Battle of Borodino

The Battle of Borodino (Russian: Бороди́нское сраже́ние, tr. Borodínskoye srazhéniye; French: Bataille de la Moskova) was a battle fought on 7 September 1812[8] in the Napoleonic Wars during the French invasion of Russia.

The fighting involved around 250,000 troops and left at least 70,000 casualties, making Borodino the deadliest day of the Napoleonic Wars. Napoleon's Grande Armée launched an attack against the Russian army, driving it back from its initial positions but failing to gain a decisive victory. Both armies were exhausted after the battle and the Russians withdrew from the field the following day. Borodino represented the last Russian effort at stopping the French advance on Moscow, which fell a week later. However, the French had no clear way of forcing Tsar Alexander to capitulate because the Russian army was not decisively defeated, resulting in the ultimate defeat of the French invasion following the retreat from Moscow in October.

After a series of Russian retreats at the beginning of the campaign, the nobility grew alarmed about the advancing French troops and forced the Tsar to dismiss the army's commander, Barclay de Tolly. Mikhail Kutuzov was appointed as his replacement. In a final attempt to save Moscow, the Russians made a stand near the village of Borodino, west of the town of Mozhaysk. They fortified their positions and waited for the French to attack. The Russian right wing occupied ideal defensive terrain, so the French tried to press the Russian left for much of the battle.

The highlight of the fighting became the bloody struggle for the large Raevsky redoubt near the village of Borodino. The French managed to capture this redoubt late into the day, gradually forcing the rest of the Russian army to pull back as well. The Russians suffered terrible casualties during the fighting, losing over a third of their army. French losses were also heavy, exacerbating the logistical difficulties that Napoleon encountered in the campaign. The exhaustion of the French forces, and the lack of information on the condition of the Russian army, persuaded Napoleon to remain on the battlefield with his army instead of ordering the kind of vigorous pursuit reminiscent of previous campaigns.[9]

Napoleon's Imperial Guard, the only unit on the battlefield that saw no fighting, was available to swing into action at a moment's notice. In refusing to commit the Guard, some historians believe, he lost his one chance to destroy the Russian army and to win the campaign.[10]

The capture of Moscow proved a pyrrhic victory, since the Russians had no intention of negotiating with Napoleon for peace. The French evacuated Russia's spiritual capital in October and conducted a difficult retreat that lasted until December, by which point the remainder of the Grande Armée had largely unraveled. Historical reports of the battle differed significantly depending on whether they originated from supporters of the French or Russian side. Factional fighting among senior officers within each army also led to conflicting accounts and disagreements over the roles of particular officers.

Battle of Borodino
Part of the French invasion of Russia
Battle of Borodino 1812

Battle of Moscow, 7th September 1812, 1822
by Louis-François Lejeune
Date7 September 1812
Location
55°31′N 35°49′E / 55.517°N 35.817°ECoordinates: 55°31′N 35°49′E / 55.517°N 35.817°E
Result French tactical victory[3]
Territorial
changes
Napoleon captures Moscow
Belligerents

 France

Russian Empire Russian Empire[2]
Commanders and leaders
Strength
130,000–190,000 men
587 guns[4]
120,000–160,000 men
624 guns
Casualties and losses
28,000–35,000 dead, wounded and captured[5]
[6](inc. 47 generals, 480 officers)
40,000–45,000 dead, wounded, and captured[6][7] (inc. 23 generals, 211 officers)

Background

Napoleon's invasion of Russia

The French Grande Armée began its invasion of Russia on 16 June 1812. In response, Emperor Alexander I proclaimed a "Patriotic War" and prepared to face the French. According to the plan of German general Karl Ludwig von Phull, the Russian troops under the command of Count Michael Barclay de Tolly had to face the Grande Armée in the Vilnius region; the remaining troops under general Pyotr Bagration would launch an attack to the French southern flank and rear. However, Phull's plan soon proved to be a serious mistake, as the enormous Grande Armée was more than enough to separate and crush both Russian armies at the same time. Furthermore, the participation of Tsar Alexander I as commander caused more chaos in the Russian army. The Russian forces which were massed along the Polish frontier were obliged to fall back in the face of the swift French advance.[11]

Vereshagin.Napoleon near Borodino
Napoleon I on the Borodino Heights, by Vasily Vereshchagin (1897)

Napoleon advanced from Vitebsk, hoping to catch the Russian army in the open where he could annihilate it.[12] The French army was not positioned well for an extended overland campaign; it was 925 km (575 mi) from its nearest supply base at Kovno (Kaunas). French supply lines were vulnerable and Cossacks, light cavalry, guerrilla forces and even French deserters attacked and seriously depleted French supply columns.[13] The central French force under Napoleon's direct command had crossed the Niemen with 286,000 men but by the time of the battle was reduced to 161,475, mostly through starvation and disease.[14] Nonetheless, the prospect of a decisive battle lured Napoleon deeper into Russia and further stretched his supply lines.

Infighting between Barclay's subordinates repeatedly prevented the Russian commander from committing his forces to battle.[15] Barclay's fellow generals and the Russian court viewed the constant retreat as a reluctance to fight; consequently, he was removed from command and replaced by Prince Mikhail Kutuzov on 29 August 1812.[16] Although the 67-year-old General Kutuzov was not seen by his contemporaries as the equal of Napoleon,[17] he possessed the ability to muster a good defence.[18] He was favoured over Barclay because he was Russian whereas Barclay was of Scottish descent and officers subordinate to Barclay could accept Kutuzov, thereby uniting the army.[19] On 18 August Kutuzov arrived at Tsaryovo-Zaymishche to greet the army.[20]

After taking over the army, Kutuzov organized a strong rearguard under the command of General Konovnytsyn and then ordered the army to prepare for battle. Kutuzov understood that Barclay's decision to retreat was correct, but the Russian troops could not accept further retreat. A battle had to occur in order to preserve the morale of the soldiers.[11] The new commander had still not managed to establish a defensive position when the armies were within 125 kilometres (78 mi) of Moscow. He then ordered another retreat to Gzhatsk (Gagarin) on 30 August, by which time the ratio of French to Russian forces had shrunk from 3:1 to 5:4.[21] The time to fight had arrived.[11]

Napoleon's Grande Armée made its final approach to Moscow from the WSW along the Smolensk Roads with the Moscow River on its left flank. A defensive line was established in the best available position along this path before Moscow near the village of Borodino.[22] Although the Borodino field was too open and had too few natural obstacles to protect the Russian center and the left flank, it was chosen due to the protection provided by the Kolocha river, because it blocked both Smolensk–Moscow roads and because there were simply no better locations.[11] Starting on 3 September, Kutuzov strengthened the line with earthworks, including the Raevski Redoubt in the center-right of the line and three open, arrow-shaped "Bagration flèches" (named after Pyotr Bagration) on the left.[23]

Battle of Shevardino Redoubt

The initial Russian position, which stretched south of the new Smolensk Highway (Napoleon's expected route of advance), was anchored on its left by a pentagonal earthwork redoubt erected on a mound near the village of Shevardino.[24] The Russian generals soon realized that their left wing was too exposed and vulnerable.[11] So the Russian line was moved back from this position, but the Redoubt remained manned, Kutuzov stating that the fortification was manned simply to delay the advance of the French forces. Historian Dmitry Buturlin reports that it was used as an observation point to determine the course of the French advance. Historians Witner and Ratch, and many others, reported it was used as a fortification to threaten the French right flank, despite being beyond effective reach of guns of the period.[25]

The Chief of Staff of the Russian 1st Army, Aleksey Yermolov, related in his memoirs that the Russian left was shifting position when the French Army arrived sooner than expected; thus the Battle of Shevardino became a delaying effort to shield the redeployment of the Russian left. The construction of the redoubt and its purpose is disputed by historians to this day.[26]

The conflict began on September 5 when Marshal Joachim Murat's French forces met Konovnitzyn's Russians in a massive cavalry clash, the Russians eventually retreating to the Kolorzkoi Cloister when their flank was threatened. Fighting resumed the next day but Konovnitzyn again retreated when Viceroy Eugène de Beauharnais' Fourth Corps arrived, threatening his flank. The Russians withdrew to the Shevardino Redoubt, where a pitched battle ensued. Murat led Nansouty's First Cavalry Corps and Montbrun's Second Cavalry Corps, supported by Compans's Division of Louis Nicolas Davout's First Infantry Corps against the redoubt. Simultaneously, Prince Josef Poniatowski's Polish infantry attacked the position from the south. Fighting was heavy and very fierce, as the Russians refused to retreat until Kutuzov personally ordered them to do so.[11] The French captured the redoubt, at a cost of 4,000–5,000 French and 6,000 Russian casualties.[27] The small redoubt was destroyed and covered by the dead and dying of both sides.[28]

The unexpected French advance from the west and the fall of the Shevardino redoubt threw the Russian formation into disarray. Since the left flank of their defensive position had collapsed, Russian forces withdrew to the east, constructing a makeshift position centered around the village of Utitsa. The left flank of the Russian position was thus ripe for a flanking attack.

