Battle of Berryville

The Battle of Berryville was fought September 3 and September 4, 1864, in Clarke County, Virginia.[1][2] It took place toward the end of the American Civil War.

After taking control of Smithfield Summit on August 29, Union Maj. Gen. Philip H. Sheridan marched to Berryville with his 50,000 man Army of the Shenandoah. At the same time Confederate Lt. Gen. Jubal A. Early sent Maj. Gen. Joseph B. Kershaw's division east from Winchester to Berryville. At about 5:00 p.m., Kershaw attacked Colonel Joseph Thoburn's division of the Army of West Virginia, while they were preparing to go into camp. Kershaw routed Thoburn's left flank before the rest of the corps came to the rescue. Darkness ended the fighting, with both sides bringing in heavy reinforcements. The next morning, Early, seeing the strength of the Union's entrenched line, retreated behind Opequon Creek.[1]

Battle of Berryville
Part of the American Civil War
DateSeptember 3–4, 1864
Location
Coordinates: 39°9′43.5″N 77°59′51.2″W / 39.162083°N 77.997556°W
Result Inconclusive
Belligerents
United States United States (Union) Confederate States of America CSA (Confederacy)
Commanders and leaders
George Crook Richard H. Anderson
Strength
2 Divisions Division
Casualties and losses
314 295
Berryville Battlefield Virginia
Map of Berryville Battlefield core and study areas by the American Battlefield Protection Program.

Notes

  1. ^ a b "Battle of Summary". National Park Service. Retrieved 3 September 2016.
  2. ^ "The Battle near Berryville". New York Times. 4 September 1864. Retrieved 3 September 2016.

References

116th Ohio Infantry

The 116th Ohio Volunteer Infantry (or 116th OVI) was an infantry regiment in the Union Army during the American Civil War.

14th West Virginia Volunteer Infantry Regiment

The 14th West Virginia Volunteer Infantry Regiment was an infantry regiment that served in the Union Army during the American Civil War.

17th Independent Battery Indiana Light Artillery

17th Indiana Battery Light Artillery was an artillery battery that served in the Union Army during the American Civil War.

34th Ohio Infantry

The 34th Ohio Volunteer Infantry Regiment (or 34th OVI) was an infantry regiment that served in the Union Army during the American Civil War. It primarily served in the Eastern Theater in what is now West Virginia and in Virginia's Shenandoah Valley region. They are well known for wearing early in the war an americanized zouave uniform which consisted of: A dark blue jacket with red trimming, a pair of sky blue baggy trousers with two stripes of red tape going down vertically, a pair of tan gaiters, and a red Ottoman styled fez with a blue tassel.

45th Virginia Infantry

The 45th Virginia Volunteer Infantry Regiment was an infantry regiment raised in the Commonwealth of Virginia for service in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. It fought mostly in the mountainous area that today encompasses the border regions of Virginia and West Virginia, and was part of Jubal Early's Army of the Valley during the Valley Campaigns of 1864.

