Battle of Khaybar

The Battle of Khaybar was fought in the year 628 between Muslims and the Jews living in the oasis of Khaybar, located 150 kilometers (93 mi) from Medina in the north-western part of the Arabian peninsula, in modern-day Saudi Arabia. According to Hagai Mazuz, “The Jewish community of northern Arabia was one of the largest ancient Jewish communities in the history of the Jewish people.” [4] For almost a thousand years Jews lived in the oases of Teyma, Khaybar, and Yathrib (later known as Medina), in the northern Arabian Peninsula. According to Muslim sources, the Muslim soldiers attacked the native Jews who had barricaded themselves in forts.[5]

Two ahadith of Bukhari state that the major purpose for raiding Khaybar was to procure food: Narrated 'Aisha: When Khaibar was conquered, we said, "Now we will eat our fill of dates!" (Sahih Bukhari Volume 5, Book 59, Number 547); Narrated Ibn Umar: We did not eat our fill except after we had conquered Khaibar. (Sahih Bukhari Volume 5, Book 59, Number 548). Other reasons are given as well. Muslim sources accuse Jews living in Khaybar of a plan to unite with other Jews from Banu Wadi Qurra, Taima', Fadak as well as Ghafataan Arab tribe to attack Madinah.[6] Scottish historian William Montgomery Watt notes the presence in Khaybar of the Banu Nadir, who were working with neighboring Arab tribes to protect themselves from the Islamic community in Medina who had earlier sent into exile the Jewish tribes for violating the terms of the Charter of Medina and for conspiring to kill Muhammad.[7][8][9] Italian orientalist Laura Veccia Vaglieri claims other motives might have included the prestige the engagement would confer upon Muhammad among his followers, as well the booty which could be used to supplement future campaigns.[10][11]

The Jews of Khaybar finally surrendered after seeing no way out and were allowed to live in the oasis on the condition that they would give one-half of their produce to the Muslims. Jews continued to live in the oasis for several more years until they were expelled by caliph Umar. The imposition of tribute upon the conquered Jews served as a precedent for provisions in the Islamic law requiring the exaction of tribute known as jizya from Dīn under Muslim rule, and confiscation of land belonging to non-Muslims into the collective property of the Muslim community.[10][12][13]

Battle of Khaybar
Part of Campaigns of Muhammad
Hazrat Ali slays Marhab

The Battle of Khaybar painting
DateMay/June 628 (7 Hijri)
Result Muslim victory
Muslim Forces Jews of Khaybar Oasis
Commanders and leaders
Ali ibn Abi Talib
al-Harith ibn Abu Zaynab [1]
Marhab ibn Abu Zaynab [1]
1,600 Khaybar: 10,000[2]
Banu Ghatafan: 4,000[2]
Casualties and losses
Fewer than 20 killed[3]
50 wounded
93 killed


Khaybar in the 7th century

In the 7th century, Khaybar was inhabited by Jews. The inhabitants had stored in a redoubt at Khaybar a siege-engine, swords, lances, shields and other weaponry. In the past some scholars attempted to explain the presence of the weapons, suggesting that they were used for settling quarrels among the families of the community. Vaglieri suggests that it is more logical to assume that the weapons were stored in a depôt for future sale. Similarly the Jews kept 20 bales of cloth and 500 cloaks for sale, and other luxury goods. These commercial activities as a cause of hostility, Vaglieri argues, are similar to the economic causes behind persecutions in many other countries throughout history.[10]

The oasis was divided into three regions: al-Natat, al-Shikk, and al-Katiba, probably separated by natural divisions, such as the desert, lava drifts, and swamps. Each of these regions contained several fortresses or redoubts including homes, storehouses and stables. Each fortress was occupied by a separate family and surrounded by cultivated fields and palm-groves. In order to improve their defensive capabilities, the fortresses were raised up on hills or basalt rocks.[10]

Banu Nadir

After they were sent into exile in 625 from Medina by Muslim forces, the Banu Nadir had settled in Khaybar. In 627, the Nadir chief Huyayy ibn Akhtab together with his son joined the Meccans and Bedouins besieging Medina during the Battle of the Trench.[14] In addition, the Nadir paid Arabian tribes to go to war against the Muslims. Bribing Banu Ghatafan with half of their harvest, Banu Nadir secured 2,000 men and 300 horsemen from the tribe to attack Muhammad,[15][16] and similarly persuaded the Bani Asad.[17] They attempted to get the Banu Sulaym attack the Muslims, but the tribe gave them only 700 men, since some of its leaders were sympathetic towards Islam. The Bani Amir refused to join them all together, as they had a pact with Muhammad.[18] Once the battle started, Huyayy ibn Akhtab persuaded the Banu Qurayza to go against their covenant with Muhammad and turn against him during the battle.[19] After the defeat of the confederates in the battle, and Qurayza's subsequent surrender, Huyayy (who was at that time in the Qurayza strongholds of Medina) was killed alongside the men of the Qurayza. After Huyayy's death, Abu al-Rafi ibn Abi al-Huqayq took charge of the Banu Nadir at Khaybar. Al-Huqayq soon approached neighboring tribes to raise an army against Muhammad.[20][21] After learning this, the Muslims, aided by an Arab with a Jewish dialect, assassinated him.[22]