Opposing forces

Peter von Hess 002
Battle of Borodino, by Peter von Hess, 1843. In the center it shows Bagration after being wounded.

A series of reforms to the Russian army had begun in 1802, creating regiments of three battalions, each battalion having four companies. The defeats of Austerlitz, Eylau, and Friedland led to important additional reforms, though continuous fighting in the course of three wars with France, two with Sweden, and two with the Ottoman Empire had not allowed time for these to be fully implemented and absorbed.[29] A divisional system was introduced in 1806, and corps were established in 1812.[30] Prussian influence may be seen in the organizational setup. By the time of Borodino the Russian army had changed greatly from the force which met the French in 1805-07.

Russian forces present at the battle included 180 infantry battalions, 164 cavalry squadrons, 20 Cossack regiments, and 55 artillery batteries (637 artillery pieces). In total, the Russians fielded 155,200 troops.[31] There were 10,000 Cossacks as well as 33,000 Russian militiamen in the area who did not participate in the battle. After the battle the militia units were broken up to provide reinforcements to depleted regular infantry battalions. Of the 637 Russian artillery pieces, 300 were held in reserve and many of these were never committed to the battle.[7]

According to historian Alexander Mikaberidze, the French army remained the finest army of its day by a good margin.[32] The fusion of the legacy of the Ancien Régime with the formations of the French revolution and Napoleon's reforms had transformed it into a military machine that had dominated Europe since 1805. Each corps of the French army was in fact its own mini-army capable of independent action.[32]

French forces included 214 battalions of infantry, 317 squadrons of cavalry and 587 artillery pieces totaling 128,000 troops.[33] However, the French Imperial Guard, which consisted of 30 infantry battalions, 27 cavalry squadrons and 109 artillery pieces—a total of 18,500 troops—was never committed to action.[31]

Battle

Position

The ground taken up by the left wing presented no particular advantages. Some hillocks with a gentle slope, and perhaps twenty feet high, together with strips of shrubby wood, formed so confused a whole, that it was difficult to pronounce which party would have the advantage of the ground. Thus, the best side of the position, the right wing, could be of no avail to redeem the defects of the left. The whole position too strongly indicated the left flank to the French as the object of the operation, to admit to their forces being attracted to the right.

— Carl von Clausewitz, The Battle of Borodino, Mikaberidze, Alexander p. 26
Battle of Borodino map
Map of the battle

The Russian position at Borodino consisted of a series of disconnected earthworks running in an arc from the Moskva River on the right, along its tributary, the Kolocha (whose steep banks added to the defense), and towards the village of Utitsa on the left.[34] Thick woods interspersed along the Russian left and center (on the French side of the Kolocha) made the deployment and control of French forces difficult, aiding the defenders. The Russian center was defended by the Raevsky Redoubt, a massive open-backed earthwork mounting nineteen 12-pounder cannons which had a clear field of fire all the way to the banks of the Kolocha stream.

Kutuzov was very concerned that the French might take the New Smolensk Road around his positions and on to Moscow[35] so placed the more powerful 1st Army under Barclay on the right, in positions which were already strong and virtually unassailable by the French. The 2nd Army under Bagration was expected to hold the left. The fall of Shevardino unanchored the Russian left flank but Kutuzov did nothing to change these initial dispositions despite the repeated pleas of his generals to redeploy their forces.[34]

Thus, when the action began and became a defensive rather than an offensive battle for the Russians, their heavy preponderance in artillery was wasted on a right wing that would never be attacked, while the French artillery did much to help win the battle.[34] Colonel Karl Wilhelm von Toll and others would make attempts to cover up their mistakes in this deployment and later attempts by historians would compound the issue.[36] Indeed, Clausewitz also complained about Toll's dispositions being so narrow and deep that needless losses were incurred from artillery fire. The Russian position therefore was just about 8 kilometres (5 mi) long with about 80,000 of the 1st Army on the right and 34,000 of the 2nd Army on the left.[37]

Bagration's flèches

Battle of Borodino panorama - detail 05
Nansouty's heavy cavalry attacks squares of Russian guardsmen to the left of Semyanovskaya (background) to support Ney's attack. Detail from the Borodino Panorama by Franz Roubaud, 1912.
Lejb Guard Litov attack at Borodino
Russian Leib-Guard attacking at Borodino

The first area of operations was on the Bagration flèches, as had been predicted by both Barclay de Tolly and Bagration. Napoleon, in command of the French forces, made errors similar to those of his Russian adversary, deploying his forces inefficiently and failing to exploit the weaknesses in the Russian line. Despite Marshal Davout's suggestion of a maneuver to outflank the weak Russian left, the Emperor instead ordered Davout's First Corps to move directly forward into the teeth of the defense, while the flanking maneuver was left to the weak Fifth Corps of Prince Poniatowski.[38]

The initial French attack was aimed at seizing the three Russian positions collectively known as the Bagration flèches, three arrow-head shaped, open-backed earthworks which arced out to the left en échelon in front of the Kolocha stream. These positions helped support the Russian left, which had no terrain advantages. There was much to be desired in the construction of the flèches, one officer noting that the ditches were much too shallow, the embrasures open to the ground, making them easy to enter, and that they were much too wide exposing infantry inside them.[39] The flèches were supported by artillery from the village of Semyanovskaya, whose elevation dominated the other side of the Kolocha.[34]

The battle began at 06:00 with the opening of the 102-gun French grand battery against the Russian center.[40] Davout sent Compans's Division against the southernmost of the flèches, with Dessaix's Division echeloned out to the left.[41] When Compans exited the woods on the far bank of the Kolocha, he was hit by massed Russian cannon fire; both Compans and Dessaix were wounded, but the French continued their assault.[42] Davout, seeing the confusion, personally led the 57th Line Regiment (Le Terrible) forward until he had his horse shot from under him; he fell so hard that General Sorbier reported him as dead. General Rapp arrived to replace him, only to find Davout alive and leading the 57th forward again. Rapp then led the 61st Line Regiment forward when he was wounded (for the 22nd time in his career).

By 07:30, Davout had gained control of the three flèches. Prince Bagration quickly led a counterattack that threw the French out of the positions, only to have Marshal Michel Ney lead a charge by the 24th Regiment that retook them.[42] Although not enamoured of Barclay, Bagration turned to him for aid, ignoring Kutuzov altogether; Barclay, to his credit, responded quickly, sending three guard regiments, eight grenadier battalions, and twenty-four 12-pounder cannon at their best pace to bolster Semyаnovskaya.[43] Colonel Toll and Kutuzov moved the Guard Reserve units forward as early as 09:00 hours.[44]

Roubaud fleshes
Ney's infantry push Russian grenadiers back from the flèches (which can be seen from the rear in the background). Detail from the Borodino Panorama.

