, South Carolina, and hosts hundreds of thousands of people each year.[54]

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b c Formal Report of the Battle of King's Mountain; Oct 1780; "A Statement of the Proceedings of the Western Army; Letter to General Gates;" at Tennessee GenWeb; text: ...reprinted by the East Tennessee Historical Society, Knoxville, Tennessee, 1967, pp. 243-5, which shows 53 [instead of 55] privates wounded for total of 60 wounded; accessed January 2017
  2. ^ Dameron p.76
  3. ^ "The American revolution revisited". The Economist. 29 June 2017. Retrieved 30 June 2017.
  4. ^ Buchanan, 202
  5. ^ Dameron, 22
  6. ^ "Revolutionary War Historic Sites - Battle of Musgrove Mill - Musgrove Mill State Historic Site". www.southcarolinaparks.com. Retrieved 19 June 2017.
  7. ^ John Buchanan, The Road to Guilford Courthouse: The American Revolution in the Carolinas (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1997), 177. "Provincial regulars" were Americans who enlisted in British army units, as opposed to British regulars and Tory militia. Edgar, 153.
  8. ^ Buchanan and Edgar give the losses as 63 killed, 90 wounded, 70 taken prisoner. Buchanan, 178; Edgar, 115. The figures in the text are those from a wayside at Musgrove Mill State Historic Site.
  9. ^ Buchanan gives Patriot losses as four killed and seven wounded. Buchanan, 179.
  10. ^ Edgar, 115, Buchanan, 179: "In forty-eight hours they had completed two forced marches, had neither slept nor rested, and had fought and won against a superior force an action renowned for its ferocity."
  11. ^ Buchanan, 204
  12. ^ "Kings Mountain and Its Heroes", Lyman C. Draper, 1881. ISBN 1-57072-060-6. Reprinted Overmountain Press, 1996. Johnson City, Tennessee.
  13. ^ Buchanan, 208
  14. ^ a b Buchanan, 210–211
  15. ^ a b Buchanan, 212
  16. ^ Buchanan, 213
  17. ^ Fleenor, Lawrence J. (January 2001). "General Joseph Martin". DanielBooneTrail.com. Archived from the original on 20 September 2010. Retrieved 2010-10-05.
  18. ^ The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography. James T. White & Company. 1897. Retrieved 2010-08-05.
  19. ^ Publications of the Southern History Association, Volume 4. Southern History Association. 1900. Retrieved 2010-08-05.
  20. ^ Buchanan, 215
  21. ^ Buchanan, 217
  22. ^ Buchanan, 218
  23. ^ Buchanan, 219
  24. ^ Buchanan, 220
  25. ^ "Kings Mountain Georgia Participants". Georgia Sons of the American Revolution. Archived from the original on February 9, 2009. Retrieved October 16, 2010.
  26. ^ Buchanan, 221
  27. ^ a b Buchanan, 223
  28. ^ Buchanan, 225
  29. ^ Buchanan, 225-6
  30. ^ Buchanan, 227
  31. ^ a b Dameron, 57
  32. ^ Allen, p.89
  33. ^ Gilbert, Ed & Catherine. Cowpens 1781. p. 29. ISBN 978-1-4728-0746-5.
  34. ^ a b Buchanan, 229
  35. ^ "The Battle of King's Mountain 1780". British battles. Archived from the original on 29 October 2010. Retrieved October 16, 2010.
  36. ^ a b Buchanan, 230
  37. ^ Buchanan, 231-2
  38. ^ "The Battle of King's Mountain". Tennesseans in the Revolutionary War. TNGen Web Project. Archived from the original on 14 September 2010. Retrieved October 16, 2010.
  39. ^ a b Hibbert, 292
  40. ^ Buchanan, 232
  41. ^ Buchanan, 234
  42. ^ Fredrickson p.662
  43. ^ Wallace, 229
  44. ^ Buchanan, 233
  45. ^ Celebration of the Battle of King's Mountain, October, 1855. Miller & Melton, Yorkville Enquirer. 1855. p. 100. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
  46. ^ Dameron, 75
  47. ^ a b Buchanan, 237
  48. ^ Hibbert, 293
  49. ^ Buchanan, 238-9
  50. ^ "Gilbert Town: Its Place in North Carolina and Revolutionary War History". www.overmountainvictory.org. Retrieved 2017-06-19.
  51. ^ Buchanan, 240, 340
  52. ^ a b Buchanan, 241
  53. ^ Herbert Hoover address at Kings Mountain, Oct. 7, 1930, The American Presidency Project
  54. ^ "Kings Mountain National Military Park". National Park Service. Archived from the original on 14 October 2010. Retrieved October 16, 2010.

