Battle of Edgecote Moor

The Battle of Edgecote Moor took place 6 miles (9.7 km) north east of Banbury, Oxfordshire, in what is now the civil parish of Chipping Warden and Edgcote, England on 26 July 1469 during the Wars of the Roses. The site of the battle was actually Danes Moor in Northamptonshire, at a crossing of a tributary of the River Cherwell. The battle saw supporters of Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick, defeat the forces of King Edward IV, leading to the king's capitulation soon afterwards.

Battle of Edgecote Moor
Part of Wars of the Roses
Lancaster victory over York
Date26 July 1469
Location
Danes Moor in Northamptonshire, England
Result Rebel victory
Belligerents
Yorkshire rose.svg House of York (Rebel) Yorkshire rose.svg House of York (Royal)
Commanders and leaders
Robin of Redesdale Herbert arms.svg William Herbert, Earl of Pembroke Executed
Humphrey Stafford, Earl of Devon
Strength
Unknown Unknown
Casualties and losses
Unknown Unknown

The defection of the Earl of Warwick

The Earl of Warwick came to be in open rebellion against Edward by 1469. Eight years after the great Yorkists' victory in battle of Towton in which The Kingmaker took crucial part, he and Edward IV fell out. In 1464 Warwick was in the middle of negotiations with pro-Lancastrian France, and he knew that a royal marriage with a French princess could solve their problems. Warwick told Louis XI that Edward would be delighted to marry the French princess, but soon afterwards was informed of the humiliating truth: Edward had secretly been married to Elizabeth Woodville, a commoner, for the past six months. Later on, Elizabeth's brothers and sisters were married off to ladies and nobles of importance, throughout the land. Most of these marriages offended Warwick in some way, and at least one was a direct insult to his family.

Warwick was also angered by Edward's constant refusal to let George, Duke of Clarence, marry Warwick's eldest daughter. Edward claimed hypocritically that Clarence would serve for a diplomatic marriage and none other.

Warwick no longer exercised any control or even influence over his cousin, the King, in political matters. Thoughts turned to rebellion in Warwick's mind, a rebellion in which he already had an ally: the Duke of Clarence, heir to the English throne while the king had no male offspring.

The rebellion

Small rebellions in the North sent the King on a slow march in that direction. With the King's back turned, Warwick's agents spread rumours stating that the King was bastard-born and that Clarence was York's true heir.

In the North, one of Warwick's captains, calling himself Robin of Redesdale (probably a trusted Neville captain, Sir William Conyers), started a new rebellion. When Edward heard of this, he believed the rebellion would easily be put down and mustered only a few of his men. He soon learned that the rebels in fact outnumbered his own small force, and he started a retreat towards Nottingham to gather more recruits. Unfortunately, the King lacked the popularity he once had, and reinforcements were few. Edward decided to wait in Nottingham for the Earls of Pembroke and Devon to arrive with an army from the south.

On 12 July, Warwick and Clarence declared their support for the rebels. On the 18th, Warwick left London at the head of a large army to reinforce the rebels.

Danesmoor (site of the Battle of Edgcote) - geograph.org.uk - 815349
Danesmoor, the site of the Battle of Edgecote

The rebels hurried south to meet with Warwick, bypassing the King but nearly colliding with Pembroke and Devon at Edgecote Moor. The two armies became aware of each other on 25 July and joined in battle early in the morning of the 26th, on the same site as the Battle of Danes Moor (914). The beginning was a rather one-sided affair as the Earl of Devon and his Welsh archers were some miles away, having stayed the night in a neighbouring village. The rebels attacked across the river forcing Pembroke to retreat and pull his men back some distance. Pembroke was attacked again in his new position, but he put up a brave defence while awaiting Devon. At 1 o'clock the Earl received the news he had been waiting for: Devon was rapidly advancing with all his men. However, at the same time the advance guard of Warwick's army arrived upon the field. Rebel morale was instantly boosted. Seeing Warwick's livery amongst the enemy, Pembroke's men presumed his whole force of expert soldiers was upon them. The royal army broke and fled the field, possibly before Devon could even reinforce them.

