Battle of Halidon Hill

The Battle of Halidon Hill (19 July 1333) was fought during the Second War of Scottish Independence. Scottish forces under Sir Archibald Douglas were heavily defeated by the English forces of King Edward III of England on unfavourable terrain while trying to relieve Berwick-upon-Tweed.

Battle of Halidon Hill
Part of the Second War of Scottish Independence
Halidon Hill

Monument marking the site of the Battle of Halidon Hill, alongside the A6105 Berwick-Foulden, Berwickshire road. With the date of battle.
Date19 July 1333
Location
Halidon Hill, near Berwick-upon-Tweed
Result Decisive English victory
Belligerents
Royal Arms of the Kingdom of Scotland.svg Kingdom of Scotland Royal Arms of England.svg Kingdom of England
Commanders and leaders

Sir Archibald Douglas  Robert Stewart

John Randolph, 3rd Earl of Moray

Edward III of England Thomas of Brotherton, Earl of Norfolk

Edward Balliol
Strength
13,000 9,000
Casualties and losses
exact figure unknown, but very high 14 [1]

The Disinherited

Following Robert Bruce' victory at Bannockburn a number of Scots nobles refused to swear loyalty to the Scots cause. Those who did not do so were disinherited and left Scotland to join forces with Edward Balliol in England or in France hoping that he would, with his vast English support, become the ultimate victor. The Treaty of Northampton in 1328 brought an end to over thirty years of intermittent warfare following the defeat of Edward II by Robert Bruce. Bruce's own death the following year opened up an opportunity for the disinherited, Balliol and the English to invade Scotland once more.

In 1332 under the leadership of Edward Balliol, son of King John Balliol, and Henry Beaumont, 4th Earl of Buchan, these men invaded Scotland with the full support of Edward III, defeating the Bruce loyalists at the Battle of Dupplin Moor. Building on this success Balliol was crowned King of Scotland.[2] However, with very limited support in his new realm, he was ambushed at Annan a few months later by supporters of David II, led by Sir Archibald Douglas, the Earl of Moray and the Steward. Balliol fled to England half-dressed.[3][4] He appealed to King Edward for assistance, having already promised to cede to him all of the counties of south-east Scotland in return. Edward dropped all pretence of neutrality, recognised Balliol as King of Scotland and made ready for war.

Berwick under siege

At the beginning of 1333 the atmosphere on the border was tense. England was openly preparing for war. In Scotland Archibald Douglas, brother of the "Good" Sir James Douglas, and now Guardian of the Realm for the underage David, made arrangements for the defence of Berwick-upon-Tweed. Weapons and supplies were gathered, and the defence of the town was entrusted to Sir Alexander Seton. These preparations were all complete by the time Balliol crossed into Roxburghshire on 10 March. Besides the disinherited lords he was also accompanied by a number of English magnates. The army advanced quickly towards Berwick, which was placed under siege. The deceptions of the previous year had gone. Balliol was acting quite openly in the English interest. The Second War of Independence was underway.

Edward arrived at Berwick in person around 1 May,[5] after leaving Queen Philippa in the safety of Bamburgh Castle on the Northumberland coast. His ally and protégé had been at Berwick for some two months, and had been so far unmolested that he had been able to place the town under close siege. Trenches had been dug, the water supply cut and all communication with the hinterland ended. The Guardian's inactivity contrasts sharply with Robert Bruce's swift response to the siege of 1319. Douglas seems to have spent the time gathering a national army, rather than using the troops he already had in diversionary raids.