During the confused fighting, French and Russian units moved forward into impenetrable smoke and were smashed by artillery and musketry fire that was horrendous even by Napoleonic standards. Infantry and cavalrymen had difficulty maneuvering over the heaps of corpses and masses of wounded. Murat advanced with his cavalry around the flèches to attack Bagration's infantry, but was confronted by Duka's 2nd Cuirassier Division supported by Neverovsky's infantry.[45]

The French carried out seven assaults against the flèches and each time were beaten back in fierce close combat. Bagration in some instances was personally leading counterattacks, and in a final attempt to push the French completely back he got hit in the leg by cannonball splinters somewhere around 11:00 hours.[45] He insisted on staying on the field to observe Duka's decisive cavalry attack.[45]

This counter-punch drove Murat to seek the cover of allied Württemberger infantry. Barclay's reinforcements, however, were sent into the fray only to be torn to pieces by French artillery, leaving Friant's Division in control of the Russian forward position at 11:30. Dust, smoke, confusion, and exhaustion all combined to keep the French commanders on the field (Davout, Ney, and Murat) from comprehending that all the Russians before them had fallen back, were in confusion, and ripe for the taking.[46]

The 2nd Army's command structure fell apart as Bagration was evacuated from the battlefield and the report of him being hit quickly spread and caused morale collapse. Napoleon, who had been sick with a cold and was too far from the action to really observe what was going on, refused to send his subordinates reinforcements. He was hesitant to release his last reserve, the Imperial Guard, so far from France.[46]

First attacks on the Raevsky redoubt

Battle of Borodino panorama - detail 04
Saxon cuirassiers and Polish lancers of Latour-Maubourg's cavalry corps clash with Russian cuirassiers. The rise of Raevsky redoubt is on the right, the steeple of Borodino church in the background. Detail from the Borodino Panorama.

Prince Eugène de Beauharnais advanced his corps against Borodino, rushing the village and capturing it from the Russian Guard Jägers.[47] However, the advancing columns rapidly lost their cohesion; shortly after clearing Borodino, they faced fresh Russian assault columns and retreated back to the village. General Delzons was posted to Borodino to prevent the Russians retaking it.[48]

Morand's division then crossed to the north side of the Semyenovka stream, while the remainder of Eugène's forces crossed three bridges across the Kolocha to the south, placing them on the same side of the stream as the Russians. He then deployed most of his artillery and began to push the Russians back toward the Raevsky redoubt. Broussier and Morand's divisions then advanced together with furious artillery support. The redoubt changed hands as Barclay was forced to personally rally Paskevitch's routed regiment.[49]

Kutuzov ordered Yermolov to take action; the general brought forward three horse artillery batteries that began to blast the open-ended redoubt, while the 3rd Battalion of the Ufa Regiment and two Jäger regiments brought up by Barclay rushed in with the bayonet to eliminate Bonami's Brigade.[50] The Russian reinforcements' assault returned the redoubt to Russian control.

Battery of Raevsky
French and Russian cavalry clash behind the Raevsky redoubt. Details from Roubaud's panoramic painting.

Eugène's artillery continued to pound Russian support columns, while Marshals Ney and Davout set up a crossfire with artillery positioned on the Semyonovskaya heights.[51] Barclay countered by moving the Prussian General Eugen over to the right to support Miloradovich in his defense of the redoubt.[52] The French responded to this move by sending forward General Sorbier, commander of the Imperial Guard artillery. Sorbier brought forth 36 artillery pieces from the Imperial Guard Artillery Park and also took command of 49 horse artillery pieces from Nansouty's Ist Cavalry Corps and La Tour Maubourg's IV Cavalry Corps, as well as of Viceroy Eugène's own artillery, opening up a massive artillery barrage.[53]

When Barclay brought up troops against an attacking French brigade, he described it as "a walk into Hell".[51] During the height of the battle, Kutuzov's subordinates were making all of the decisions for him; according to Colonel Karl von Clausewitz, famous for his work On War, the Russian commander "seemed to be in a trance."[52] With the death of General Kutaisov, Chief of Artillery, most of the Russian cannon sat useless on the heights to the rear and were never ordered into battle, while the French artillery wreaked havoc on the Russians.[54]

The Cossack raid on the northern flank

Borodino-Desarno-Large
General Uvarov behind French lines;
by Auguste-Joseph Desarnod

On the morning of the battle at around 07:30, patrols of Don Cossacks from Matvei Platov's pulk had discovered a ford across the Kolocha river, on the extreme Russian right (northern) flank. Seeing that the ground in front of them was clear of enemy forces, Platov saw an opportunity to go around the French left flank and into the enemy's rear. He at once sent one of his aides to ask for permission from Kutuzov for such an operation. Platov's aide was lucky enough to encounter Colonel von Toll, an enterprising member of Kutuzov's staff, who suggested that General Uvarov's Ist Cavalry Corps be added to the operation and at once volunteered to present the plan to the commander-in-chief.[11]

Together, they went to see Kutuzov, who nonchalantly gave his permission. There was no clear plan and no objectives had been drawn up, the whole manoeuvre being interpreted by both Kutuzov and Uvarov as a feint. Uvarov and Platov thus set off, having just around 8000 cavalrymen and 12 guns in total, and no infantry support. As Uvarov moved southwest and south and Platov moved west, they eventually arrived in the undefended rear of Viceroy Eugène's IV Corps. This was towards midday, just as the Viceroy was getting his orders to conduct another assault on the Raevski redoubt.[11]

The sudden appearance of masses of enemy cavalry so close to the supply train and to the Emperor's Headquarters caused panic and consternation and prompted Eugène to immediately cancel his attack and pull back his entire Corps westwards to deal with this alarming situation. Meanwhile, the two Russian cavalry commanders tried to break what French infantry they could find in the vicinity. Having no infantry of their own, the poorly coordinated Russian attacks came to nothing.[11]

Unable to achieve much else, Platov and Uvarov moved back to their own lines and the action was perceived as a failure by both Kutuzov and the Russian General Staff. As it turned out, the action had the utmost importance in the outcome of the battle, as it delayed the attack of the IV Corps on the Raevski redoubt for a critical two hours. During these two hours, the Russians were able to reassess the situation, realize the terrible state of Bagration's 2nd Army and send reinforcements to the front line. Meanwhile, the retreat of Viceroy Eugène's Corps had left Montbrun's II French Cavalry Corps to fill the gap under the most murderous fire, which used and demoralized these cavalrymen, greatly reducing their combat effectiveness. The delay contradicted a military principle the Emperor had stated many times: "Ground I may recover, time never."[55] The Cossack raid contributed to Napoleon's later decision not to commit his Imperial Guard to battle.[11]

Final attack on Raevsky redoubt

Adam-Borodino French cuirassiers
French cuirassiers charge into the Raevsky redoubt.

At 14:00, Napoleon renewed the assault against the redoubt, as Broussier's, Morand's, and Gérard's divisions launched a massive frontal attack, with Chastel's light cavalry division on their left and the II Reserve Cavalry Corps on their right;[52]

The Russians sent Likhachov's 24th Division into the battle, who fought bravely under Likhachov's motto: "Brothers, behind us is Moscow!" But the French troops approached too close for the cannons to fire, and the cannoneers fought a pitched close-order defence against the attackers.[11] General Caulaincourt ordered Watier's cuirassier division to lead the assault. Barclay saw Eugène's preparations for the assault and attempted to counter it, moving his forces against it. The French artillery, however, began bombarding the assembling force even as it gathered. Caulaincourt led Watier's cuirassiers in an assault on the opening at the back of the redoubt; he was killed as the charge was beaten off by fierce Russian musketry.[56]

General Thielmann then led eight Saxon and two Polish cavalry squadrons against the back of the redoubt, while officers and sergeants of his command actually forced their horses through the redoubt's embrasures, sowing confusion amongst the defenders and allowing the French cavalry and infantry to take the position. The battle had all but ended, with both sides so exhausted that only the artillery was still at work.[9] At 15:30, the Raevsky redoubt fell with most of the 24th Division's troops. All the Russian cannoneers in Raevsky died right next to their cannons,[11] and General Likhachov was captured by the French.[57] But among the dead Russian troops lay the corpses of about 1000 of Caulaincourt's cuirassiers, including Caulaincourt himself.[11]

However, the fall of the Raevsky redoubt did not have much significance on the overall course of the battle. The Russian troops successfully retreated without being destroyed, despite suffering heavy losses. So, in spite of losing some areas in the battlefield, the Russian formation was prevented from collapsing. But gaining the Raevsky redoubt cost the French severe casualties and Napoleon himself then ordered his troops to retreat to their starting line. The Russians were then able to reoccupy their previous positions.[11]

Utitsa

The third area of operations was around the village of Utitsa. The village was at the southern end of the Russian positions and lay along the old Smolensk road. It was rightly perceived as a potential weak point in the defense as a march along the road could turn the entire position at Borodino. Despite such concerns the area was a tangle of rough country thickly covered in heavy brush well suited for deploying light infantry. The forest was dense, the ground marshy and Russian Jaeger were deployed there in some numbers. Russian General Nikolay Tuchkov had some 23,000 troops but half were untrained Opolchenye (militia) armed only with pikes and axes and not ready for deployment.[58]

Poniatowski had about 10,000 men, all trained and eager to fight, but his first attempt did not go well. It was at once realized the massed troops and artillery could not move through the forest against Jaeger opposition so had to reverse to Yelnya and then move eastward.[58] Tuchkov had deployed his 1st Grenadier Division in line backing it with the 3rd division in battalion columns. Some four regiments were called away to help defend the redoubts that were under attack and another 2 Jaeger regiments were deployed in the Utitsa woods, weakening the position.