The Earl of Pembroke and his brother Sir Richard Herbert were captured and executed the following day. The Earl of Devon suffered a similar fate a few days later.[1]

The rebel dead included Henry Neville (1437-1469), the eldest son and heir of George Neville, 1st Baron Latimer, Sir John Conyers (ca 1420-26 Jul 1469), the son of their general (presumably "Robin of Redesdale") and Sir Oliver Dudley, the youngest son of John Sutton, 1st Baron Dudley.[2]

Following the battle, Richard Woodville, Earl Rivers, father of the Yorkist Queen Elizabeth Woodville, and his second son John were taken prisoners at Chepstow. Following a hasty show trial, they were beheaded at Kenilworth on 12 August 1469

Commemoration and re-enactments

On 12 and 13 September 2009 there was a re-creation of the battle on the actual battlefield, staged by the Medieval Siege Society and the English Tournament Society to commemorate the 540th anniversary.

Following the success of the 2009 commemoration and re-enactment, a second recreation was staged on 11 and 12 September 2010 for the 541st anniversary.

Since 2009, an annual walk of the battlefield and the key sites has taken place on the Sunday closest to the anniversary. The walk pauses at the Trafford Bridge site to lay a wreath remembering all those that lost their lives from both sides. This is also organised by the Medieval Siege Society.

References

  1. ^ "Buckinghams Retinue". Archived from the original on 7 September 2009. Retrieved 22 July 2010.
  2. ^ THE BATTLE OF EDGECOTE www.luminarium.org

External links

Coordinates: 52°06′52″N 1°14′50″W / 52.11444°N 1.24722°W

1460s in England

Events from the 1460s in England.

Anne Woodville

Anne Woodville, Viscountess Bourchier (c. 1438 – 30 July 1489) was an English noblewoman. She was a younger sister of Queen Consort Elizabeth Woodville to whom she served as a lady-in-waiting. Anne was married twice; first to William Bourchier, Viscount Bourchier, and secondly to George Grey, 2nd Earl of Kent. Anne was the grandmother of the disinherited adulteress Anne Bourchier, 7th Baroness Bourchier, and an ancestress of Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex.

Anthony Woodville, 2nd Earl Rivers

Anthony Woodville, 2nd Earl Rivers (c. 1440 – 25 June 1483), Knight of the Garter, was an English nobleman, courtier, bibliophile and writer. He was the brother of Queen Elizabeth Woodville who married King Edward IV. He was one of the leading members of the Woodville family, which came to prominence during the reign of King Edward IV. After Edward's death he was arrested and then executed by the future Richard III as part of a power-struggle between Richard and the Woodvilles. He wrote one of the first books printed in England.

Battle of Danes Moor

The Battle of Danes Moor (or 'Dunsmoor') occurred between the Danes and the Saxons in 914 on Danes Moor between Culworth and Edgecote, north-east of Banbury, Oxfordshire, at a crossing of a tributary of the River Cherwell.

The Battle occurred around the time of the Anglo-Saxon pushback against the Danelaw when Edward 'the Elder' of Wessex and Æthelflæd of Mercia began a series of campaigns against the Danelaws, eventually subjugating them into the Kingdom of England.

The battlefield was also the site of the 1469 Battle of Edgecote Moor.

Battle of Losecoat Field

The Battle of Losecoat Field (also known as the Battle of Empingham) was fought on 12 March 1470, during the Wars of the Roses. Spellings of "Losecoat" vary, with "Losecote" and "Loose-coat" also seen.

The battle secured the defeat of the poorly organised Welles Uprising against King Edward IV, but ultimately led to the defection of Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick and the king's brother George, Duke of Clarence to the Lancastrian cause after they were forced to flee the country having been implicated in the rebellion.

Church of St Mary, Kington

The Church of St Mary, or St. Mary the Virgin Church, is Grade I listed church building at Kington, Herefordshire, England.