With the arrival of the English king the attack on Berwick began in earnest. Seton carried out a spirited defence; but by the end of June, under repeated attack by land and sea, his troops were close to exhaustion. He requested and was granted a short truce, but only on the condition that he surrender if not relieved by 11 July. As a guarantee of good faith Seton was required to hand over a number of hostages, which included his son, Thomas. Scotland was now faced with exactly the same situation that England had before Bannockburn: as a matter of national pride Douglas would have to come to the relief of Berwick, just as Edward II had come to the relief of Stirling Castle in 1314. The army the Guardian had spent so much time gathering was now compelled to take to the field, with all initiative lost. Nevertheless, Douglas' force was an impressive representation of the nation's strength and unity, with volunteers coming from all corners of the realm. As with all medieval armies the precise number of troops is difficult to estimate. It is possible, though, that the army was at least as strong as that which had fought at Bannockburn, perhaps even stronger. Douglas now began his belated march to the border.

Advance to Bamburgh

In an attempt to draw Edward away from Berwick, Douglas entered England on 11 July, the last day of Seton's truce. He advanced eastwards to the little port of Tweedmouth, in contested Northumberland. Tweedmouth was destroyed in sight of the English army: Edward did not move. A small party of Scots led by Sir William Keith managed with some difficulty to make their way across the ruins of the old bridge to the northern bank of the Tweed. Keith and some of his men were able to force their way through to the town. Douglas chose to consider this as a technical relief and sent messages to Edward calling on him to depart. This was accompanied with the threat that if he failed to do so the Scots army would continue south and devastate England. Again Edward did not move, so Douglas marched south to Bamburgh, perhaps hoping for a repeat of the events that led in former years to the Battle of Myton. Whatever concerns the king had for his queen he knew that Bamburgh was strong and could easily withstand a siege. The Scots, moreover, did not have the time to construct the kind of equipment that would be necessary to take the fortress by assault. For Berwick, on the other hand, time was definitely running out.

Prince returns

Edward refused to consider Keith's entry into Berwick as a relief in terms of the agreement of 28 June. As the truce had now expired, and the town had not surrendered, he ordered the hostages to be hanged before the walls, beginning with Thomas Seton. A further two were to be hanged on each subsequent day for as long as the garrison refused to capitulate. Edward's determination had the desired effect. To save the lives of those who remained Seton concluded a fresh truce, promising to surrender if not relieved by Tuesday 20 July. Everything now hinged on a Scots victory in battle. News of this was carried to the Guardian at Bamburgh. Having lost all freedom of action he returned north into the teeth of the wolf.

Halidon Hill

Edward and his army took up position on Halidon Hill at some 600 ft. two miles to the north-west of Berwick, which gives an excellent view of the town and surrounding countryside. From this vantage point he was able to dominate all of the approaches to the beleaguered port. Any attempt by Douglas to by-pass the hill and march directly on Berwick would have been quickly overwhelmed. Crossing the Tweed to the west of the English position, the Guardian reached the town of Duns on 19 July. On the following day he approached Halidon Hill from the north-west, ready to give battle on ground chosen by his enemy. It was a catastrophic decision. The Book of Pluscarden, a Scots chronicle, describes the scene:

They (the Scots) marched towards the town with great display, in order of battle, and recklessly, stupidly and inadvisedly chose a battle ground at Halidon Hill, where there was a marshy hollow between the two armies, and where a great downward slope, with some precipices, and then again a rise lay in front of the Scots, before they could reach the field where the English were posted.

The approach was observed by Henry de Beaumont, who would have advised Edward of the tactics that brought victory at Dupplin Moor when the two met at York the previous December. The order of battle now employed mirrored those used at Dupplin, with some variations owing to superior strength. The army was divided into three divisions, comprising infantry, men-at-arms and knights. All made ready to fight on foot in a defensive position. The left was commanded by Balliol; the centre by Edward; and the right by the king's uncle Thomas of Brotherton, 1st Earl of Norfolk and Lord Marshal of England. Standing on the flanks of each division were six supporting wings of archers, armed with a decisive weapon: the English longbow. The bowmen projected slightly forward in a wedge formation to offer maximum use of supporting crossfire, an arrangement later adopted at Crécy. Edward was required to take no further action: for if Douglas refused to give battle, as caution and good sense demanded, Berwick would fall by default.