The Polish contingent contested control of Utitsa village, capturing it with their first attempt. Tuchkov later ejected the French forces by 08:00. General Jean-Andoche Junot led the Westphalians to join the attack and again captured Utitsa, which was set on fire by the departing Russians. After the village's capture, Russians and Poles continued to skirmish and cannonade for the rest of the day without much progress. The heavy undergrowth greatly hindered Poniatowski's efforts but eventually he came near to cutting off Tuchkov from the rest of the Russian forces.[59]

General Barclay sent help in the form of Karl Gustav von Baggovut with Konovnitzyn in support.[59] Any hope of real progress by the Poles was then lost.[60]

Napoleon's refusal to commit the Guard

Towards 15:00, after hours of resistance, the Russian army was in dire straits, but the French forces were exhausted and had neither the necessary stamina nor the necessary will to carry out another assault. At this crucial juncture, Murat's chief of staff, General Augustin Daniel Belliard rode straight to the Emperor's Headquarters and, according to General Ségur who wrote an account of the campaign, told him that the Russian line had been breached, that the road to Mozhaysk, behind the Russian line, was visible through the gaping hole the French attack had pierced, that an enormous crowd of runaways and vehicles were hastily retreating, and that a final push would be enough to decide the fate of the Russian army and of the war. Generals Daru, Dumas and Marshal Louis Alexandre Berthier also joined in and told the Emperor that everyone thought the time had come for the Guard to be committed to battle.

Given the ferocity of the Russian defense, everyone was aware that such a move would cost the lives of thousands of Guardsmen, but it was thought that the presence of this prestigious unit would bolster the morale of the entire army for a final decisive push. A notable exception was Marshal Bessières, commander of the Guard cavalry, who was one of the very few senior generals to strongly advise against the intervention of the Guard. As the general staff were discussing the matter, general Rapp, a senior aide-de-camp to the Emperor, was being brought from the field of battle, having been wounded in action.[61]

Rapp immediately recommended to the Emperor that the Guard be deployed for action at which the Emperor is said to have retorted: "I will most definitely not; I do not want to have it blown up. I am certain of winning the battle without its intervention."[61] Determined not to commit this valuable final reserve so far away from France, Napoleon rejected another such request, this time from Marshal Ney. Instead, he called the commander of the "Young Guard", Marshal Mortier and instructed him to guard the field of battle without moving forward or backward, while at the same time unleashing a massive cannonade with his 400 guns.[62]

End of the battle

Napoleon went forward to see the situation from the former Russian front lines shortly after the redoubts had been taken. The Russians had moved to the next ridge-line in much disarray; however, that disarray was not clear to the French, with dust and haze obscuring the Russian dispositions. Kutuzov ordered the Russian Guard to hold the line and so it did. All of the artillery that the French army had was not enough to move it. Those compact squares made good artillery targets and the Russian Guard stood in place from 4pm to 6pm unmoving under its fire resulting in huge casualties.[63] All he could see were masses of troops in the distance and thus nothing more was attempted. Neither the attack, which relied on brute force, nor the refusal to use the Guard to finish the day's work showed any brilliance on Napoleon's part.[64]

Kutuzov fili
M. I. Kutuzov and his staff in the meeting at Fili village, when Kutuzov decided that the Russian army had to retreat from Moscow.
Painting by Aleksey Kivshenko.

Both the Prussian Staff Officer Karl von Clausewitz, the historian and future author of On War, and Alexander I of Russia noted that the poor positioning of troops in particular had hobbled the defense. Barclay communicated with Kutuzov in order to receive further instructions. According to Ludwig von Wolzogen (in an account dripping with sarcasm), the commander was found a half-hour away on the road to Moscow, encamped with an entourage of young nobles and grandly pronouncing he would drive Napoleon off the next day.[65]

Despite his bluster, Kutuzov knew from dispatches that his army had been too badly hurt to fight a continuing action the following day. He knew exactly what he was doing: by fighting the pitched battle, he could now retreat with the Russian army still intact, lead its recovery, and force the weakened French forces to move even further from their bases of supply. The dénouement became a textbook example of what a hold logistics placed upon an army far from its center of supply.[66] On September 8, the Russian army moved away from the battlefield in twin columns to Semolino, allowing Napoleon to occupy Moscow and await for 5 weeks a Russian surrender that would never come.[19]

Kutuzov would proclaim over the course of several days that the Russian Army would fight again before the wall of Moscow. In fact, a site was chosen near Poklonnaya Gora within a few miles of Moscow as a battle site. However, the Russian Army had not received enough reinforcements, and it was too risky to cling to Moscow at all costs. Kutuzov understood that the Russian people never wanted to abandon Moscow, the city which was regarded as Russia's "second capital"; however he also believed that the Russian Army did not have enough forces to protect that city. Kutuzov called for a council of war on the night of September 12 at Fili village. In a heated debate that split the council five to four in favour of giving battle, Kutuzov, after listening to each General, endorsed retreat. Thus passed the last chance of battle before Moscow was taken.[11][67]

Historiography

Estimates of the sizes of opposing forces
made at different times by different historians[68]
Historian French Russian Year
Buturlin 190,000 132,000 1824
Segur 130,000 120,000 1824
Chambray 133,819 130,000 1825
Fain 120,000 133,500 1827
Clausewitz 130,000 120,000 1830s
Mikhailovsky-Danilivsky 160,000 128,000 1839
Bogdanovich 130,000 120,800 1859
Marbot 140,000 160,000 1860
Burton 130,000 120,800 1914
Garniich 130,665 119,300 1956
Tarle 130,000 127,800 1962
Grunward 130,000 120,000 1963
Beskrovny 135,000 126,000 1968
Chandler 156,000 120,800 1966
Thiry 120,000 133,000 1969
Holmes 130,000 120,800 1971
Duffy 133,000 125,000 1972
Tranie 127,000 120,000 1981
Nicolson 128,000 106,000 1985
Troitsky 134,000 154,800 1988
Vasiliev 130,000 155,200 1997
Smith 133,000 120,800 1998
Zemtsov 127,000 154,000 1999
Hourtoulle 115,000 140,000 2000
Bezotosny 135,000 150,000 2004

It is not unusual for a pivotal battle of this era to be difficult to document. Similar difficulties exist with the Battle of Waterloo or battles of the War of 1812 in North America, while the Battle of Borodino offers its own particular challenges to accuracy.[69] Modern historian Adam Zamoyski noted: "No other campaign in history has been subjected to such overtly political uses."[70]

Personal accounts of the battle frequently magnified an individual's own role or minimised those of rivals.[71] The politics of the time were complex and complicated by ethnic divisions between native Russian nobility and those having second and third-generation German descent, leading to rivalry for positions in command of the army. Not only does a historian have to deal with the normal problem of a veteran looking back and recalling events as he or she would have liked them to have been, but in some cases outright malice was involved. Nor was this strictly a Russian event, as bickering and sabotage were known amongst the French marshals and their reporting generals. To "lie like a bulletin"[72] was not just a French affair either, with Kutuzov in particular promoting an early form of misinformation that has continued to this day.[69] Further distortions occurred during the Soviet years, when an adherence to a "formula" was the expectation during the Stalin years and for some time after that. The over-reliance of western histories on the battle and of the campaign on French sources, has been noted by later historians.[69]

The views of historians of the outcome of the battle changed with the passage of time and the changing political situations surrounding them. Kutuzov proclaimed a victory both to the army and to Emperor Alexander. While many a general throughout history claimed victory out of defeat (Ramses II of Egypt did so) and in this case, Kutuzov was commander-in-chief of the entire Russian army, and it was an army that, despite the huge losses, considered itself undefeated. Announcing a defeat would have removed Kutuzov from command, and damaged the morale of the proud soldiers. While Alexander was not deceived by the announcement, it gave him the justification needed to allow Kutuzov to march his army off to rebuild the Russian forces and later complete the near utter destruction of the French army.[73] As such, what was said by Kutuzov and those supporting his views was allowed to pass into the histories of the time unchecked.[69]