Al-Huqayq was succeeded by Usayr ibn Zarim. It has been recorded by one source[23] that Usayr also approached the Ghatafan and rumors spread that he intended to attack the "capital of Muhammad". The latter sent Abdullah bin Rawaha with a number of his companions, among whom were Abdullah bin Unays, an ally of Banu Salima, a clan hostile to the Jews. When they came to Usayr, they told him that if he would come to Muhammad, Muhammad would give him an appointment and honour him. They kept on at him until he went with them with a number of Jews. Abdullah bin Unays mounted him on his beast until he was in al-Qarqara, about six miles from Khaybar. Usayr suddenly changed his mind about going with them. Abdullah perceived Usayr's bad intention as the latter was preparing to draw his sword. So Abdullah rushed at him and struck him with his sword cutting off his leg. Usayr hit Abdullah with a stick of shauhat wood which he had in his hand and wounded his head. All Muhammad's emissaries fell upon the thirty Jewish companions and killed them except one man who escaped on his feet.[24] Abdullah bin Unays is the assassin who volunteered and got permission to kill Banu Nadir's Sallam ibn Abu al-Huqayq at a previous night mission in Khaybar.

Many scholars have considered the above machinations of the Nadir as a reason for the battle. According to Montgomery Watt, their intriguing and use of their wealth to incite tribes against Muhammad left him no choice but to attack.[25] Vaglieri concurs that one reason for attack was that the Jews of Khaybar were responsible for the Confederates that attacked Muslims during the Battle of the Trench.[10] Shibli Numani also sees Khaybar's actions during the Battle of the Trench, and draws particular attention to Banu Nadir's leader Huyayy ibn Akhtab, who had gone to the Banu Qurayza during the battle to instigate them to attack Muhammad.[20]

Treaty of Hudaybiyya

In 628, when the Muslims attempted to perform the Umrah (lesser pilgrimage),[26] after much negotiations, the Muslims entered a peace treaty with the Quresh, ending the Muslim-Quresh wars. The treaty also gave Muhammad the assurance of not being attacked in the rear by the Meccans during the expedition.[10]

Political situation

As war with Muhammad seemed imminent, the Jews of Khaybar entered into an alliance with the Jews of Fadak oasis. They also successfully persuaded the Bedouin Ghatafan tribe to join their side in the war in exchange for half their produce. However, in comparison to the power of the North, Muhammad's army did not seem to pose enough of a threat for the Khaybar to sufficiently prepare themselves for the upcoming battle. Along with the knowledge that Muhammad's army was small, and in need of resources, the lack of central authority at Khaybar prevented any unified defensive preparations, and quarrels between different families left the Jews disorganized.[10] The Banu Fazara, related to the Ghatafan, also offered their assistance to Khaybar, after their unsuccessful negotiations with the Muslims.[27]

Failure of Banu Ghatafan

During the battle, the Muslims were able to prevent Khaybar's Ghatafan allies (consisting of 4,000 men) from providing them with reinforcements. One reason given is that the Muslims were able to buy off the Bedouin allies of the Jews. Watt, however, suggests that rumors of a Muslim attack on Ghatafan strongholds might also have played a role.[28][29] According to Tabari, Muhammad's first stop in his conquest for Khaybar was in the valley of al-Raji, which was directly between the Ghatafan people and the Khaybar. In hearing the news of the Muslim army's position, the Ghatafan organized and rode out to honor their alliance with the Khaybar. After a day of travel, the Ghatafan thought they heard their enemy behind them and turned around in order to protect their families and possessions, thus opening the path for Muhammad's army.[30] Another story says that a mysterious voice warned the Ghatafan of danger and convinced them to return to their homes.[31]

Course of the Battle

The Muslims set out for Khaybar in May 628, Muharram 7 AH.[32] According to different sources, the strength of Muslims army varied from 1,400 to 1,800 men and between 100 and 200 horses. Some Muslim women (including Umm Salama) also joined the army, in order to take care of the wounded.[33] Compared to the Khaybarian fighting strength of 10,000, the Muslim contingent was small, but this gave Muslims advantages. It allowed Muslims to swiftly and quietly march to Khaybar (in only three days[34]), catching the city by surprise. It also made Khaybar overconfident in themselves.[35] As a result, the Jews failed to mount a centrally organized defense, leaving each family to defend its own fortified redoubt.[10][28] This underestimation of the Muslims allowed Muhammad to conquer each fortress one by one with relative ease, claiming food, weapons, and land as he went.[36] One Muslim reported:"We met the workers of Khaybar coming out in the morning with their spades and baskets. When they saw the apostle and the army they cried, 'Muhammad with his force,' and turned tail and fled. The apostle said, 'Allah Akbar! Khaybar is destroyed. When we arrive in a people's square it is a bad morning for those who have been warned.'"[37]

The Jews, after a rather bloody skirmish in front of one of the fortresses, avoided combat in the open country. Most of the fighting consisted of shooting arrows at a great distance. On at least one occasion the Muslims were able to storm the fortresses. The besieged Jews managed to organize, under the cover of darkness, the transfer of people and treasures from one fortress to another as needed to make their resistance more effective.[10]