Douglas' army was also arranged in three divisions, drawn up in traditional schiltron formation: the Guardian commanded the left; Robert Stewart, the future king, commanded the centre; and John Randolph, 3rd Earl of Moray the right. As Pluscarden says, to engage the English they had to advance downhill, cross a large area of marshy ground, and then climb up the northern slope of Halidon Hill. Although the Scots spearmen had proved their worth against cavalry at Stirling Bridge and Bannockburn, the battles of Dupplin Moor and Falkirk had shown how vulnerable they were to arrows. Not only was the ground bad, but it must have been obvious to the Guardian as he looked towards the massed ranks of Edward's archers that this was not going to be a cavalry battle. The prudent course of action would have been to withdraw and wait for a better opportunity to fight; but this would mean the automatic loss of Berwick. The Scots were now to fight one of the most disadvantageous battles in their history.

Into the sleet

No sooner had the Scots entered the marsh at the foot of the hill than the first arrows began to descend. They continued to fall in great clouds as the schiltrons freed themselves from the marshy ground and began the ascent up Halidon Hill. Having lost all momentum they moved slowly upwards, so tightly packed that even the most indifferent archer could scarcely fail to hit his target. The shooting was so intense that many turned their faces away as if walking into a storm of sleet. The Lanercost Chronicle reports: ...the Scots who marched in the front were so wounded in the face and blinded by the multitude of English arrows that they could not help themselves, and soon began to turn their faces away from the blows of the arrows and fall.[6] Casualties were heavy, with some of the finest troops falling dead or wounded on the lower reaches of the hill. The survivors crawled upwards, through the arrows and on to the waiting spears.

Charge of the Scots at Halidon Hill
The Scots charge the English ranks

It was Moray's depleted schiltron that first made contact with the enemy, closing on Balliol's division on the left. Stewart followed, advancing on King Edward in the centre. Douglas and his men, including Sir Robert de Lawedre of the not far distant Edrington Castle[7][8], came in their wake. But even before Stewart and Douglas arrived Moray's front ranks were failing in the hand-to-hand fighting with Balliol. With no let up in the arrows, the schiltron broke, retreating rapidly downhill. Panic spread from the centre to the left. With English arrows directed towards the flanks the Scots bunched in a disorganised mass towards the centre, much as they had done at Dupplin Moor, as if each man was trying to hide from death behind the body of his comrade. Those in the rear began running back towards the marsh, away from the killing ground. Scots honour was saved by the Earl of Ross and his Highlanders, who fought to the death in a gallant rearguard action.

With Ross gone and Douglas dead, the English knights took to horse, riding off in pursuit of the fugitives. Stewart and Moray managed to escape; but few others were as lucky. The battlefield was a grim place; the Guardian lay dead with five other earls. They died in the company of the nameless commons of Scotland, who fell in thousands. English casualties were light. The following day Berwick surrendered.

Aftermath

Immediately after the town's capitulation, Edward ordered Henry de Percy, 2nd Baron Percy to be the Constable, with Sir Thomas Grey of Heaton, father of the chronicler Thomas Grey, as his deputy.[9] Edward considering his part done, left for the south, and left Baliol to quell any remaining resistance in Scotland.

Shock and celebration

News of Halidon sent shock waves across southern Scotland. Edward soon received the fealty of several important landowners in the area. In England the victory, the first for many years, brought a great boost to the morale of the nation. Bannockburn had finally been avenged. The English poet, Laurence Minot, was exultant:

A little fro that foresaid toune (Berwick) Halydon-hill that es the name Thaire was crakked many a crowne Of wild Scottes, and alls of tame; Thaire was thaire banner born all doune.

Other balladeers celebrated the restoration of English national pride:

Scottes out of Berwick and Aberdeen At the Burn of Bannock ye were far too keen. King Edward has avenged it now, and fully too, I ween.