References

  • Allen, Thomas B. (2010). Tories: Fighting for the King in America's First Civil War. New York: Harper Collins, Inc.
  • Buchanan, John (1997). The Road To Guilford Court House: The American Revolution in the Carolinas. New York: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-32716-6.
  • Dameron, J. David (2003). Kings Mountain: The Defeat of the Loyalists, October 7, 1780. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-81194-4.
  • Hibbert, Christopher (1990). Redcoats and Rebels: The war for America 1770–1781. New York: Norton/Grafton. ISBN 0-393-02895-X.
  • Russell, C. P. (July 1940). "The American Rifle: At the Battle of Kings Mountain". The Regional Review. Richmond, Va: National Park Service, Region One. V (1): 15–21. Archived from the original on 2007-07-03.
  • Wallace, Willard (1964). Appeal to Arms: A Military History of the American Revolution. Chicago: Quadrangle.

Further reading

External links

Coordinates: 35°07′10″N 81°23′37″W / 35.11935°N 81.39359°W

Benjamin Cleveland

Benjamin Cleveland (May 28, 1738 – October 1806) was an American pioneer and soldier in the North Carolina milita. He is best remembered for his service as a colonel in the Wilkes County Regiment of the North Carolina militia during the War of Independence, and in particular for his role in the American victory at the Battle of Kings Mountain .

Daniel Mcjunkin

Daniel McJunkin (September 5, 1763 – August 27, 1841) was an American Revolutionary War patriot serving in the battle of Kings Mountain, North Carolina.

Daniel McJunkin was the second son of Samuel Caldwell McJunkin and Mary Anne Bogan. He married Jane Chesney on February 28, 1782 in South Carolina. She was born September 15, 1763 in County Antrim, Ulster Province, Ireland & died 27 Aug 1841 in Greenville County, South Carolina. He was brother of Major Joseph McJunkin.

He was a Revolutionary War Patriot, serving in the Battle of Kings Mountain, North Carolina. Prior to this battle, he was captured by the British and escaped. He was later "run through" by a British Officer's sword.

Elizabethton, Tennessee

Elizabethton is a city in, and the county seat of Carter County, Tennessee, United States. Elizabethton is the historical site of the first independent American government (known as the Watauga Association, created in 1772) located west of both the Eastern Continental Divide and the original Thirteen Colonies.

The city is also the historical site of the Transylvania Purchase (1775), a major muster site during the American Revolutionary War for both the Battle of Musgrove Mill (1780) and the Battle of Kings Mountain (1780). It was within the secessionist North Carolina "State of Franklin" territory (1784–1788).

The population of Elizabethton was enumerated at 14,008 during the 2010 census.

Frederick Hambright

Frederick Hambright (May 1, 1727 n.s.– March 9, 1817) was a military officer who fought in both the local militia and in the North Carolina Line of the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War. He is best known for his participation in the Battle of Kings Mountain in 1780. Serving as a statesman early in the Revolution, Hambright joined the War in 1777, ranked a lieutenant colonel in a local militia. His early actions were limited to occasional checks on (and some minor skirmishes with) Loyalist groups. This changed in 1780 with Hambright's important role at the Battle of Kings Mountain, which occurred near his lands in the newly formed Lincoln County, North Carolina. Hambright was commended for his bravery during the battle, though suffering a wound which forced him to permanently resign from military service.

A native of the Duchy of Bavaria, Hambright immigrated to Lancaster County, Pennsylvania in 1738. Between 1755 and 1775, he moved several times, first to Virginia, and then to various areas in North Carolina. After the War, he lived the remainder of his life near Kings Mountain.