Histories during the Soviet era raised the battle to a mythic contest with serious political overtones and had Kutuzov as the master tactician on the battlefield, directing every move with the precision of a ballet master directing his troupe.[69] Kutuzov's abilities on the battlefield were, in the eyes of his contemporaries and fellow Russian generals, far more complex and often described in less than flattering terms. Noted author and historian David G. Chandler writing in 1966, echoes the Soviet era Russian histories in more than a few ways, asserting that General Kutuzov remained in control of the battle throughout, ordered counter-moves to Napoleon's tactics personally rather than Bagration and Barclay doing so and put aside personal differences to overcome the dispositional mistakes of the Russian army. Nor is the tent scene played out; instead Kutuzov remains with the army. Chandler also has the Russian army in much better shape moving to secondary prepared positions and seriously considering attacking the next day.[74] Later historians Riehn and Mikaberidze have Kutuzov leaving most of the battle to Bagration and Barclay de Tolly, leaving early in the afternoon and relaying orders from his camp 30 minutes from the front.[63][75]

His dispositions for the battle are described as a clear mistake leaving the right far too strong and the left much too weak. Only the fact that Bagration and Barclay were to cooperate fully saved the Russian army and did much to mitigate the bad positioning.[63] Nothing would be more damning than 300 artillery pieces standing silent on the Russian right.[7]

Casualties

Christian Wilhelm von Faber du Faur - Dead soldiers of the Grand Armée (color)
Dead soldiers of the Grande Armée on the Kolocha river bridge by Christian Wilhelm von Faber du Faur.

The casualties of the battle were staggering: according to French General Staff Inspector P. Denniee, the Grande Armée lost approximately 28,000 soldiers: 6,562 (including 269 officers) were reported as dead, 21,450 as wounded.[76] But according to French historian Aristid Martinien,[77] at least 460 French officers (known by name) were killed in battle. In total, the Grande Armée lost 1,928 officers dead and wounded, including 49 generals.[77] The list of slain included French Generals of Division Auguste-Jean-Gabriel de Caulaincourt, Louis-Pierre Montbrun, Jean Victor Tharreau and Generals of Brigade Claude Antoine Compère, François Auguste Damas, Léonard Jean Aubry Huard de Saint-Aubin, Jean Pierre Lanabère, Charles Stanislas Marion, Louis Auguste Marchand Plauzonne, and Jean Louis Romeuf.[78]

Suffering a wound on the Borodino battlefield was effectively a death sentence, as French forces did not possess enough food for the healthy, much less the sick; consequently, equal numbers of wounded soldiers starved to death, died of their injuries, or perished through neglect.[79] The casualties were for a single day of battle, while the Russian figures are for the 5th and the 7th, combined. Using the same accounting method for both armies brings the actual French Army casualty count to 34,000–35,000.[80]

Some 52,000 Russian troops were reported as dead, wounded or missing, including 1,000 prisoners; some 8,000 men were separated from their units and returned over the next few days, bringing the total Russian losses to 44,000. Twenty-two Russian generals were killed or wounded, including Prince Bagration, who died of his wounds on 24 September.[6] Historian Gwynne Dyer compared the carnage at Borodino to "a fully-loaded 747 crashing, with no survivors, every 5 minutes for eight hours." Taken as a one-day battle in the scope of the Napoleonic conflict, this was the bloodiest battle of this series of conflicts with combined casualties between 72,000 and 73,000. The next nearest battle would be Waterloo, at about 55,000 for the day.[81]

In the historiography of this battle, the figures would be deliberately inflated or underplayed by the generals of both sides attempting to lessen the impact the figures would have on public opinion both during aftermath of the battle or, for political reasons, later during the Soviet period.[82]

Aftermath

Although the Battle of Borodino can be seen as a victory for Napoleon, some scholars and contemporaries described Borodino as a Pyrrhic victory.[83]

Russian historian Oleg Sokolov posits that Borodino constituted a Pyrrhic victory for the French, which would ultimately cost Napoleon the war and his crown, although at the time none of this was apparent to either side. Sokolov adds that the decision to not commit the Guard saved the Russians from an Austerlitz-style defeat and quotes Marshal Laurent de Gouvion Saint-Cyr, one of Napoleon's finest strategists, who analyzed the battle and concluded that an intervention of the Guard would have torn the Russian army to pieces and allowed Napoleon to safely follow his plans to take winter quarters in Moscow and resume his successful campaign in spring or offer the Tsar acceptable peace terms.[61] Digby Smith calls Borodino 'a draw' but believes that posterity proved Napoleon right in his decision to not commit the Guard so far away from his homeland.[84] According to Christopher Duffy, the battle of Borodino could be seen as a new Battle of Torgau in the 18th century, when both of the sides sustained terrible losses but neither could achieve their tactical goals, and the battle itself did not have a clear result,[85][86] although both sides claimed the battle as their own victory.[87]

However, in a long term war of attrition, the battle was just one more source of losses to the French when they were losing two men to one. Both the French and the Russians suffered terribly but the Russians had reserve troops, and a clear advantage in the logistics war. The French Army supplies came over a long road lined with hostile forces. According to Rhien, so long as the Russian Army existed the French continued to lose.[42]

This victory ultimately cost Napoleon his army, as it allowed the French emperor to believe that the campaign was winnable, exhausting his forces as he went on to Moscow to await a surrender that would never come. Historian Rhiem notes that the Borodino victory allowed Napoleon to move on to Moscow, where—even allowing for the arrival of reinforcements—the French Army only possessed a maximum of 95,000 men, who would be ill-equipped to win a battle due to a lack of supplies and ammunition. The Grande Armée suffered 66% of its casualties by the time of the Moscow retreat; snow, starvation, and typhus ensured that only 23,000 men returned across the Russian border alive. Furthermore, while the Russian army suffered heavy casualties in the battle, they had fully recovered by the time of Napoleon's retreat from Moscow; they immediately began to interfere with the French withdrawal, costing Napoleon much of his surviving army.

Legacy

1-ruble-coin 1987 Borodino
1987 Soviet commemorative coin, reverse
Historical reenactment of 1812 battle near Borodino 2011 2
Historical reenactment of 1812 battle near Borodino, 2011
Historical reenactment of 1812 battle near Borodino 2011 1
Historical reenactment of 1812 battle near Borodino, 2011

Poet Mikhail Lermontov romanticized the battle in his poem Borodino.[88]

The battle was famously described by Count Leo Tolstoy as "a continuous slaughter which could be of no avail either to the French or the Russians" in the culminating books X and XI of his novel War and Peace. The Imperial Russian Navy named a battleship after the battle. A huge panorama representing the battle was painted by Franz Roubaud for the centenary of Borodino and installed on the Poklonnaya Hill in Moscow to mark the 150th anniversary of the event. Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky also composed his 1812 Overture to commemorate the battle. In Russia, the Battle of Borodino is reenacted yearly on the first Sunday of September. On the battlefield itself, the Bagration flèches are preserved; a modest monument has been constructed in honour of the French soldiers who fell in the battle. There are also remnants of trenches from the seven-day battle fought at the same battlefield in 1941 between the Soviet and German forces (which took fewer human lives than the one of 1812).