Edward's victory at Halidon Hill was a more devastating blow to Scotland than his grandfather's at Dunbar. After Dunbar most of the nobles had been captured and lived to fight another day; after Halidon most of the country's natural leaders were dead, and the few who remained were in hiding. Scotland was prostrate. It was said at the time that the English victory had been so complete that it marked the final end of the northern war. Yet a mere five years afterwards the chronicler Adam Murimuth was to write:

And so, men freely declare that the Scotch wars had been brought to their close, that nothing remained of the Scotch nation that was willing or able to defend or govern itself. Yet they were wrong as the sequel showed.

The time that had passed before Murimuth wrote these words had shown Halidon to be a barren victory. For Edward did little to exploit his success; and Scottish resistance, though weak, was never fully extinguished.

Balliol proceeded north and held a parliament at Perth in October 1333, whereby he restored lands to the "Disinherited", by reversing all territorial grants of the Bruce. In doing so he dispossessed a whole new generation of Scots nobility of their land, thus ensuring continued conflict.[10]

In only a few years, under the early leadership of the common Scots and later of James Stewart the English and their supporters would once again be expelled.

Notable casualties

The Scottish battle order

A number of related manuscripts and versions of the Brut chronicle give the names of the leading knights of the Scottish battle order.[11] The chronicle account of the battle was included in Hector Boece's Historia Gentis Scotorum (1527) with an abbreviated list of personnel.[12] The fullest list, written in French, is kept in the library of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, with an estimation of numbers and casualties. The names and numbers from these chronicle sources may be inaccurate.

  • The Vanguard: James Frisel, Count of Morreue; Walter Stewart; Reynaud (Che)ne; Patrick de Graham; John Grant; James Cardroke; Patrick de Chartres; Robert de Caldecotes; Philip de Mildrum; James du Jardyn; Thomas de Kirkpatrick; Gilbert Wiseman; Adam de Gordon; James de Gramath; John le Grange younger; Robert de Gordon younger; all barons with their followers.
  • The Mid-Guard: Earl of Menteith, Seneschal of Scotland; Sir James his uncle; William Douglas; David de Lyndseye; Hugh Fleming; William de Keith; Duncan Campbell; James Steward of Caldru; Alan Stewart; William du Jardyn; William de Abirnethy; William de Brene de Eldyngton; John le Fitzwilliam; Adam More; Walter FitzGilbert; John de Chryghton; all barons with their followers.
  • The Tierce: Hugh, Earl of Ross Earl of Stratherne de Sotheronland: William Kirkeleye; John de Cambron; Gilbert de la Haye; William Gordon; William Prendergast; David Mar, Guardian of the county of Mar; Christian de Herz; John Thomas, all barons and their followers.
  • Rear Guard; Archibald Douglas, Guardian of Scotland; Earl of Lennox; Earl of Carrick; Earl of Fife; "Counte D'Assels du Doun", Earl of Atholl of Doune; Robert Bruce; Robert de Lawedre; the son of Sir William Vypoin; William de Lemyngston; John de Laundels [Landells]; Jocelyn Schyrynglowe; William Sreterleye; Bernard Frisel; John de Lyndseye; Alexander de Lyndseye; Alexander de Greye; Ingram de Umfraville; Patrick de Polwarth; David de Wemyss; Michel Lescot; Richard Lawedre; Thomas de Boys; Rogier de Mortimer; all barons with their followers.
  • In Berwick: the Earl of the March Patrick, Keeper of Berwick Castle and 100 men-at-arms; Alexander Seton, Keeper of the town with 100 men and many more from the countryside.
  • Totals: of Earls, 10; of Barons, 69; of Knights-Batchelors, 105; of Men-at-arms, 4,250; of ordinary folk ("du comune people"), 63, 200; in Berwick, townsmen and countryfolk, 5,000.
  • The sum total; 67,624; The estimation of the casualties; of nobles 4,000; of common people 19,000.[13]