Isaac Shelby

Isaac Shelby (December 11, 1750 – July 18, 1826) was the first and fifth Governor of Kentucky and served in the state legislatures of Virginia and North Carolina. He was also a soldier in Lord Dunmore's War, the American Revolutionary War, and the War of 1812. While governor, he led the Kentucky militia in the Battle of the Thames, an action that was rewarded with a Congressional Gold Medal. Counties in nine states, and several cities and military bases, have been named in his honor. His fondness for John Dickinson's The Liberty Song is believed to be the reason Kentucky adopted the state motto "United we stand, divided we fall".

Issac Shelby's military service began when he served as second-in-command to his father at the Battle of Point Pleasant, the only major battle of Lord Dunmore's War. He gained the reputation of an expert woodsman and surveyor and spent the early part of the Revolutionary War gathering supplies for the Continental Army. Later in the war, he and John Sevier led expeditions over the Appalachian Mountains against the British forces in North Carolina. He played a pivotal role in the British defeat at the Battle of Kings Mountain. For his service, Shelby was presented with a ceremonial sword and a pair of pistols by the North Carolina legislature, and the nickname "Old Kings Mountain" followed him the rest of his life.

Following the war, Isaac Shelby relocated to Kentucky on lands awarded to him for his military service and became involved in Kentucky's transition from a county of Virginia to a separate state. His heroism made him popular with the state's citizens, and the Kentucky electoral college unanimously elected him governor in 1792. He secured Kentucky from Indian attacks and organized its first government. He used the Citizen Genet affair to convince the Washington administration to make an agreement with the Spanish for free trade on the Mississippi River.

At the end of his gubernatorial term, Isaac Shelby retired from public life, but he was called back into politics by the impending War of 1812. Kentuckians urged Shelby to run for governor again and lead them through the anticipated conflict. He was elected easily and, at the request of General William Henry Harrison, commanded troops from Kentucky at the Battle of the Thames. After the war, he declined President James Monroe's offer to become Secretary of War. In his last act of public service, Shelby and Andrew Jackson acted as commissioners to negotiate the Jackson Purchase from the Chickasaw Indian tribe. Isaac Shelby died at his estate in Lincoln County, Kentucky on July 18, 1826.

James Williams (Revolutionary War)

James Williams (November 10, 1740 – October 7, 1780) was an American pioneer, farmer, and miller from Ninety-Six District in South Carolina. In 1775 and 1776, Williams was a member of the state's Provisional Assembly. During the War of Independence, he held a colonel's rank in the South Carolina militia. He was killed at the decisive Battle of Kings Mountain.

John Sevier

John Sevier (September 23, 1745 – September 24, 1815) was an American soldier, frontiersman, and politician, and one of the founding fathers of the State of Tennessee. He played a leading role in Tennessee's pre-statehood period, both militarily and politically, and he was elected the state's first governor in 1796. He served as a colonel of the Washington District Regiment in the Battle of Kings Mountain in 1780, and he commanded the frontier militia in dozens of battles against the Cherokee in the 1780s and 1790s.Sevier arrived on the Tennessee Valley frontier in the 1770s. In 1776, he was elected one of five magistrates of the Watauga Association and helped defend Fort Watauga against an assault by the Cherokee. At the outbreak of the War for American Independence, he was chosen as a member of the Committee of Safety for the association's successor the Washington District. Following the Battle of Kings Mountain, he led an invasion that destroyed several Chickamauga towns in northern Georgia. In the 1780s, he served as the only governor of the State of Franklin, an early attempt at statehood by the trans-Appalachian settlers. He was brigadier general of the Southwest Territory militia during the early 1790s.

Sevier served six two-year terms as Tennessee's governor from 1796 until 1801, and from 1803 to 1809, with term limits preventing a fourth consecutive term in both instances. His political career was marked by a growing rivalry with rising politician Andrew Jackson, which nearly culminated in a duel in 1803. After his last term as governor, Sevier was elected to three terms in the United States House of Representatives from Tennessee, serving from 1811 until his death in 1815.