Neither the Jews nor the Muslims were prepared for an extended siege, and both suffered from a lack of provisions. The Jews, initially overconfident in their strength, failed to prepare even enough water supplies for a short siege.[38] Early in the campaign, the Muslims' hunger caused them to slaughter and cook several asses which they had taken during their conquest. Yet no one in the Muslim army had eaten that meat as Muhammad didn't see the men were at the point of starve to allow it. Muhammad, who had determined that the eating of horse, mule, and ass meat was forbidden, made the exception that one can eat forbidden foods so long as scarcity leaves no other option.[31]

Fall of al-Qamus fort

After the forts at an-Natat and those at ash-Shiqq were captured, there remained the last and the heavily guarded fortress called al-Qamus, the siege of which lasted between thirteen and nineteen days.[36]

Several attempts by Muslims to capture this citadel in some single combats failed.[39] The first attempt was made by Abu Bakr who took the banner and fought, but was unable to succeed. Umar, then charged ahead and fought more vigorously than Abu Bakr, but still failed. That night Muhammad proclaimed, "By God, tomorrow I shall give it [the banner] to a man who loves God and His Messenger, whom God and His Messenger love. Allah will bestow victory upon him."[40] That morning, the Quraysh were wondering who should have the honor to carry the banner, but Muhammad called out for Ali ibn Abi Țalib.[41] All this time, Ali, son-in-law and cousin of Muhammad, was ill and could not participate in the failed attempts. Ali came to Muhammad, who cured him of his ophthalmia, an inhibitive inflammation of the eyes, by applying his saliva to Ali's eyes. The apostle sent him with his flag and Ali, with new vigor, set out to meet the enemy, bearing the banner of Muhammad. When he got near the fort the garrison came out and he fought them. During the battle, a Jew struck him so that his shield fell from his hand and Ali lost his shield. In need of a substitute, he picked up a door and used it to defend himself. The door was said to be so heavy that it took eight men to replace it on its hinges.[31] In some Shi'ite sources it is also said that, when the time came to breach the fortress, he threw the door down as a bridge to allow his army to pass into the citadel and conquer the final threshold. The Apostle revived their (his followers) faith by the example of Ali, on whom he bestowed the surname of "the Lion of God" (Asadullah).[42]

The Jews speedily met with Muhammad to discuss the terms of surrender.[39] The people of al-Waṭī and al-Sulālim surrendered to the Muslims on the condition that they be "treated leniently" and the Muslims refrain from shedding their blood. Muhammad agreed to these conditions and did not take any of the property of these two forts.[43]

Killing Marhab

Historians have given different descriptions about the incident of killing Marhab.[44][45] Most of historical sources, including sahih Muslim,[46] say that Ali killed Marhab while conquering the Qamus fort or for the fort of Na’im. But Ibn Hisham's[47] prophetic biography deny that Muhammad ibn Maslama killed Marhab according to the order of Muhammad before the mission of Ali.[48]

The most famous narration related to Ali is all total below:

“When Ali reached the Citadel of Qamus, he was met at the gate by Marhab, a Jewish chieftain who was well experienced in battle. Marhab called out: "Khaybar knows well that I am Marhab, whose weapon is sharp, a warrior tested. Sometimes I thrust with spear; sometimes I strike with sword, when lions advance in burning rage".[49]

In sahih Muslim, the verses has been narrated like this: Khaibar knows certainly that I am Marhab, A fully armed and well-tried valorous warrior (hero), when war comes spreading its flames.[46]

'Ali chanted in reply:

I am the one whose mother named him Haidar (lion), (And am) like a lion of the forest with a terror-striking countenance. I give my opponents the measure of sandara in exchange for sa'(goblet) (i. e. return their attack with one that is much more fierce).[46]

The two soldiers struck at each other, and after the second blow, Ali cleaved through Marhab's helmet, splitting his skull and landing his sword in his opponent's teeth.[50] Another narration described, "Ali struck at the head of Mirhab and killed him”.[46]

The narration related to Muhammad bin Maslama from Ibn Hisham's prophetic biography is below:

“When the apostle had conquered some of their forts and got possession of some of their property he came to their two forts al-Watih and al-Sulalim, the last to be taken, and the apostle besieged them for some ten night.

Marhab the Jew came out from their fort carrying his weapons and saying: Khaybar knows that I am Marhab, An experienced warrior armed from head to foot, Now piercing, now slashing, As when lions advance in their rage. The hardened warrior gives way before my onslaught; My hima (The sacred territory of an idol or a sanctuary and so any place that a man is bound to protect from violation) cannot be approached.

With these words he challenged all to single combat and Ka'b b. Malik answered him thus: Khaybar knows that I am Ka'b, The smoother of difficulties, bold and dour. When war is stirred up another follows. I carry a sharp sword that glitters like lightning- We will tread you down till the strong are humbled; We will make you pay till the spoil is divided- In the hand of a warrior sans reproche.