The church was established c. 1300, but is much-altered. It has a 12th-century tower, originally free-standing, and included in the church when the latter was extended in the 13th century. A double broach spire was added in the 18th century. The tower houses a six-bell ring. Five were made by Rudhall of Gloucester between 1736 and 1739, including the tenor, which weighs 11 long cwt 23 lb (1,255 lb or 569 kg) and is in the key of F-sharp. The other bell was made by William Evans of Chepstow in 1764. The bells were refurbished in 1978 by the Whitechapel Bell Foundry. The church also has an organ made by J. W. Walker & Sons Ltd, installed in the North chancel chamber in 1883 and improved and refurbished by Henry Willis & Sons in 1959.

The lychgate is made from brick.

Inside the church is an alabaster monument to Sir Thomas Vaughan (died 1469 at the Battle of Edgecote Moor) and his wife Elen Gethin.The church was Grade I listed in October 1953, giving it legal protection from unauthorised alteration or demolition. It is part of the Diocese of Hereford and is one of five (three in England, two in Wales) that are jointly administered as the "Kington Parishes"'.

Edmund Beaufort (died 1471)

Edmund Beaufort (c. 1438 – 6 May 1471), styled 4th Duke of Somerset, was an English nobleman, and a military commander during the Wars of the Roses, in which he supported King Henry VI.

Elizabeth FitzHugh

Elizabeth FitzHugh (1455/65 - before 10 July 1507) was an English noblewoman. She is best known for being the grandmother of Catherine Parr, sixth queen consort to Henry VIII, and her siblings Anne Herbert, Countess of Pembroke, and William Parr, 1st Marquess of Northampton.

George Neville, 1st Baron Latimer

George Neville, 1st Baron Latimer or (Latymer) (c. 1407 – 30 December 1469) was an English peer.

George Neville was the fifth son of Ralph de Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland, by his second wife Lady Joan Beaufort, daughter of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster. He succeeded to the Latymer estates on the death of his half-uncle John Neville, 6th Baron Latimer, in 1430 (see Baron Latimer), and on 25 February 1432 he was summoned to Parliament as Baron Latimer.Lord Latimer later fought in Scotland in 1436, was a Justice of the Peace for Cumberland in 1437 and admitted to the Privy Council in 1439.

In 1437, Lord Latimer married Lady Elizabeth (1417–1480), daughter of Richard de Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick, by his first wife, Elizabeth Berkeley.

They had four children:

Katherine Neville, who died childless.

Sir Henry Neville (d. 26 July 1469), who married Joan Bourchier, daughter of John Bourchier, 1st Baron Berners, and Marjorie Berners, and had:

Joan Neville, born ca 1464, Latimer, Buckinghamshire, England; she married Sir James Ratclyffe.

Richard Neville, 2nd Baron Latimer (Latimer, Buckinghamshire / Sinnington, North Riding of Yorkshire, ca. 1468 – Snape, North Yorkshire, December 1530, bur. Well, North Yorkshire), married in Grafton, Worcestershire, in 1490 to Anne Stafford (Grafton, Worcestershire, ca. 1471 – aft. 1513, bur. Well, North Yorkshire), daughter of Sir Humphrey Stafford of Grafton (Grafton, Worcestershire, ca. 1427 – executed by order of King Henry VII for siding with Richard III, Tyburn, 8 July 1486) and Catherine Fray (1437–1482), and had issue which included John Nevill, 3rd Baron Latimer.

Thomas Neville (1468–1546) (Esq.), born in Shenstone, Staffordshire, England. He was Lord of Mathom; married Letitia Harcourt (1494–1520), daughter of Sir Robert Harcourt of Stanton Harcourt and Agnes Lymbrake and had issue.

Thomas Neville, of Shenstone, Staffordshire.

Jane Neville, who married Oliver Dudley.George Neville appears to have suffered from some form of dementia in his later years, as he was described as an "idiot," and the guardianship of his lands was given to his nephew, Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick, the Kingmaker. George Neville, Lord Latimer, died on 30 December 1469 and was succeeded in the barony by his grandson Richard, his eldest son Sir Henry Neville having predeceased him by several months, dying at the Battle of Edgecote Moor, 26 July 1469.