Joseph Hardin Sr.

Joseph Hardin Sr. (April 18, 1734 – July 4, 1801) was an Assemblyman (in the Provincial Congress) for the North Carolina Colony, and was a signatory of the Tryon Resolves. Early in the War for Independence, as a member of the militia from Tryon County, Hardin fought the Cherokee allies of Britain along the western frontier. Later in the war, having taken his family over the Appalachian Mountains to the Washington District for safety against the advance of the Red Coats out of South Carolina, Hardin joined the Overmountain Men. He saw action at the Battle of Ramsour's Mill and the decisive Battle of Kings Mountain. Following the peace with Britain, Hardin was a co-founder and second Speaker of the House for the State of Franklin; and an Assemblyman in the Southwest Territory before its statehood as Tennessee.

Joseph McDowell Jr.

Joseph "Quaker Meadows" McDowell Jr. (8 March 1756 – 5 February 1801) was an American planter, soldier, and statesman from North Carolina. He was known as "Quaker Meadows Joe" to distinguish him from his cousin Joseph "Pleasant Gardens" McDowell, who was also a legislator and American Revolutionary War officer from North Carolina. The two men are not always clearly distinguished in historical records; both were in the 1780 Battle of Kings Mountain, one as a major in the Burke County Regiment of the North Carolina militia, and the other in a subordinate role as a captain.

Kings Mountain

Kings Mountain may refer to:

Battle of Kings Mountain, a battle of the American Revolutionary War

Kings Mountain, California, an unincorporated community in San Mateo County

Kings Mountain, North Carolina, a city in North Carolina

Kings Mountain National Military Park near Blacksburg, South Carolina, and 7 miles southwest of Kings Mountain, North Carolina

Kings Mountain (battlefield), one of the three mountains in the park

Kings Mountain, Kentucky, peak located in Lincoln County, Kentucky.

Kings Mountain, Oregon, a popular hiking destination in Tillamook State Forest

King's Pinnacle, a mountain in North Carolina that is three miles southeast of the city of Kings Mountain, in Crowder's Mountain State Park

Kings Mountain State Park, a state park in South Carolina that is adjacent to the National Military Park

King's Mountain, Judea - The King's Mountain, (Hebrew Har Hamalekh), was a section of the southern mountains of Judea. It was called after King Alexander Jannaeus (Yannai), one of the chief rulers of the Hasmonean dynasty.

Kings Mountain, North Carolina

Kings Mountain is a small suburban city within the Charlotte metropolitan area in Cleveland and Gaston counties, North Carolina, United States. Most of the city is in Cleveland County, with a small eastern portion in Gaston County. The population was 10,296 at the 2010 census. During the Revolutionary War, Patriot militia defeated Loyalist militia in the Battle of Kings Mountain.

Kings Mountain National Military Park

Kings Mountain National Military Park is a National Military Park near Blacksburg, South Carolina, along the North Carolina/South Carolina border. The park commemorates the Battle of Kings Mountain, a pivotal and significant victory by American Patriots over American Loyalists during the Southern Campaign of the Revolutionary War. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1996. Thomas Jefferson considered the battle "The turn of the tide of success."

Olde English District

The Olde English District is one of eleven tourism districts of South Carolina encompassing Chester, Chesterfield, Fairfield, Kershaw, Lancaster, and York counties as well as the cities and towns of Camden, Chester, Chesterfield, Clover, Kershaw, Lancaster, Pageland, Rock Hill, Winnsboro, and York.

The district is not a historical one. It was created in 1976 by the state legislature in order to create and improve tourism, recreation and development in the included counties. Its name came about due to the region being settled by the English in the 1770s. The area was the site of a number of Revolutionary War battles including the Battle of Kings Mountain.