The apostle said, 'Who will deal with this fellow?' Muhammad bin Maslama said thata he would, for he was bound to take revenge on the man who had killed his brother the day before. The apostle told him to go and prayed Allah to help him. When they approached the one the other an old tree with soft wood lay between them and they began to hide behind it. Each took shelter from the other. When one hid behind the tree the other slashed at it with his sword so that the intervening branches were cut away and they came face to face. The tree remained bereft of its branches like a man standing upright. Then Marhab attacked Muhammad b. Maslama and struck him. He took the blow on his shield and the sword bit into it and remained fast. Muhammad (bin Maslama) then gave Marhab a fatal wound.[47]

Although, many of the sources quoted that, Muhammad bin Maslama also fought bravely at Khaybar as well as Ali ibn abi Talib and also killed a number of well-known Jewish warriors.[48]


Muhammad met with Ibn Abi al-Huqaiq, al-Katibah and al-Watih[51] to discuss the terms of surrender. As part of the agreement, the Jews of Khaybar were to evacuate the area, and surrender their wealth. The Muslims would cease warfare and not hurt any of the Jews. After the agreement, some Jews approached Muhammad with a request to continue to cultivate their orchards and remain in the oasis. In return, they would give one-half of their produce to the Muslims.[51] According to Ibn Hisham's version of the pact with Khaybar, it was concluded on the condition that the Muslims "may expel you [Jews of Khaybar] if and when we wish to expel you." Norman Stillman believes that this is probably a later interpolation intended to justify the expulsion of Jews in 642.[43] The agreement with the Jews of Khaybar served as an important precedent for Islamic Law in determining the status of dhimmis, (non-Muslims under Muslim rule).[10][12][13]

After hearing about this battle, the people of Fadak, allied with Khaybar during the battle, sent Muḥayyisa b. Masūd to Muhammad. Fadak offered to be "treated leniently" in return for surrender. A treaty similar to that of Khaybar was drawn with Fadak as well.[43]

Among the captives was Safiyya bint Huyayy, daughter of the killed Banu Nadir chief Huyayy ibn Akhtab and widow of Kenana ibn al-Rabi, the treasurer of Banu Nadir. The companions informed Muhammad of Safiyya's good family status, and requested him to accept her as his wife so as to preserve her prestige and status. Muhammad acceded to the request, and freed and married her.[52] Thus, Safiyya became one of the Mother of the Believers.

Kenana ibn al-Rabi, when asked about the treasure they brought with them at the time of leaving Medina, denied having any such treasure. He was told that in case the treasure could be found hidden, he would face death-penalty for his false promise. Kenana agreed to this. A Jew told Muhammad that he had seen Al-Rabi near a certain ruin every morning. When the ruin was excavated, it was found to contain some of the treasure. Kenana was executed as a result.[52][53][54] Shibli Nomani rejects this account, and argues that Kenana was killed because he had earlier murdered Mahmoud ibn Maslamah, brother of Muhammad ibn Maslamah.[55] Nomani's conclusion is in contradiction to Waqidi's account, in which it was Marhab who killed Mahmoud in the course of the battle, only to be killed himself a few days later.[56]

According to several Muslim traditions, a Jewish woman, Zeynab bint Al-Harith, attempted to poison Muhammad to avenge her slain relatives. She poisoned a piece of lamb that she cooked for Muhammad and his companions, putting the most poison into Muhammad's favorite part, the shoulder. This assassination attempt failed because Muhammad recognised that the lamb was poisoned and spat it out, but one companion ate the meat and died.[57][58]

The victory in Khaybar greatly raised the status of Muhammad among his followers and local Bedouin tribes, who, seeing his power, swore allegiance to Muhammad and converted to Islam. The captured booty and weapons strengthened his army, and he captured Mecca just 18 months after Khaybar.[10][28]

The battle in classic Islamic literature

According to mainstream Sunni opinion, the battle is mentioned in Sahih Bukhari, in which Muhammad is reported to have said "Tomorrow I will give the flag to a man with whose leadership Allah will grant (the Muslim) victory." Afterwards, he gave the flag to Ali.[59] According to a Shia tradition, Muhammad called for Ali, who killed a Jewish chieftain with a sword-stroke, which split in two the helmet, the head and the body of the victim. Having lost his shield, Ali is said to have lifted both of the doors of the fortress from its hinges, climbed into the moat and held them up to make a bridge whereby the attackers gained access to the redoubt. The door was so heavy that forty men were required to put it back in place. This story is the basis for the Shi'ites viewing Ali as the prototype of heroes.[10][60]

On one occasion, Muslim soldiers, without Muhammad's opinion and permission, killed and cooked a score of donkeys, which had escaped from a farm. The incident led Muhammad to forbid to Muslims the meat of horses, mules, and donkeys, unless consumption was forced by necessity. The Jews surrendered when, after a month and a half of the siege, all but two fortresses were captured by the Muslims.[10]

Islamic primary sources

Muslim scholars suggest that capturing Khaibar had been a divine promise implied in the Quran verse below:

"Allâh has promised you abundant spoils that you will capture, and He has hastened for you this." [Quran 48:20]


The event is mentioned in many Sunni Hadith collections. The Muslim scholar Saifur Rahman al Mubarakpuri mentions that the hadith below regarding Amir's accidental death is related to Khaibar:

It has been narrated on the authority of Ibn Salama. He heard the tradition from his father who said: ... .By God, we had stayed there only three nights when we set out to Khaibar with the Messenger of Allah. (On the way) my uncle, Amir, began to recite the following rajaz verses for the people:

By God, if Thou hadst not guided us aright,

We would have neither practised charity nor offered prayers.