47th Pennsylvania Infantry Regiment

The 47th Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry was an infantry regiment that served in the Union Army during the American Civil War.Formed by adults and teenagers from the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania's small towns and cities, this regiment was composed primarily of men of German heritage, and was ultimately known as the 47th Pennsylvania Veteran Volunteers due to the length of service by the majority of men on its rosters. Many of their family and friends still spoke German or its "Pennsylvania Dutch" variant in their homes and churches more than a hundred years after their forebears emigrated from Germany in search of religious or political freedom. Other members of this regiment traced their roots to Ireland; at least two had emigrated from Cuba; several were field hands or house slaves who had been liberated from plantations or other Confederate-held areas of the Deep South.Roughly 70 percent of those who served with the 47th Pennsylvania Infantry were residents of the Lehigh Valley – the cities of Allentown, Bethlehem, Catasauqua, and Easton and surrounding communities in Lehigh and Northampton counties. Company C (also known as the "Sunbury Guards") was formed primarily with men from Northumberland County. Companies D and H were staffed by men from Perry County.Recruited at community gathering places in their respective home towns, most of the men who served with the 47th Pennsylvania Volunteers enrolled for military service at county seats or other large population centers. The oldest member of the regiment, 65-year-old Benjamin Walls, was an affluent farmer who would attempt to re-enlist three years later at the age of 68 after being seriously wounded while preventing his regiment's American flag from falling into enemy hands during the Battle of Pleasant Hill, Louisiana. The youngest was John Boulton Young, a 13-year-old drummer boy from Sunbury in Northumberland County, Pennsylvania. Dubbed "Boltie" (or "Boulty") and described in letters home by regimental officers as the regiment's "pet," he became the 47th Pennsylvania's first casualty, succumbing to Variola (smallpox) at the Kalorama eruptive fever hospital in Georgetown, District of Columbia on October 17, 1861. According to Sunbury's Daily Item, the uniform that Young had worn during his brief service was a dark blue wool Zouave-style jacket with red trim and red wool pants [with] leather gaiters to protect his legs while marching" – a style dramatically different from the more traditional Union blues worn by other members of the regiment. Due to his small stature, Young was also given "an undersized, nonregulation drum complete with small drumsticks," which measured just "13 1/2 inches across and ... 13 inches deep."A significant percentage of the men who served with the 47th Pennsylvania Volunteers did so after first completing their three months' service with other regiments from the Keystone State in response to President Abraham Lincoln's call for volunteers to help defend the nation's capital following Fort Sumter's fall to Confederate forces in mid-April 1861. Re-enlisting in home towns following their respective honorable discharges from this service, they mustered in as part of the newly formed 47th Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry in at Camp Curtin in Harrisburg, Dauphin County during August and September 1861.

5th West Virginia Volunteer Infantry Regiment

The 5th West Virginia Volunteer Infantry Regiment was an infantry regiment that served in the Union Army during the American Civil War.

6th Cavalry Regiment

The 6th Cavalry ("Fighting Sixth'") is a regiment of the United States Army that began as a regiment of cavalry in the American Civil War. It currently is organized into aviation squadrons that are assigned to several different combat aviation brigades.

Andrew O. Apple

Andrew O. Apple (January 30, 1845 – June 7, 1890) was a United States soldier and native of Pennsylvania who fought with the Union Army as a member of the 12th West Virginia Volunteer Infantry Regiment during the American Civil War. He was recognized with his nation's highest award for valor, the U.S. Medal of Honor, for "conspicuous gallantry as color bearer in the assault on Fort Gregg" during the Third Battle of Petersburg, Virginia on April 2, 1865. The award was conferred on May 12 of that same year.

Army of West Virginia

The Army of West Virginia served in the Union Army during the American Civil War and was the primary field army of the Department of West Virginia. It campaigned primarily in West Virginia, Southwest Virginia and in the Shenandoah Valley. It is noted for having two future U.S. presidents serve in its ranks: Rutherford B. Hayes and William McKinley, both from the 23rd Ohio Infantry.

Army of the Valley

The Army of the Valley (officially the Army of the Valley District) was the name given to the army of Lt. Gen. Jubal Early's independent command during the Shenandoah Valley Campaigns in the summer and autumn of 1864. The Army of the Valley was the last Confederate unit to invade Northern territory, reaching the outskirts of Washington, D.C.. The Army became defunct after its decisive defeat at the Battle of Waynesboro, Virginia, on March 2, 1865.

Berryville, Virginia

Berryville is an incorporated town in and the county seat of Clarke County, Virginia, United States. The population was 4,185 at the 2010 census, up from 2,963 at the 2000 census.

Clarke County, Virginia

Clarke County is a county in the Commonwealth of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 14,034. Its county seat is Berryville. Clarke County is included in the Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV Metropolitan Statistical Area.

Dunbar R. Ransom

Dunbar R. Ransom (January 10, 1831—July 11, 1897) was a United States Army officer and veteran of the American Civil War. He is notable for having commanded Union Army artillery units throughout the conflict.