Overmountain Men

The Overmountain Men were American frontiersmen from west of the Appalachian Mountains who took part in the American Revolutionary War. While they were present at multiple engagements in the war's southern campaign, they are best known for their role in the American victory at the Battle of Kings Mountain in 1780. The term "overmountain" arose because their settlements were west of, or "over", the Appalachians, which was the primary geographical boundary dividing the 13 American colonies from the western frontier. The Overmountain Men hailed from parts of Virginia, North Carolina, and what is now Tennessee and Kentucky.The efforts of the Overmountain Men helped to solidify the existence of the fragile settlements in the Watauga, Nolichucky, and Holston river valleys, the legitimacy of which had been questioned by the British Crown for several years. Many Overmountain Men, including John Sevier, John Rhea, and Isaac Shelby, went on to play prominent roles in the establishment of the states of Tennessee and Kentucky. The foothold they gained on the frontier helped open the door to mass westward migration in ensuing decades.

Overmountain Victory National Historic Trail

The Overmountain Victory National Historic Trail (OVHT) is part of the U.S. National Trails System. It recognizes the Revolutionary War Overmountain Men, Patriots from what is now East Tennessee who crossed the Great Smoky Mountains and then fought in the Battle of Kings Mountain in South Carolina.

Patrick Ferguson

Patrick Ferguson (1744 – 7 October 1780) was a Scottish officer in the British Army, an early advocate of light infantry and the designer of the Ferguson rifle. He is best known for his service in the 1780 military campaign of Charles Cornwallis during the American Revolutionary War in the Carolinas, in which he aggressively recruited Loyalists and harshly treated Patriot sympathizers. Some dispute this characterization of Ferguson as showing pro-Patriot bias, however, and other accounts praise him for his humanity and unwillingness to follow orders he considered barbaric.

Ultimately, his activities led to a Patriot militia uprising against him, and he was killed in the Battle of Kings Mountain, at the border between the colonies of North and South Carolina. Leading a group of Loyalists whom he had recruited, he was the only regular army officer participating on either side of the conflict. The victorious Patriot forces desecrated his body in the aftermath of the battle.

Samuel Wear

Samuel Wear (1753–Apr. 3, 1817) was an American War of Independence soldier who fought at the Battle of Kings Mountain. He was one of the founders of the "Lost State of Franklin", and a drafter of the Constitution of the State of Tennessee.

Sycamore Shoals

The Sycamore Shoals of the Watauga River, usually shortened to Sycamore Shoals, is a rocky stretch of river rapids along the Watauga River in Elizabethton, Tennessee. Archeological excavations have found Native Americans lived near the shoals since prehistoric times, and Cherokees gathered there. As Europeans began settling the Trans-Appalachian frontier, the shoals proved strategic militarily, as well as shaped the economies of Tennessee and Kentucky. Today, the shoals are protected as a National Historic Landmark and are maintained as part of Sycamore Shoals State Historic Park.Explorer James Robertson (later a founder of Nashville) identified the alluring flatlands at Sycamore Shoals, known as the Watauga Old Fields, in 1770, and led a group of colonists to the area shortly thereafter. In 1772, the Watauga settlers established the Watauga Association, one of the first constitutional governments west of the Appalachian Mountains and the "germ-cell" of what would later become the state of Tennessee.In 1775, Richard Henderson and Daniel Boone negotiated the Treaty of Sycamore Shoals, in which Henderson's Transylvania Company purchased a large part of modern Kentucky and part of Tennessee from the Cherokee. The following year, the Watauga settlers successfully thwarted one arm of a Cherokee invasion at Fort Watauga in a struggle that saw the creation of numerous legends surrounding figures such as Nancy Ward and John Sevier. In 1780, at the height of the American Revolutionary War, the frontier militia known as the Overmountain Men mustered at Sycamore Shoals as it prepared to march across the mountains en route to victory over British loyalists at the Battle of Kings Mountain.

William Campbell (general)

William Campbell (born 1745 and died on August 22, 1781) was a Virginia farmer, pioneer, and soldier. One of the thirteen signers of the earliest statement of armed resistance to the British Crown in the Thirteen Colonies, the Fincastle Resolutions, Campbell represented Hanover County in the Virginia House of Delegates. A militia leader during the American Revolutionary War, he was known to Loyalists as the "bloody tyrant of Washington County", but to the Patriots he was known for his leadership at the Battle of Kings Mountain and the Battle of Guilford Courthouse.

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