References

Notes

  1. ^ Strickland and Hardy (2011). The Great Warbow: From Hastings to the Mary Rose'. J H Haynes & Co Ltd. p. 188. ISBN 085733090X.
  2. ^ Lanercost, pp.268-272
  3. ^ Wyntoun book VIII, Chap. XXVI, Vol II, p.395
  4. ^ Lanercost, pp.274-275
  5. ^ Lanercost, pp.278–279
  6. ^ Lanercost, p.279
  7. ^ Young, James, editor, Notes on Historical References to the Scottish Family of Lauder, Glasgow, 1884, p.36, citing a MS Chronicle of England.
  8. ^ Wyntoun, De Orygynale Cronykel of Scotland written before 1424.
  9. ^ Lanercost, pp.282-3
  10. ^ Sadler, p.195
  11. ^ see another version of the battle order in Tytler, P.F., History of Scotland, vol.2, Tait, Edinburgh, (1841), p.382–4.
  12. ^ Boece, Historia (1527), book 15 chapter 5, see John Bellenden's translation of 1540, in History of Scotland, vol. 2, Tait, Edinburgh (1821), pp.422–424.
  13. ^ Bateson, Mary, ed., Miscellany of the Scottish History Society, 2, SHS (1904), pp.27–30 citing Corpus Christi MS. c.c.c.c. 37 fol.100 (some names modernised here)

Primary

Secondary

  • Balfour-Melville, E. W. M., Edward III and David II, 1964.
  • Campbell, T., "England, Scotland and the Hundred Years War", in Europe in the late Middle Ages, ed J. Hale et al., 1970.
  • Hailes, Lord (David Dalrymple), The Annals of Scotland, 1776.
  • Nicholson, R., "The Siege of Berwick in 1333", in the Scottish Historical Review, vol. 40, 1961.
  • Nicholson, R., Edward III and the Scots, 1965.
  • Oman, C., The Art of War in the Middle Ages, 1898.
  • Reid, P., By Fire and Sword: The Rise and Fall of English Supremacy at Arms: 1314–1485, 2007. Note that the armies may have numbered differently than shown above with the English up to 20,000 men, including Balliol's contingent. The Scots, as a mobile raiding army were unlikely to have numbered many more than 7,500 men.
  • Sadler, J., Border Fury: England and Scotland at War 1296–1568, 2005.
  • Webster, B., "Scotland without a King: 1329–1341", in Medieval Scotland: Crown, Lordship and Community, ed. A. Grant and K. J. Stringer, 1993.

External links

Coordinates: 55°47′09″N 2°03′06″W / 55.78579°N 2.05178°W

1333

Year 1333 (MCCCXXXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

1333 in Scotland

Events from the year 1333 in the Kingdom of Scotland.

Adam de Gordon, Lord of Gordon

Sir Adam de Gordon (died 1333), lord of Gordon, was a Scottish statesman and soldier.

Alan Stewart of Dreghorn

Sir Alan Stewart of Dreghorn (died 19 July 1333) was a Scottish nobleman.

Alexander Bruce, Earl of Carrick

Alexander Bruce, Earl of Carrick (died 19 July 1333) was an illegitimate son of Edward Bruce, younger brother of Robert the Bruce. His mother may have been Isabel, daughter of John de Strathbogie, 9th Earl of Atholl.

He played an ambivalent role during Edward Balliol's first invasion of Scotland. He fought for the Bruce loyalists at the Battle of Dupplin Moor. He then joined the Balliol side, and was captured by the Bruce loyalists and nearly killed at the Battle of Annan. He rejoined the Bruce loyalist side, and was killed fighting with them at the Battle of Halidon Hill.

Alexander was the first husband of Eleanor Douglas, daughter of Sir Archibald Douglas, Guardian of Scotland. They had a daughter Eleanor de Brus, who reputedly married Sir William de Cunynghame of Kilmaurs.

Archibald Douglas (died 1333)

Sir Archibald Douglas (before 1298 – 19 July 1333) was a Scottish nobleman, Guardian of Scotland, and military leader. He is sometimes given the epithet "Tyneman" (Old Scots: Loser), but this may be a reference to his great-nephew Archibald Douglas, 4th Earl of Douglas.