(O God! ) We cannot do without Thy favours;

Keep us steadfast when we encounter the enemy,

And descend tranquillity upon us.

The Messenger of Allah said: Who is this? 'Amir said: it is 'Amir. He said: May thy God forgive thee! The narrator said: Whenever the Messenger of Allah asked forgiveness for a particular person, he was sure to embrace martyrdom. Umar b. Khattab who was riding on his camel called out: Prophet of Allah, I wish you had allowed us to benefit from Amir. Salama continued: When we reached Khaibar, its king named Marhab advanced brandishing his sword and chanting:

Khaibar knows that I am Marhab (who behaves like)

A fully armed, and well-tried warrior.

When the war comes spreading its flames.

My uncle, Amir, came out to combat with him, saying:

Khaibar certainly knows that I am 'Amir,

A fully armed veteran who plunges into battles.

They exchanged blows. Marbab's sword struck the shield of 'Amir who bent forward to attack his opponent from below, but his sword recoiled upon him and cut the main artery: in his forearm which caused his death. Salama said: I came out and heard some people among the Companions of the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) as saying: Amir's deed has gone waste; he has killed himself. So I came to the Holy Prophet weeping and I said: Messenger of Allah. Amir's deed has gone waste. The Messenger said: Who passed this remark? I said: Some of your Companions. He said: "He who has passed that remark has told a lie, for 'Amir there is a double reward." ... Sahih Muslim, 19:4450[62]

Allah's Apostle offered the Fajr prayer when it was still dark, then he rode and said, 'Allah Akbar! Khaibar is ruined. When we approach near to a nation, the most unfortunate is the morning of those who have been warned." The people came out into the streets saying, "Muhammad and his army." Allah's Apostle vanquished them by force and their warriors were killed; the children and women were taken as captives. Safiya was taken by Dihya Al-Kalbi and later she belonged to Allah's Apostle go who married her and her Mahr was her manumission. Sahih al-Bukhari, 2:14:68