A commemorative 1-ruble coin was released in the Soviet Union in 1987 to commemorate the 175th anniversary of the Battle of Borodino, and four million were minted.[89] A minor planet 3544 Borodino, discovered by Soviet astronomer Nikolai Stepanovich Chernykh in 1977 was named after the village Borodino.[90]

Footnotes

  1. ^ Several states belonging to the Confederation of the Rhine provided military contingents during this battle: the kingdoms of Bavaria, Westphalia, Württemberg, Saxony and the Grand Duchy of Hesse.
  2. ^ Note that although no official flag existed during this period, the tricolour represents the officer sash colours and the Double Eagle represents the Tsar's official state symbol.
  3. ^ See the aftermath section
  4. ^ Richard K. Riehn, Napoleon's Russian Campaign, John Wiley & Sons, 2005, p. 479.
  5. ^ Herman Lindqvist. Napoleon, p. 368, chapter 20, 'The battle of Borodino, the bloodiest of them all'
  6. ^ a b c Riehn, p. 255.
  7. ^ a b c Smith, p. 392.
  8. ^ 26 August in the Julian calendar then used in Russia.
  9. ^ a b Riehn, p. 253.
  10. ^ Riehn, pp. 255–56.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Lê Vinh Quốc (chủ biên), Nguyễn Thị Thư, Lê Phụng Hoàng, Các nhân vật Lịch sử Cận đại, Tập II: Nga. NXB Giáo dục, Tp. Hồ Chí Minh 1997; Chương IV: Cutudốp.
  12. ^ Riehn, p. 229.
  13. ^ Riehn, p. 230.
  14. ^ Riehn, p. 231.
  15. ^ Riehn, p. 234.
  16. ^ Riehn, p. 237.
  17. ^ Mikaberidze, pp. 21–22.
  18. ^ Riehn, p. 235.
  19. ^ a b Riehn, p. 236.
  20. ^ Pavel Sergeevich Pushchin. Diaries of the 1812-1814 Campaigns. Volume 1 of Russian voices of the Napoleonic Wars. Translated by Alexander Mikaberidze. Lulu.com, 2011 ISBN 1105098184, 9781105098185, p. 43
  21. ^ Riehn, pp. 237–38.
  22. ^ Riehn, p. 238.
  23. ^ Бои за село Бородино и Багратионовы флеши (in Russian). Borodino.ru. Archived from the original on 2008-01-12. Retrieved 2008-05-02.
  24. ^ Mikaberidze, p. 33.
  25. ^ Mikaberidze, p. 33
  26. ^ Mikaberidze, pp. 33–34.
  27. ^ Mikaberidze, p. 47.
  28. ^ Mikaberidze, p. 45.
  29. ^ Mikaberidze p. 57.
  30. ^ Mikaberidze p. 63.
  31. ^ a b Mikaberidze p. 52.
  32. ^ a b Mikaberidze, p. 53.
  33. ^ Riehn, p. 479.
  34. ^ a b c d Riehn, p. 244.
  35. ^ Mikaberidze, pp. 26, 75–76.
  36. ^ Mikaberidze, pp. 77–78.
  37. ^ Mikaberidze, p. 79.
  38. ^ Riehn, pp. 243–45.
  39. ^ Mikaberidze, p. 81.
  40. ^ Riehn, p. 245.
  41. ^ Riehn, p. 243.
  42. ^ a b c Riehn, p. 246.
  43. ^ Riehn, pp. 246–48.
  44. ^ Mikaberidze, p. 107.
  45. ^ a b c Mikaberidze, Biographies, Peter Bagration: The Best Georgian General of the Napoleonic Wars, Chapter XII: Chapter 12: Borodino — the Final Glory
  46. ^ a b Riehn, p. 247.
  47. ^ Hourtoulle, François-Guy (2000). Borodino—La Moskowa: La Bataille des Redoutes. Histoire et collections. p. 44. ISBN 2-908182-95-5.
  48. ^ Riehn, p. 248.
  49. ^ Riehn, p. 249.
  50. ^ Riehn, pp. 249–50.
  51. ^ a b Riehn, p. 250.
  52. ^ a b c Riehn, p. 251.
  53. ^ Smith, "Great Cavalry Charges...", p. 126.
  54. ^ Riehn, pp. 250–51.
  55. ^ Smith, "Great Cavalry Charges...", pp. 122–29.
  56. ^ Riehn, p. 252.
  57. ^ Duffy, p. 131.
  58. ^ a b Mikaberidze, p. 136.
  59. ^ a b Riehn, p. 254.
  60. ^ Mikaberidze, pp. 137–40.
  61. ^ a b c Sokolov, pp. 454–55.
  62. ^ Pigeard, p. 585.
  63. ^ a b c Mikaberidze, pp. 224–25.
  64. ^ Riehn, p. 256.
  65. ^ Riehn, pp. 253–54.
  66. ^ Riehn, p. 260.
  67. ^ Mikaberidze, pp. 221–22.
  68. ^ Mikaberidze, p. 50.
  69. ^ a b c d e Mikaberidze, pp. xi–xii.
  70. ^ "Out in the Cold". The Washington Post. August 8, 2004.
  71. ^ Mikaberidze, p. 13.
  72. ^ Napoleon was in the habit of issuing regular bulletins describing his campaigns. 'To lie like a bulletin' was a recognised phrase amongst his troops. Herold, J. Christopher (1969). The Mind of Napoleon, A Selection from His Written and Spoken Words. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 125. ISBN 0-231-08523-0.
  73. ^ Mikaberidze, pp. 201–02.
  74. ^ The Campaigns of Napoleon, Volume 1 By David G. Chandler, pp. 806–07.
  75. ^ Mikaberidze, p. 198.
  76. ^ P. Denniee. Itineraire de l'Empereur Napoleon. Paris, 1842.
  77. ^ a b Martinien A. Tableaux par corps et par batailles des officiers tues et blesses pendant les guerres de l'Empire (1805–1815). P., 1899.
  78. ^ Smith, p. 391
  79. ^ Riehn, p. 261.
  80. ^ Mikaberidze, p. 209.
  81. ^ Mikaberidze, p. 217.
  82. ^ Mikaberidze, p. 208.
  83. ^ Andrew Roberts. Napoleon and Wellington: the Battle of Waterloo and the great commanders who fought it. Simon and Schuster, 2001 ISBN 978-0-7432-2832-9, ISBN 978-0-7432-2832-9, p. 254; Theodore Ayrault Dodge. Napoleon; a History of the Art of War: From the beginning of the Peninsular war to the end of the Russian campaign, with a detailed account of the Napoleonic wars. Volume 3 of Napoleon; a History of the Art of War, Great captains Houghton, Mifflin and company, 1907, p. 583; David Avrom Bell. The first total war: Napoleon's Europe and the birth of warfare as we know it. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2007, ISBN 978-0-618-34965-4, ISBN 978-0-618-34965-4, p. 295; Alistair Horne. How Far from Austerlitz?: Napoleon 1805–1815. Macmillan, 1998; ISBN 978-0-312-18724-8/ISBN 978-0-312-18724-8, p. 316.
  84. ^ Smith, "Great Cavalry Charges...", p. 146.
  85. ^ Christopher Duffy, Frederick the Great: A Military Life, p. 217.
  86. ^ Christopher Duffy, Borodino and the War of 1812, p. 11. Seeley, Service, 1972, trang 11; ISBN 0-85422-077-1.
  87. ^ Gregory Fremont-Barnes, The encyclopedia of the French revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars: a political, social, and military history, Tập 1, trang 174.
  88. ^ Text of Borodino in Russian.
  89. ^ Добро пожаловать на сервер "Монетный двор".
  90. ^ Schmadel, Lutz D. (2003). Dictionary of Minor Planet Names (5th ed.). New York: Springer Verlag. p. 298. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3.

References

  • Chandler, David G. (1995). The Campaigns of Napoleon. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-02-523660-8.
  • Chandler, David G. (1999) [First published 1993]. Dictionary of the Napoleonic Wars. Ware, UK: Wordsworth Editions. ISBN 978-1-84022-203-6.
  • Chandler, David; Nafziger, George F. (1988). Napoleon's Invasion of Russia. Novato CA: Presidio Press. ISBN 978-0-89141-661-6.
  • Duffy, Christopher (1972). Borodino and the War of 1812. London: Cassell & Company. ISBN 978-0-304-35278-4.
  • Dyer, Gwynne (1988). War. Crown Pub. ISBN 978-0-517-55615-3.
  • Haythornthwaite, Philip (2012). Borodino 1812; Napoleon's great gamble. Osprey Publishing; Campaign Series #246. ISBN 978-1-84908-696-7.
  • Hourtoulle, F.G. (2000). Borodino: The Moskova. The Battle for the Redoubts. Paris: Histoire & Collections. ISBN 978-2-908182-96-5.
  • Mikaberidze, Alexander (2007). The Battle of Borodino: Napoleon Against Kutuzov. London: Pen & Sword. ISBN 978-1-84884-404-9.
  • Markham, David (2005). Napoleon for Dummies. New York: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-7645-9798-5.
  • (in French) Pigeard, Alain (2004). Dictionnaire des batailles de Napoléon. Tallandier, Bibliothèque Napoléonienne. ISBN 2-84734-073-4.
  • (in Russian) Razin, Eugene A. (1966). История военного искусства (History of Military Art). Moscow: Воениздат.
  • Riehn, Richard K. (2001). 1812: Napoleon's Russian Campaign. New York: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-471-54302-2.
  • Smith, Digby (1998). The Greenhill Napoleonic Wars Data Book. London: Greenhill Books. ISBN 978-1-85367-276-7.
  • Smith, Digby (2003). Charge! Great Cavalry Charges of the Napoleonic Wars. London: Greenhill Books. ISBN 978-1-85367-541-6.
  • (in French) Sokolov, Oleg (2005). L'armée de Napoléon. Éditions Commios. ISBN 978-2-9518364-1-9.
  • (in Russian) Troitsky, Nikolai (2003). Фельдмаршал Кутузов: Мифы и Факты (Field Marshal Kutuzov: Myths and Facts). Moscow: Центрполиграф.