David Lindsay of Crawford

Sir David Lindsay of Crawford (d. 1355) was a 13th-14th century Scottish noble.

David was the son of Alexander Lindsay of Luffness.He signed the Declaration of Arbroath in 1320. David fought at the Battle of Halidon Hill against the English on 19 July 1333. He was the keeper of Edinburgh Castle in 1346. He held the office of Scottish Ambassador to England in 1349. He also held the office of Custodian of Berwick Castle and was the Scottish Ambassador to England in 1351. David died in 1355.

Halidon Hill

Halidon Hill is a summit, about 2 miles (3 km) west of the centre of Berwick-upon-Tweed, on the border of England and Scotland. It reaches 600 feet (180 m) high. The name of the hill indicates that it once had a fortification on its top. At the Battle of Halidon Hill in 1333, Edward III of England used longbowmen on the heights of the hill to defeat the Scottish army led by Archibald the "Tyneman" Douglas, Regent of Scotland.

Henry de Percy, 2nd Baron Percy

Henry de Percy, 9th Baron Percy and 2nd Baron Percy of Alnwick (1298–1352) was the son of Henry de Percy, 1st Baron Percy of Alnwick, and Eleanor Fitzalan, daughter of Sir Richard FitzAlan, 7th Earl of Arundel, and sister of Richard FitzAlan, 8th Earl of Arundel.

Henry was sixteen when his father died, so the Barony was placed in the custody of John de Felton.In 1316 he was granted the lands of Patrick IV, Earl of March, in Northumberland, by King Edward II of England. In 1322, was made governor of Pickering Castle and of the town and castle of Scarborough and was later knighted at York. Henry joined with other barons to remove the Despensers, who were favorites of Edward II.

Following a disastrous war with the Scots, Henry was empowered along with William Zouche to negotiate the Treaty of Edinburgh–Northampton. This was an unpopular treaty and peace between England and Scotland lasted only five years.

He was appointed to Edward III's Council in 1327 and was given the manor and castle of Skipton. Was granted, by Edward III, the castle and barony of Warkworth in 1328. He was at the siege of Dunbar, the siege of Berwick and the Battle of Halidon Hill and was subsequently appointed constable of Berwick-upon-Tweed. In 1346, Henry commanded the right wing of the English, at the Battle of Neville's Cross.He married Idonia, daughter of Robert de Clifford, 1st Baron de Clifford, and had the following children;

Henry, b.1320, succeeded his father as 3rd Baron Percy of Alnwick

Thomas Percy, Bishop of Norwich

Roger

Maud Percy, married John Neville, 3rd Baron Neville de Raby

Eleanor Percy, married John FitzWalter, 2nd Baron FitzWalter (c.1315 – 18 October 1361)

Isabel Percy, married Sir William de Aton, 2nd Lord Aton, and had a daughter, Katherine Aton. Katherine Aton's son, William Eure, married Maud FitzHugh, daughter of Henry FitzHugh, 3rd Baron FitzHugh.

Margaret married in 1340 Sir Robert d'Umfraville of Pallethorp, Hessle, Yorks; she married as his 2nd wife before 1368 William Ferrers, 3rd Baron Ferrers of Groby (1332-1370) son of Henry Ferrers of Groby by Isabel de Verdun. Margaret died 1375 at Gyng, Essex.In 1329, he founded a chantry, to celebrate divine service for his soul.

Hugh, Earl of Ross

Hugh [probably Gaelic: Aodh], was the third successor of Ferchar mac in tSagairt as 4th Earl or Mormaer of Ross (1323–1333).

Hugh the Dull, Lord of Douglas

Hugh the Dull (1294 – between 1342 and 1346) was Lord of Douglas, a Scottish nobleman and cleric.