See also


  1. ^ a bغزوة-خيبر-1-2 Archived 2016-10-25 at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ a b Lings (1983), p. 264
  3. ^ Lings (1983), p. 255-6
  4. ^ "Massacre in Medina", Segula Magazine (3)
  5. ^ "Ali". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  6. ^ Islamic Historical Novel: Perang Khaibar (Khaybar War) by Abdul Latip Talib, 2011 (Malaysia)
  7. ^ Stillman, Norman (1979). The Jews of Arab Lands: A History and Source Book. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America. p. 14. ISBN 0-8276-0198-0.
  8. ^ al-Halabi, Nur al-Din. "10". Sirat-i-Halbiyyah. 2. Uttar Pradesh: Idarah Qasmiyyah Deoband. p. 34.
  9. ^ Rubin, Uri (1990). The Assassination of Kaʿb b. al-Ashraf. Vol. 32. pp. 65–71.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Veccia Vaglieri, L. "Khaybar", Encyclopaedia of Islam
  11. ^ Stillman 19
  12. ^ a b Stillman 18–19
  13. ^ a b Lewis 10
  14. ^ Stillman 14, 16-17
  15. ^ Watt, Muhammad at Medina, p. 34-37.
  16. ^ Nomani, Sirat al-Nabi, p. 368-370.
  17. ^ al-Halabi, Sirat-i-Halbiyyah (Vol. II, part 12), p. 19.
  18. ^ Lings, Muhammad: his life based on the earliest sources, p. 215-6.
  19. ^ Peterson, Muhammad: the prophet of God, p. 127.
  20. ^ a b Nomani (1979), vol. II, pg. 156
  21. ^ Urwa, Fath al-Bari, Vol. VII, pg. 363
  22. ^ Stillman 17
  23. ^ Zurqani, Ala al-Mawahib, Vol. II, p.196, Egypt
  24. ^ Ibn Ishaq, A. Guillaume, p. 665-666
  25. ^ Watt 189
  26. ^ Lings (1987), p. 249
  27. ^ Nomani (1979), vol. II, pg. 159
  28. ^ a b c Stillman 18
  29. ^ Watt (1956), pg. 93
  30. ^ al-Tabari (1997). The History of al-Tabari: The Victory of Islam. Albany : State University Of New York. p. 116.
  31. ^ a b c P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs (eds.). "Khaybar". Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. Brill Online. Retrieved April 18, 2012.CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link)
  32. ^ Watt 1956, pg. 341
  33. ^ Nomani (1979), vol. II, pg. 162
  34. ^ Haykal, Muhammad Husayn. Ch. "The Campaign of Khaybar and Missions to Kings". The Life of Muhammad. Shorouk International, 1983.
  35. ^ Lings (1983), pg. 263
  36. ^ a b al-Tabari (1997). The History of al-Tabari: The Victory of Islam. Albany : State University Of New York. p. 117.
  37. ^ Spencer, Robert (14 August 2006). "'Khaybar, Khaybar, O Jews.'". Human Events. 62 (27): 12–12.
  38. ^ Watt (1956), pg. 219
  39. ^ a b Watt (1956), pg. 218
  40. ^ "Sahih Bukhari". Archived from the original on 16 May 2013. Retrieved 24 May 2013.
  41. ^ al-Tabari (1997). The History of al-Tabari: The Victory of Islam. Albany : State University Of New York. pp. 119–121.
  42. ^ Gibbon, D&F of Roman Empire Vol V. page 365
  43. ^ a b c Ibn Hisham. Al-Sira al-Nabawiyya (The Life of Muhammad). English translation in Guillame (1955), pp. 145–146
  44. ^ "The Conquest of Khyber". Retrieved 18 July 2015.
  45. ^ "The Battle of Khaybar". Retrieved 19 July 2015.
  46. ^ a b c d Sahih Muslim, 19:4450
  47. ^ a b Harun, Abdus Salam. M. English Translation of Sirat Ibn Hisham. Al-Falah Foundation.
  48. ^ a b Bukhari, Chap. Ghazwah Khaybar, Muslim, Naza’i. 3. The encounter between ‘Ali and marhab has been reported by different persons – some say they fought for the fort of Na’im while other relate it connection with the fort of Qamus. Bukhari has given different portions of the story but has not mentioned the name of the fort. Ibn Hisham relates that Marhab killed by Muhammad B. Maslama but report in the Sahih Muslim mentions ‘Ali while some verse by ‘Ali leave no doubt that he fought and killed Marhab. (Muslim, Kitab-ul-Jihad, tradition No. 1807).
  49. ^ al-Tabari (1997). The History of al-Tabari: The Victory of Islam. Albany : State University Of New York. p. 120.
  50. ^ al-Tabari (1997). The History of al-Tabari: The Victory of Islam. Albany : State University Of New York. p. 121.
  51. ^ a b Watt 1956), pg. 218
  52. ^ a b Haykal (2008), p. 400
  53. ^ Ibn Ishaq, Guillaume, p. 515.
  54. ^ Muhammad ibn Umar al-Waqidi. Kitab al-Maghazi. Translated by Faizer, R., Ismail, A., & Tayob, A. (2011). The Life of Muhammad, pp. 330-331. Oxford & New York: Routledge.
  55. ^ Nomani (1979), vol. II.
  56. ^ Waqidi/Faizer pp. 317, 323-324, 344.
  57. ^ Ibn Ishaq/Guillaume, pp. 515-516.
  58. ^ Ibn Saad/Haq, pp. 133, 143-144, 251-252.
  59. ^ Companions of Muhammad Bukhari :: Book 5 :: Volume 57 :: Hadith 51
  60. ^ Jafri_
  61. ^ The Conquest of Khaibar, Archived 2011-08-16 at WebCite
  62. ^ a b The Sealed Nectar, by Saifur Rahman al Mubarakpuri, pg 433



Year 629 (DCXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. The denomination 629 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

Abu Bakr

Abū Bakr aṣ-Ṣiddīq ‘Abdallāh bin Abī Quḥāfah (Arabic: أبو بكر الصديق عبد الله بن أبي قحافة‎; c. 573 CE – 23 August 634 CE), popularly known as Abu Bakr, was a companion and—through his daughter Aisha—a father-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

Abu Bakr was born in Mecca in 573 CE to Uthman Abu Quhafa and Salma Umm al-Khair. He is commonly regarded as the fourth person to have accepted Islam, after Khadija bint Khuwaylid, Ali ibn Abi Talib, and Zayd ibn Harith. Abu Bakr was present at a number of battles of Islam, such as the Battle of Badr and the Battle of Uhud; his role in the early battles of Islam has been the subject of extensive analysis by historians.Abu Bakr was present at the Farewell Pilgrimage, as well as the event of Ghadir Khumm, in 632 CE. However, shortly after Muhammad passed away, Abu Bakr and some others left the still-unburied body of Muhammad and gathered at a place known as Saqifa. After lengthy debates that included violence, Umar ibn Al-Khattab pledged allegiance to Abu Bakr at Saqifa; he was followed in this by two others at Saqifa, as well as a group of Bedouin tribesmen who had arrived at the scene. Saqifa was later described by the famous Sunni historian Al-Tabari as "a scene from the period of Jahiliya (the pre-Islamic era)".Abu Bakr thus assumed power, ruling over the Rashidun Caliphate from 632 to 634 CE. Once in power, Abu Bakr launched the Ridda Wars to quell an outbreak of "apostasy" in various lands outside Medina. The Ridda Wars, however, were expanded to include the use of force against Muslims who did not recognize Abu Bakr's government, instead of solely focusing on those who had left Islam. After the conclusion of the Ridda Wars, Abu Bakr launched campaigns into Syria and Persia, but died before their conclusion. Another significant event during Abu Bakr's reign was the seizure of the land of Fadak from Fatimah, Muhammad's daughter.In 634 CE, Abu Bakr fell ill from a sickness and died shortly thereafter. He was succeeded by Umar.