External links

3544 Borodino

3544 Borodino, provisional designation 1977 RD4, is a stony background asteroid from the inner regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 9 kilometers (5.6 miles) in diameter. It was discovered on 7 September 1977, by Soviet astronomer Nikolai Chernykh at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory in Nauchnij, on the Crimean peninsula. The likely elongated S-type asteroid has a rotation period of 5.44 hours. It was named for the Russian village of Borodino where the Battle of Borodino took place.

Auguste-Jean-Gabriel de Caulaincourt

Auguste-Jean-Gabriel, comte de Caulaincourt (born 16 September 1777 in Caulaincourt, Aisne -† 7 September 1812 at the battle of Borodino) was a French cavalry commander who rose to the rank of general during the First French Empire. He was the son of French general and senator Gabriel-Louis de Caulaincourt and younger brother of general and diplomat Armand Augustin Louis de Caulaincourt.

Borodino (poem)

Borodino (Russian: Бородино) is a poem by Russian poet Mikhail Lermontov which describes the Battle of Borodino, the major battle of Napoleon's invasion of Russia. It was first published in 1837 in the literary magazine Sovremennik on the occasion of the 25th anniversary of the battle.

The poem was based on his 1831 teenage version, The Battlefield of Borodino (Поле Бородина).The poem starts with the direct appeal "Tell me, uncle,...". Lermontov had several relatives (Arsenyevs and Stolypins) who were veterans of the Patriotic War of 1812, and there have been speculation that the poem was based on the narrations of one of them. Other critics suggest that his original version was written under the influence of Denis Davydov's Borodino Battlefield (Бородинское поле).

Days of Military Honour

The Days of Military Honour (Russian: Дни воинской славы, dni voinskoy slavy) are special memorable dates in the Russian Armed Forces dedicated to the most outstanding victories won by Russia. Some of these dates are state holidays but the majority of them is celebrated purely in the armed forces, while 7 November is marked by parades in Moscow and Samara.

The Days of Military Honour include:

27 January – the day of lifting of the Siege of Leningrad, 1944;

2 February – victory in the Battle of Stalingrad, 1943;

23 February – Defender of the Fatherland Day, state holiday;

18 April – victory over the Teutonic Knights in the Battle on the Ice, 1242;

9 May – Victory Day, state holiday;

7 July – naval victory over Turkey in the Battle of Chesma, 1770;

10 July – victory over Sweden in the Battle of Poltava, 1709;

9 August – naval victory over Sweden in the Battle of Gangut, 1714;

23 August – victory over Germany in the Battle of Kursk, 1943;

8 September – the day of the Battle of Borodino, 1812;

11 September – naval victory over Turkey in the Battle of Tendra, 1790;

21 September – victory over the Golden Horde in the Battle of Kulikovo, 1380;

4 November – the day of liberation of Moscow from the Polish invaders, 1612, state holiday;

7 November – the day of the 1941 military parade on the Red Square in Moscow;

1 December – naval victory over Turkey in the Battle of Sinop, 1853;

5 December – the day of launching of the counter-offensive in the Battle of Moscow, 1941;

24 December – victory over Turkey in the Siege of Izmail, 1790.For events before 1900, these dates do not coincide with the Gregorian dates of the events. Rather, they seem to be based on the Julian calendar, which is still used by the Russian Orthodox Church. For example, the Battle of Borodino (26 August 1812 Julian or 7 September 1812 Gregorian) is commemorated on 8 September Gregorian, which corresponds to 26 August Julian from 1900 to 2099. The Battle of Kulikovo was on 8 September 1380 Julian (Gregorian did not exist, but theoretically 16 September 1380) and is commemorated on 21 September Gregorian,

which corresponds to 8 September Julian from 1900 to 2099.

Estimates of opposing forces in the Battle of Borodino

The following is an estimate of the opposing forces by major historians of the Armies of Borodino and the year in which those estimates are made.

Fedor Yakovlevich Mirkovich

Fedor Yakovlevich Mirkovich (1789–1866) was a Russian general who participated in the war of 1812, 1813 and 1814, including the Battle of Borodino and the capture of Paris. He was the Russian Military Administrator of the Principality of Moldova and Wallachia from 1828 to 1834. In 1840, he was appointed governor general of Lithuania, As governor general, he was in charge of the Western Krai (Northwestern and Southwestern Krai), an unofficial subdivision of the Russian Empire in the territories of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with Vilna (Vilnius) as the centre. It included six gubernia: Vilnius, Kovno (Kaunas), Grodno, Minsk, Mogilev and Vitebsk governorates.

Ten years later, he was named inspector of military schools and member of Military Education Institutions.

He died in 1866. He was 77.Fedor's younger brother Alexander Yakovlevich Mirkovich was also a general in the Imperial Russian service, and a veteran of the wars against Napoleonic France.

Fili (Moscow)

Fili (Russian: Фили́) is a former suburban village, now a neighborhood in the western section of Moscow, Russia, notable for the events of September 1812, following the Battle of Borodino. The village was located between the Moskva River and Poklonnaya Hill, near the present-day Fili station of Moscow Metro and the extant Church of the Intercession at Fili. The territory is administered by Filyovsky park District (another related territory, Fili-Davydkovo District, lies southwest of historical Fili).

The first mention of Fili is dated 1627. From 1689, Fili, Kuntsevo, and adjacent settlements were owned by Lev Naryshkin, brother of tsaritsa Natalia Naryshkina. By 1694, he completed the Intercession Church, with donations by Peter I; its style is now known as Naryshkin Baroque. Naryshkin also established a new Fili village, closer to present-day Kutuzovsky Prospekt; the old Fili was remodelled into his personal estate.

After the Battle of Borodino (September 7, 1812), the Russian army retreated east, and camped near Fili on September 12. A military council led by General Kutuzov assembled in a wooden hut in Fili; despite objections from younger generals, Kutuzov insisted on his plan to abandon Moscow, saving the remains of the Russian army. They marched through Moscow on September 14, followed by Murat's vanguard.

Fili was heavily industrialized between the 1900s and the 1930s, and by 1926 it had 396 households and 1,342 residents; in 1935, the territory was annexed by the City of Moscow. A notable feature of Fili is the Khrunichev aerospace plant; its first stage was built before World War I by Roman Klein. In the 1920s, renamed State Aircraft Plant No. 7, it acquired German technology in a joint venture with Junkers, producing local copies of Junkers K30 bomber, and vastly expanded afterwards. In 1926, this became Zavod 22, where the aircraft of Andrey Tupolev were developed.

Franz Roubaud

Franz Roubaud (Russian: Франц Алексеевич Рубо, tr. Frants Alekseevich Rubo) was a Russian painter who created some of the largest and best known panoramic paintings. He created circular paintings, exposed on a cylindrical surface and viewed from the inside at a lookout point. The painting was believed to reproduce the original scene with high fidelity.

IV Corps (Grande Armée)

The IV Corps of the Grande Armée was a military unit during the Napoleonic Wars. It consisted several different units and commanders.

Jean-Marie Defrance

Jean-Marie Defrance (1771–1855) was a French General of the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars. He was also a member of the Council of Five Hundred (the lower house of the legislative branch of the French government under The Directory), and a teacher at the military school of Rebais, Champagne.