The second son of William the Hardy, Lord of Douglas, William Wallace's companion in arms, and Eleanor Ferrers. Hugh's elder brother was Sir James Douglas, a hero of the Wars of Independence, and his younger was Sir Archibald Douglas, Guardian of the realm, and Scots commander at the Battle of Halidon Hill.

John Campbell, Earl of Atholl

John Campbell, Earl of Atholl (died 1333) was a Scottish nobleman.

John Stewart of Bonkyll

Sir John Stewart of Bonkyll (died 22 July 1298) was a son of Alexander Stewart, 4th High Steward of Scotland. He was a military commander during the First Scottish War of Independence. He was killed during the Battle of Falkirk, where he commanded the Scottish archers. Stewart is interred in the churchyard of the Falkirk Old Parish Church. He was an uncle to the Black Douglas.

Kenneth de Moravia, 4th Earl of Sutherland

Kenneth de Moravia (also known as Kenneth Sutherland ) (died 19 July 1333) was the 4th Earl of Sutherland and chief of Clan Sutherland.

He was the second son of William de Moravia, 2nd Earl of Sutherland. Kenneth’s mother is unknown.

Kenneth succeeded to the earldom on the death of his brother William de Moravia, 3rd Earl of Sutherland, in about December 1330.

Kenneth is thought to have married Mary (or Marjorie) of Mar, the widow of John of Strathbogie, Earl of Atholl who was executed by the English in London on 7 November 1306. She was the daughter of Domhnall I, Earl of Mar and Helen verch Llewellyn, a daughter of Llewelyn the Great. Mary’s sister, Isabella of Mar, was the first wife of Robert the Bruce (Robert I, King of Scotland).

Kenneth had issue:

1. William, 5th Earl of Sutherland.

2. Nicolas Sutherland, the surname being now fully adopted, ancestor of the Sutherlands, Lords Duffus.

3. Eustachia, married, about December 1330, to Gilbert Moray, son and heir of Reginald Moray of Culbin.Kenneth de Moravia was killed at the Battle of Halidon Hill on 19 July 1333 during the Wars of Scottish Independence, where together with Hugh, Earl of Ross, he led the vanguard of the Scottish army.

Malcolm Fleming, Earl of Wigtown

Malcolm Fleming, Earl of Wigtown († 1363) was the son of Robert Fleming, a Stewart vassal and holder of the lands of Fulwood and Cumbernauld, who died sometime before 1314. He was the "foster-father" of King David II of Scotland and became the first man to hold the title Earl of Wigtown.

Malcolm was given the barony of Kirkintilloch forfeited from the Comyns by King Robert I of Scotland during the First War of Scottish Independence and received other lands in Lennox and Wigtownshire. Malcolm became Sheriff of Dumbarton and keeper of the castle thereafter.

Malcolm was on the defeated Bruce side at the Battle of Halidon Hill in July 1333, but managed to escape, and fled back to Dumbarton. He was partly responsible for sending the boy king, Robert's son David II from Dumbarton to exile in France. When David II returned to Scotland in 1341, David granted Malcolm much of western Galloway (Wigtownshire) and the burgh of Wigtown, and created for him the new title, "Earl of Wigtown". It was the first new earldom in Scotland for more than a century (the last was the earldom of Sutherland). Presumably the intention was to re-establish the power of the Bruce dynasty in the strongly Balliol province.

On 17 October 1346, Malcolm was captured at the Battle of Neville's Cross and imprisoned by Robert Bertram, sheriff of Northumberland, but escaped the following year to Scotland. Malcolm remained a favourite of David II. He married a woman called Marjorie, possibly a native Galwegian who became David II's nurse. He had four known children, an eldest son (name uncertain) who died before 1351, an eldest daughter (name uncertain), a daughter named Marjorie and another daughter named "Evota". Malcolm died either in 1363 or sometime shortly before this year, and was succeeded by his grandson Thomas, heir since 1351.