Joseph Thoburn

Joseph Thoburn (April 29, 1825 – October 19, 1864) was born in the district of Mallusk north of Belfast, County Antrim, to be found in the modern-day borough of Newtownabbey, Northern Ireland, UK. He went on to be a physician and soldier from the state of West Virginia who served as an officer and brigade commander in the Union Army during the American Civil War. He was killed in action in the Shenandoah Valley at the Battle of Cedar Creek.

List of American Civil War battles

The Battles of the American Civil War were fought between April 12, 1861 and May 12–13, 1865 in 23 states (Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, Virginia, and West Virginia), the District of Columbia, as well as the following territories: Arizona Territory, Colorado Territory, Dakota Territory, Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma), New Mexico Territory, and Washington Territory, and naval engagements. These battles would change the standing and historical memory of the United States. While the origins of the war are complex, principal among them were the issue of slavery, and the interpretations of the Constitution and the rules, rights, and qualifications that it embodied.

For lists of battles organized by campaign and theater, see:

Eastern Theater of the American Civil War

Western Theater of the American Civil War

Trans-Mississippi Theater of the American Civil War

Pacific Coast Theater of the American Civil War

Lower Seaboard Theater of the American Civil War

Category:Battles of the American Civil WarSome battles have more than one name; e.g., the battles known in the North as Battle of Antietam and Second Battle of Bull Run were referred to as the Battle of Sharpsburg and the Battle of Manassas, respectively, by the South. This was because the North tended to name battles after landmarks (often rivers or bodies of water), whereas the South named battles after nearby towns.

Third Battle of Winchester

The Third Battle of Winchester (or Battle of Opequon), was fought just outside Winchester, Virginia, on September 19, 1864, during the Valley Campaigns of 1864 in the American Civil War.

After the victory at Battle of Berryville as the month began, Union Maj. Gen. Philip H. Sheridan sought information about the troop strength of Confederate Lt. Gen. Jubal A. Early. Earlier in the year, his subordinate Union Gen. George Crook had met Rebecca Wright, a Quaker schoolteacher and Union sympathizer in Winchester, a commercial center and transportation hub at the northern end of the Shenandoah Valley with many Confederate sympathizers and which changed hands 75 times during the war. Slave Thomas Laws of Millwood (between Berryville and Winchester) had a Confederate permit to sell produce in Winchester three days per week, and agreed to act as a Union spy. On September 16, Laws took Sheridan's letter (hidden in his mouth) to Wright, who consulted her mother and then replied (in a note which Laws also hid in his mouth) that a Confederate officer recovering from his wounds had recently bragged about Confederate artillery and infantry battalions under General Joseph B. Kershaw and Lt.Col. Wilfred E. Cutshaw had left Winchester to raid the B&O Railroad at Martinsburg, in the new state of West Virginia.Accordingly, Sheridan advanced toward Winchester along the Berryville Pike with the VI Corps and XIX Corps, crossing Opequon Creek. The Union advance was delayed long enough for Early to concentrate his forces to meet the main assault, which continued for several hours. Casualties were very heavy. The Confederate line was gradually driven back toward the town. Mid-afternoon, the Army of West Virginia and the cavalry turned the Confederate left flank. Early ordered a general retreat. Because of its size, intensity, serious casualties on both sides (particularly among the general officers) and its result (Confederates never again controlling Winchester and President Abraham Lincoln winning re-election), many historians consider this the most important conflict of the Shenandoah Valley. Sheridan would later give much of the credit for the victory to "the brave Quaker girl", whose intelligence he thought worth a brigade of troops.

Winchester, Virginia

Winchester is an independent city located in the northwestern portion of the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 26,203. As of 2015, its population is an estimated 27,284. It is the county seat of Frederick County, although the two are separate jurisdictions. The Bureau of Economic Analysis combines the city of Winchester with surrounding Frederick County for statistical purposes.

Winchester is the principal city of the Winchester, Virginia–West Virginia, metropolitan statistical area, which is a part of the Baltimore–Washington metropolitan area . Winchester is home to Shenandoah University and the Museum of the Shenandoah Valley.

Winchester, Virginia in the American Civil War

The city of Winchester, Virginia, and the surrounding area were the site of numerous fights during the American Civil War as both contending armies strove to control that portion of the Shenandoah Valley.

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