Banu Nadir

The Banu Nadir (Arabic: بنو النضير‎, Hebrew: בני נצ'יר‎) were a Jewish tribe who lived in northern Arabia until the 7th century at the oasis of Medina. The tribe challenged Muhammad as the leader of Medina, planned along with allied nomads to attack Muhammad and were expelled from Medina as a result. The Banu Nadir then planned the battle of the Trench together with the Quraysh. They later participated in the battle of Khaybar.

Expedition of Dhat al-Riqa

The expedition of Dhat al-Riqa took place in October 625 AD, 5AH of the Islamic Calendar, but some other Muslim scholars believe it took place after the Battle of Khaybar in 627 AD, i.e. 7 AH of the Islamic Calendar., 2 Quran verses 5:11 and 4:101 are related to this event.

Expedition of Dhu Qarad

The Expedition of Dhu Qarad also known as the Expedition of Ghaba took place in September, 627AD, 6AH of the Islamic calendar, some scholars say that it took place just before the Battle of Khaybar, in the 12th month of 6AH.A few days after Muhammad returned Medina from the raid on the Banu Lihyan, a band of armed men of Ghatafan led by Abdur Rahman Uyanah bin Hisn Al-Fazari raided the outskirts of the city; and seized 20 milch camels. They also killed the shepherd and took his wife as a captive.


Fadak (Arabic: فدك‎) was a garden oasis in Khaybar, a tract of land in northern Arabia; it is now part of Saudi Arabia. Situated approximately 140 km (87 mi) from Medina, Fadak was known for its water wells, dates, and handicrafts. When the Muslims defeated the people of Khaybar at the Battle of Khaybar; the oasis of Fadak was part of the bounty given to the Islamic prophet Muhammad, who gifted it to his daughter, Fatimah (according to Shias). The Sunni view is that it was not given to anyone, but preserved for the maintenance of Banu Hashim. Fadak became the object of dispute between Fatimah and the caliph Abu Bakr after Muhammad died.


Khaybar (Arabic: خيبر‎, IPA: [ˈxajbar, ˈxäjbär]) is the name of an oasis some 153 km (95 mi) to the north of Medina (ancient Yathrib), Saudi Arabia. Before the rise of Islam, this fortress town had been inhabited by Jewish tribes; it fell to Muslim forces in 629 AD.

Khaybar (disambiguation)

Khaybar is an oasis in Saudi Arabia.

Khaybar or Khaibar may also refer to:

Khyber (Hunza), a village in Gilgit–Baltistan, Pakistan

Khaybar missile, a rocket used by Hezbollah to fire at Israeli cities during the Israeli-Lebanese conflict of 2006

Khaybar KH2002, an assault rifle made in Iran

Mad'an (slave)

Mad'an (ميداس) was a slave of Muhammad mentioned in the Hadith.He was an African slave given to Muhummad in 628AD by a man called Rifa'ah bin Zaid, from the Banu Ad-Dubaib.

Mad'an was shot by an arrow in a place called Wadi al-Qura (Wadi al-'Ula), 360km north of Medina, for stealing a cloak from the spoils of war at the Battle of Khaybar.


Marhab ibn Abu Zaynab, or Marhab ibn Al-Harith. Popularly known as the Knight Of Khaybar. A Jewish knight who is noted for his military role in Battle of Khaybar.

Military career of Ali

Ali bin Abi Talib took part in all the battles of Prophet Muhammad's time, except the Battle of Tabuk, as standard bearer. He also led parties of warriors on raids into enemy lands, and was an ambassador. Ali's fame grew with every battle that he was in, due to his courage, valour, and chivalry, as well as the fact that he single-handedly, destroyed many of Arabia's most famous and feared warriors. Muhammad acknowledged him as the greatest warrior of all time.

Safiyya bint Huyayy

Safiyyah bint Huyayy (Arabic: صفية بنت حيي‎, c. 610 – c. 670) was one of the wives of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad. She was, along with all other wives of Muhammad, titled Umm-ul-Mu'mineen or the "Mother of Believers".After Muhammad's death, she became involved in the power politics of the early Muslim community, and acquired substantial influence by the time of her death.

Said ibn Aamir al-Jumahi

Said ibn Aamir al-Jumahi (Arabic: سعيد بن عامر الجمحي‎) was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and Governor of Homs in Syria during the caliphate of Umar.

Sunni view of Ali

This is a parallel sub-article to Ali and Sunni.Sunni Muslims hold Ali in high respect as one of the Ahl al-Bayt, a foremost authority on the Qur'an and Islamic law, and as one of the four Rightly Guided Caliphs. Sunnis consider Ali the fourth and final of the caliphs, unlike Shia Muslims who regard Ali as the first Imam after Muhammad due to their interpretation of the events at Ghadir Khumm.

Sunnis maintain that Ali was among the first males to convert to Islam, when he was 8 years old and he was among the closest companions to the Islamic prophet, Muhammad at the time and to Abu Bakr, Muhammad's closest companion. He is also revered in many hadiths of Muhammad such as the famous hadith: "I am a city of knowledge and Ali is its door" found in the hadith book of Tirmidhi.Sunnis view Ali as one of the greatest warrior champions of Islam. Examples include taking on the Quraish champion at the Battle of the Trench when nobody else dared. After multiple failed attempts of breaking the fort in the Battle of Khaybar, Ali was summoned, miraculously healed and conquered the fort.