Malcolm's successor to the earldom of Wigtown, his grandson Thomas, had grave financial problems and was stripped of the rights of regality given to his grandfather. The recreation of the Lordship of Galloway for Archibald the Grim in 1369 posed some conceptual problems for the earldom, as it fell within the old territories of the lordship. Thomas found himself in grave financial difficulties and sold the earldom to Archibald in 1372.

Maol Choluim II, Earl of Lennox

Mormaer Maol Choluim II of Lennox (anglicised Malcolm II of Lennox) (died 19 July 1333) was mormaer (the Celtic equivalent of an earl) of Lennox from 1303 to his death.

Maol Cholium's father, Maol Choluim I embraced the cause of Robert the Bruce as early as 1292. As a result the English king bestowed the Lennox earldom on Sir John Menteith, who was holding it in 1307 while the real earl was with King Robert in his wanderings in the Lennox country. He was allowed to succeed to the Mormaerdom only on giving homage to King Edward I of England and attending Edward's court. It was perhaps to ease this process, that his mother Marjorie became an informant of the English crown. Maol Choluim assisted Edward initially by raising men from his Mormaerdom. Nevertheless, Maol Choluim's Bruce loyalties were the same as his father Maol Choluim I's, and this was keenly displayed when he attended Robert's coronation.

He was one of the signatories of the Declaration of Arbroath in 1320.

Maol Choluim was in fact one of the most loyal followers of Bruce, and was rewarded by both Bruce and by later pro-Bruce writers such as John Barbour and John of Fordun, who wrote much praise of him. Robert even retired in Lennox country, at the settlement of Cardross.

Maol Choluim died in 1333 fighting for the Bruce cause against the Anglo-Balliol alliance at Battle of Halidon Hill.

He had two known sons by an unknown wife, his successor Domhnall and Muireadhach.

Sir William Felton

Sir Willian Felton (died 1367) and English knight and seneschal of Poitou. Took part in Battle of Halidon Hill, 1333 and fought at Crecy in 1346. He was appointed lord justice of all the king's lands in Scotland in 1348, He fought at battle of Poitiers in 1356. He was appointed seneschal of Poitou in 1360. He accompanied Black Prince on the Spanish campaign in 1367 and was called Felleton Guilliam qui ot cœur de lyon by Chandos Herald. He was killed at the battle of Aríñez a skirmish fought by the vanguard of the Black Prince's army.

William IV, Lord of Douglas

William, Lord of Douglas (died 1333) was a short-lived Scottish nobleman, the son of Sir James Douglas and an unknown mother. Little is known of Lord Douglas's life which, after his father's death in Spain in 1330, he spent under the guardianship of Sir Archibald Douglas.

There are records of transactions occurring in the exchequer accounts of the Lord Chamberlain of Scotland in 1331 that refer to Willelmus dominus de Duglas. There is also a record of a complaint by the monks of Coldingham Priory to David II against the Lord of Douglas and his uncle Sir Archibald, in respect of certain manorial lands at Swinton, Berwickshire. In this the monks claimed that the lands had been given to Lord Douglas' father, Sir James, illegally and with prejudice against the priory at Coldingham.

William of Douglas accompanied his uncle, who had been appointed Guardian of the Realm, to the battlefield of Halidon Hill. There, with his uncle, six belted earls and countless knights and commoners, he was slain. He died unmarried and a minor. The title and privileges of the Lordship of Douglas passed to another uncle, Hugh "the Dull", a Canon of Glasgow and parson of Roxburgh who turned much of the Douglas patrimony over to his cousin William Douglas of Lothian.

In 1778, excavations at the Auld Kirk at North Berwick uncovered the matrix of the seal of William, Lord Douglas. This seal stamp shows the first representation of the heart of Bruce in Douglas heraldry, and shows that it was assumed immediately after the death of Sir James Douglas.

William Prendergast (died 1333)

Sir William Prendergast (died 19 July 1333) was a knight who fought in the Wars of Scottish Independence. He fought on both the English and Scottish sides and was killed while fighting on the Scottish side during the Battle of Halidon Hill.

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