John Langstrother

Sir John Langstrother (died 1471) was Treasurer of England, prior of the Knights of St John in England, and Preceptor of Balsall.A son of Thomas Langstrother of Crosswaite, he was by 1463 a councillor of the Yorkist king Edward IV. He was an administrator of the Knights of St John of Jerusalem and on 9 March 1469 was unanimously chosen as Prior of England, the Order's chief officer in the kingdom. Following the defeat of Edward's supporters by the Earl of Warwick on 26 July 1469 at the Battle of Edgecote Moor he was appointed Treasurer of England by the short-lived regime of the Duke of Clarence and Warwick, but was dismissed by Edward when he regained power in mid-September. He was reinstated in October 1470 as Treasurer and Warden of the Mint after the temporary re-accession of Henry VI, who had been restored with the help of Clarence and Warwick.

After the Yorkist victory at the Battle of Tewkesbury on 4 May 1471, where he had shared command of the Lancastrian centre, he sought sanctuary in Tewkesbury Abbey but was taken out and executed in Tewkesbury town centre two days later. He was buried in the hospital of St John at Clerkenwell.

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Richard Herbert of Coldbrook

Sir Richard Herbert (d. 1469) of Coldbrook Park, near Abergavenny was a 15th-century Welsh knight, and the lineal ancestor of the Herberts of Chirbury.

He was the son of William ap Thomas of Raglan Castle and Gwladys ferch Dafydd Gam, and the brother of William Herbert, Earl of Pembroke. He married Margaret, sister of Sir Rhys ap Thomas. They had two sons: Sir William Herbert of Coldbrook, and Sir Richard Herbert of Powys. His great-grandson, Edward Herbert, was raised to the peerage in 1629.

Like many members of the Welsh gentry, Herbert was a notable bardic patron. He was the principal patron of Ieuan Deulwyn, and was also a patron of Guto'r Glyn as well as others. He hosted a bardic debate at Coldbrook House between Deulwyn and Bedo Brwynllys. He was eulogized by Ieuan Deulwyn, Bedo Brwynllys, Hywel Dafi, and (jointly with his brother William) Huw Cae Llwyd.Like his brother, he was a supporter of the House of York during the Wars of the Roses. He fought alongside his brother at the Battle of Edgecote Moor (a Lancastrian victory), where he was captured and executed. He is interred with his wife at Abergavenny Priory, near other members of his family.

Richard Neville, 2nd Baron Latimer

Richard Neville, 2nd Baron Latimer KB (c.1468 – c. 28 December 1530) of Snape, North Yorkshire, was an English soldier and peer. He fought at the battles of Stoke and Flodden.

Richard Neville was the eldest son of Sir Henry Neville, who was killed on 26 July 1469 at the Battle of Edgecote Moor, and Joan Bourchier (d. 7 October 1470), daughter of John Bourchier, 1st Baron Berners, by Margery, daughter and heiress of Richard Berners, esquire. He had a brother, Thomas Neville, and a sister, Joan Neville, wife of Sir James Radcliffe.Neville's maternal grandfather, John Bourchier, 1st Baron Berners, was the fourth son of William Bourchier, 1st Count of Eu in Normandy, and his wife Anne of Gloucester, daughter of Thomas of Woodstock, youngest son of King Edward III. By her second husband, Edmund Stafford, 5th Earl of Stafford, Anne of Gloucester was the mother of Humphrey Stafford, 1st Duke of Buckingham.On his father's side, Richard Neville was the grandson of George Neville, 1st Baron Latimer (d. 30 or 31 December 1469), and Elizabeth Beauchamp, the daughter of Richard de Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick.

Richard Woodville, 1st Earl Rivers

Richard Woodville (or Wydeville), 1st Earl Rivers (1405 – 12 August 1469) was an English nobleman, best remembered as the father of Queen consort Elizabeth Woodville and the maternal grandfather of Edward V and the maternal great-grandfather of Henry VIII.