Defrance had an extensive and successful military career in the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars. After the First Battle of Zurich, he refused a battlefield promotion to brigadier general, asking instead for a cavalry regiment; he received command of the 12th Regiment of Chasseurs-a-Cheval (light cavalry) as Chef-de-Brigade, a rank equivalent to colonel. He led this brigade in the campaigns of 1799–1800 in southwestern Germany and northern Italy. By 1805, he had been promoted to brigadier general. At the Battle of Austerlitz and the Battle of Jena-Auerstadt, he commanded a cavalry brigade of carabiniers in Étienne Marie Antoine Champion de Nansouty's First Division. By the Battle of Borodino in September 1812, he had been promoted to general of division, commanding the 4th Cuirassier Division of Nansouty's reserves, where they charged the Shevardino redoubt. He fought his way across Germany to the Rhine River after the French loss at Leipzig and participated in the Six Days Campaign.

In the Hundred Days, he commanded part of Jean Maximilien Lamarque's Army of the West. At the second Bourbon Restoration, he retained his titles and honors and subsequently held several command posts until retirement in 1829. He died in 1855.

Jean Ambroise Baston de Lariboisière

Jean Ambroise Baston de Lariboisière, also Count de Lariboisière, was a general of artillery of the First French Empire. He fought in the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars and died of fatigue at Königsberg in East Prussia on 21 December 1812, during the Grand Army's retreat from Moscow.

A superb organizer and tactician, Baston de Lariboisière rose rapidly through the artillery ranks and reliably directed the artillery park for the initial engagements of the War of the First Coalition in 1793–1794. He also directed the investment and, if necessary, the sieges of Mainz, Ulm, and Danzig, among others. In addition, he was a reliable commander of infantry, supporting Laurent Saint-Cyr's corps in northern Italy in the 1799 campaign.

Lariboisière's direction of artillery fire at the Battle of Austerlitz resulted in the destruction of the ice covering the lake over which Russian army forces retreated. His placement of artillery at the Battle of Borodino gave the French a tactical advantage in fire on the Russian lines. Lariboisière's artillery also provided the rear guard coverage of the French withdrawal from Beresina. One of his sons survived the wars and the family founded the Lariboisière Hospital in Paris.

Jean Victor Tharreau

Jean Victor Tharreau or Jean Victor Thareau (15 January 1767, Bégrolles-en-Mauges – 26 September 1812), was a General of Division in the Army of the French Empire.Tharreau enthusiastically adopted the revolutionary cause and joined the Maine-et-Loire volunteers in 1792. He quickly rose through the command ranks. By 1795, he was chief of staff of the Army of the Ardennes. He helped to defend Zurich in the French army's defeat at the First Battle of Zurich in 1799, and participated in the French victory over the combined Austrian and Russian forces later that summer. After the successes of the 1809 campaign on the Danube, he was part of the jubilant force entering the Habsburg capital of Vienna.

In the 1812 campaign in Russia, he assumed command of the Westphalian army, appointed by Napoleon's brother Jérôme Bonaparte He died as the French Army took Moscow on 26 September 1812, of wounds suffered at the Battle of Borodino.

Louis Auguste Marchand Plauzonne

Louis Auguste Marchand Plauzonne (7 July 1774 – 7 September 1812) became a general officer during the First French Empire of Napoleon. He was killed while leading his brigade at the Battle of Borodino. PLAUZONNE is one of the names inscribed under the Arc de Triomphe, on Column 12.

Lunette (fortification)

In fortification, a lunette was originally an outwork of half-moon shape; later it became a redan with short flanks, in trace somewhat resembling a bastion standing by itself without curtains on either side. The gorge was generally open.One noted historical example of a lunette was the one used at the Battle of the Alamo in San Antonio, Texas, in March 1836.

Another were the Bagration flèches, at the Battle of Borodino, in 1812.

Maria Bolkonskaya

Princess Maria (or Marya, in some translations) Nikolaevna Bolkonskaya (Russian: Марья Болконская, Mar'ia Bolkonskaia) is a fictional character in Leo Tolstoy's novel War and Peace.

Princess Maria, the sister of Prince Andrei Bolkonsky, is a deeply religious young woman who has resigned herself to an unmarried life to be with her domineering father, Prince Nikolai Bolkonsky. Princess Maria is a plain woman, whose lack of beauty is offset by her large, caring eyes. Kevin Corrigan sees Maria as an example of how "a face can be ugly and yet transfigured by beautiful eyes". She is overshadowed by her beautiful French companion, Mademoiselle Bourienne. An attempt to marry her off to the profligate Prince Anatole Kuragin fails.

Princess Maria's father dies during the days leading to the battle of Borodino. The peasants on her estate threaten to become violent and Maria is rescued by Nikolai Rostov. They fall in love, but several situations keep them apart and eventually they both forgo any hope of marriage. Maria's brother, Prince Andrei Bolkonsky, is seriously wounded in battle and chances to fall under the care of Natasha Rostova, with whom Princess Maria becomes close friends after witnessing Andrei Bolkonsky's death together. Maria marries the impoverished Nikolai Rostov in the winter of 1813, and eventually the couple have four children. Nikolai Rostov relies on his work and her moral support, not financial, to become a wealthy and content estate owner.

Stephen Vizinczey suggests that Tolstoy created Maria out of his longing for his mother, Princess Maria Nikolayevna Volkonskaya, who died before Tolstoy's second birthday.

Peter Zheltukhin

Peter Zheltukhin (Russian: Пётр Фёдорович Желтухин) (1777, Kazan – 1829, Kiev) was a Russian, born to a noble family in Kazan gubernia.

A career officer he server as a Colonel at the Battle of Borodino in the Napoleonic Wars.During the Russo-Turkish War of 1828-29 he was first made the military governor of Kiev, and in January 1829 he was appointed plenipotentiary president of the divans (assemblies) of Moldavia and Valachia under the provisions of the Organic Statute. He did not win the favour of the Romanian elites, and resigned the office in September the same year.His older brother Sergei Fedorovich Zheltukhin was also a Russian general.

Ransohoff

Ransohoff, or Ransonov (Russian: Рансонов) is a family of Jewish or Russian ancestry originating in Smolensk, of allegedly Rurikid descent. Notable individuals bearing this surname include:

Mikhail Abramovich Ransohov (1758–1812), Russian military officer, killed at the Battle of Borodino. [1]

Joseph Ransohoff (1915–2001), an American neurosurgeon, inventor, and former chairman of the New York University School of Medicine. [2]

Daniel J. Ransohoff (1921–1993), Cincinnati-based photographer and social worker. [3]

Martin Ransohoff (1927-2017), a cinema and television producer. [4]

Steven Ransohoff, co-president of Film Finances Inc., a completion bond finance company.

Russian battleship Borodino

Borodino (Russian: Бородино) was the lead ship of her class of pre-dreadnought battleships built for the Imperial Russian Navy although she was the second ship of her class to be completed. Named after the 1812 Battle of Borodino, the ship was completed after the beginning of the Russo-Japanese War in 1904. Borodino was assigned to the Second Pacific Squadron sent to the Far East a few months after her completion to break the Japanese blockade of Port Arthur. The Japanese captured the port while the squadron was in transit and their destination was changed to Vladivostok. The ship was sunk during the Battle of Tsushima on 27 May 1905 due to explosions set off by a Japanese shell hitting a 6-inch (152 mm) magazine. There was only one survivor from her crew of 855 officers and enlisted men.

Vagankovo Cemetery

Vagankovo Cemetery (Vagan'kovskoye Cemetery; Ваганьковское кладбище), established in 1771, is located in the Presnya district of Moscow. It started in the aftermath of the Moscow plague riot of 1771 outside the city proper, so as to prevent the contagion from spreading.

Half a million people are estimated to have been buried at Vagankovo throughout its history. As of 2010, the existing cemetery contains more than 100,000 graves. The vast necropolis contains the mass graves from the Battle of Borodino, the Battle of Moscow, and the Khodynka Tragedy. It is the burial site for a number of people from the artistic and sports community of Russia and the old Soviet Union. During the Great Purge, alcohol-soused guards would execute weeping prisoners after they had dug their graves in the cemetry.The cemetery is served by several Orthodox churches constructed between 1819 and 1823 in the Muscovite version of the Empire style.

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