Third Expedition of Wadi al Qura

Third Expedition of Wadi al Qura, also known as the Campaign of Wadi al Qura or Ghazwah of Wadi al Qura took place in June 628 AD, 2nd month of 7AH, of the Islamic calendar.The operation was successful and the siege lasted 2 days before the Jews surrendered and accepted Muhammed's terms, similar to what the Jews had done in the Battle of Khaybar and in the Conquest of Fidak.This was the 3rd Expedition in Wadi al Qura, the 1st Expedition and 2nd Expedition in Wadi al Qura took place 1 year earlier.

Timeline of Ali's life

17 March 599 coincided with Thirteenth of Rajab, 24 BH: Birth of Ali ibn Abi Talib in the Ka'ba, in the city of Mecca.

610: Ali converted to Islam soon after the first revelation of the Quran.

613: Yawm al-Inzar: Muhammad invited the Banu Hashim to Islam; Ali alone accepted his call.

617-619: Meccan boycott of the Hashemites

619:Year of Sorrow:Death of Abu Talib, Ali's father.

September 622: Laylat al-mabit: Ali risked his life by sleeping in Muhammad's bed to impersonate him and thwart an assassination plot, so that Muhammad could escape from Mecca in safety and migrate to Medina.

622: Ali migrated with his mother, Fatima Zahra and Umm Kulthum bint Muhammad Muhammad's daughters, and another women.

622 or 623:The prophet chose him as his brother.

623: Ali married with Fatima Zahra, Muhammad's daughter.


March 17: Battle of Badr: Ali first distinguished himself as a warrior and killed about 20 to 22 pagans.

Expulsion of the Bani Qainuqa Jews from Medina.


Birth of Hasan ibn Ali, the second Shia Imam.

Battle of Uhud: Ali destroyed the standard bearers and when the army of Islam was defeated and most of the Muslims had fled Ali was one of the few Muslims who defended Muhammad.

Expulsion of Banu Nadir Jews from Medina.


Birth of Husayn ibn Ali, the third Shia Imam.

Expedition of Banu Mustaliq.


Battle of the Trench: Ali ibn Abi Taleb triumphed in combat over Arabs' hero, Amr ibn Wodd, and killed him.

Killing and enslavement of Banu Quraiza.


Treaty of Hudaybiyyah

Battle of Khaybar: Ali was the standard-bearer and conqueror of the Khaybar's castle.

Birth of Zaynab bint Ali


Participating in The first pilgrimage with the Prophet.

Expedition to Battle of Mu'tah and fight with Byzantine Empire


Conquest of Mecca:Ali was the standard-bearer.

Battle of Hunayn

Battle of Autas

Siege of Ta'if

Operation against Banu Tayy


Mubahela with the Christian of Najran

Expedition against Banu Rumla

Operation against Banu Zubuda

Mission to Yemen


Participation in Farewell pilgrimage at Mecca.

Event of Ghadir Khumm

Death of Muhammad

Abu Bakr assumes power as the first Rashidun caliph

Death of Fatimah, Ali's wife.

644: Umar, the second Rashidun caliph, was assassinated. Ali was one of the electoral council to choose the third caliph

648: Birth of Al-Abbas ibn Ali


Siege and assassination of Uthman, the third Rashidun caliph.

Election of Ali as the fourth Rashidun caliph.

Beginning of the First Fitna(first Islamic civil war).

Battle of Bassorah

657:Ali shifted the capital of Rashidun empire from Medina to Kufa in Iraq.

May–July 657: Battle of Siffin


The Arbitration

Revolt of Kharijits.

July 658: Battle of Nahrawan


Ali's governor of Egypt was defeated and Egypt was conquered by 'Amr ibn al-'As

Revolt of Khurrit ibn Rashid

Muawiyah I plundered Iraq


Muawiyah plundered Hijaz and Yemen, but later withdrew

Muawiyah I declared himself as caliph in Damascus

28 January 661 coincided with Twenty-first of Ramadan: Ali dead in Kufa and buried in Najaf two days after he was struck by Abd-al-Rahman ibn Muljam in the Great Mosque of Kufa.

Umayyad tradition of cursing Ali

The Umayyad tradition of cursing Ali was performed in state-controlled mosques throughout the Umayyad empire for a period of approximately 65 years from c.657 to c.720 CE.

Umm Ayman

Barakah (Arabic: بَـرَكَـة‎) the daughter of Tha'alaba bin Amr, known as Umme Aymen (Arabic: أمّ أيمن‎), was the Second Mother of the Prophet of Islam, she was an Abyssinian slave girl of Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib, or his wife Aminah. Since the death of Aminah, Umme Aymen looked after her son, that is the Islamic Nabī (Arabic: نَـبِي‎, Prophet) Muhammad, until he had grown up. Later Muhammad freed her, but she fondly served Muhammad and his family for a long time, especially by being present in the battles of Uhud and Khaybar. Muhammad introduced her as a heavenly woman.

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