Robin of Redesdale

Robin of Redesdale, sometimes called "Robin Mend-All", was the leader of an insurrection against King Edward IV of England. His true identity is unknown, but it is thought he could have been either Sir John Conyers of Hornby (d. 1490) or his brother Sir William Conyers of Marske (d. 1469), or even both. Whoever he was, the power behind his rebellion was Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick ("Warwick the Kingmaker").During April 1469, the rebellion was raised in the north of England. The rebels were defeated in April by John Neville, Earl of Northumberland, but further troops were raised and the rebels openly denounced the government of Edward IV, demanding that he remove his wife's family, the Woodvilles, from positions of power.

On 26 July, the rebel army met and defeated Edward's army (commanded by William Herbert, Earl of Pembroke) at the Battle of Edgecote Moor. Although they were victorious, Robin himself was reported to have died in the battle, hence his identification with William Conyers who was killed at Edgecote. However, his mantle was temporarily assumed by someone else, apparently Sir John Conyers, when Warwick raised a further rebellion early in 1470. This second "Robin of Redesdale" submitted to Edward IV in March 1470.

Roger Vaughan of Bredwardine

Sir Roger Vaughan of Bredwardine (died 25 October 1415), also known as Roger Fychan the younger, was a Welsh gentleman, described as having possessed wealth, rank, and high respectability. Roger's seat, Bredwardine Castle, is estimated to have been a strong and formidable fortress, located on the banks of the Wye river in Herefordshire, two miles north of Moccas Court. Bredwardine Castle is thought to have furnished much of the material for the building of Moccas Court.

Thomas Herbert (Royal Navy officer)

Vice-Admiral Sir Thomas Herbert, KCB (February 1793 – 4 August 1861), was British Royal Navy officer. He served in the Napoleonic Wars, War of 1812, and First Anglo-Chinese War. From 1847 to 1849, he was commodore of the South East Coast of America Station. Herbert served as Member of Parliament for Dartmouth as a Conservative from 1852 to 1857.

Wardington

Wardington is a village and civil parish in Oxfordshire, about 4 miles (6.4 km) northeast of Banbury. The village consists of two parts: Wardington and Upper Wardington. The village is on a stream that rises in Upper Wardington and flows north to join the River Cherwell.

The parish includes the hamlet of Williamscot, about 1 mile (1.6 km) southwest of Wardington. The parish is bounded to the west and north by the River Cherwell, to the south by a stream that joins the Cherwell, and to the northeast by field boundaries. Its northeastern and southern boundaries also form part of the county boundary with Northamptonshire. The 2011 Census recorded the parish's population as 602.

William Herbert, 1st Earl of Pembroke (died 1469)

William Herbert, 1st Earl of Pembroke KG (c. 1423 – 27 July 1469), known as "Black William", was a Welsh nobleman, politician, and courtier. He was the son of William ap Thomas, founder of Raglan Castle, and Gwladys ferch Dafydd Gam, and grandson of Dafydd Gam, an adherent of King Henry V of England.

His father had been an ally of Richard of York, and Herbert supported the Yorkist cause in the Wars of the Roses. In 1461 Herbert was rewarded by King Edward IV with the title Baron Herbert of Raglan (having assumed an English-style surname in place of the Welsh patronymic), and was invested as a Knight of the Garter.

Soon after the decisive Yorkist victory at the Battle of Towton in 1461, Herbert replaced Jasper Tudor as Earl of Pembroke which gave him control of Pembroke Castle. However, he fell out with Lord Warwick "the Kingmaker" in 1469, when Warwick turned against the King. William and his brother Richard were executed by the Lancastrians, now led by Warwick, after the Battle of Edgecote Moor, near Banbury.Herbert was succeeded by his son, William, but the earldom was surrendered in 1479. It was later revived for a grandson, another William Herbert, the son of Black William's illegitimate son, Sir Richard Herbert of Ewyas.

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