Battle of Badr

The Battle of Badr (Arabic: غزوة بدر‎), fought on Tuesday, 13 March 624 CE (17 Ramadan, 2 AH in the Islamic calendar) in the Hejaz region of western Arabia (present-day Saudi Arabia), was a key battle in the early days of Islam and a turning point in Muhammad's struggle with his opponents among the Quraish[1] in Mecca. The battle has been passed down in Islamic history as a decisive victory attributable to divine intervention, or by secular sources to the strategic genius of Muhammad. It is one of the few battles specifically mentioned in the Quran. All knowledge of the battle at Badr comes from traditional Islamic accounts, both hadiths and biographies of Muhammad, recorded in written form some time after the battle. There is little evidence outside of these of the battle. There are no descriptions of the battle prior to the 9th century.[2]

Prior to the battle, the Muslims and the Meccans had fought several smaller skirmishes in late 623 and early 624. Badr, however, was the first large-scale engagement between the two forces. Advancing to a strong defensive position, Muhammad's well-disciplined force broke the Meccan lines, killing several important Quraishi leaders including the Muslims' chief antagonist Abu Jahl.[3] For the early Muslims the battle was the first sign that they might eventually defeat their enemies among the Meccans. Mecca at that time was one of the richest and most powerful cities in Arabia, fielding an army three times larger than that of the Muslims.[4] The Muslim victory also signaled to the other tribes that a new power had arisen in Arabia and strengthened Muhammad's position as leader of the often fractious community in Medina.[5] The battle also established the position of Ali ibn Abi Talib as the best fighter among the Muslims, as he alone killed 22 Meccans, while the rest of the Muslims combined killed 27 Meccans.[6]

Battle of Badr
Part of the Muslim-Quraish Wars
Siyer-i Nebi - Imam Ali und Hamza bei dem vorgezogenen Einzelkampf in Badr gegen die Götzendiener

Scene from Siyer-i Nebi, Hamza and Ali leading the Muslim armies at Badr. The writing is Ottoman Naskh.
Date13 March 624 CE/17 Ramadan, 2 AH
Location
At the wells of Badr, 70 mi (110 km) southwest of Medina
Result

Decisive Muslim victory

  • Start of Muslim–Quraysh Wars
Belligerents
Muslims of Medina Quraish of Mecca
Commanders and leaders
Muhammad
Hamza ibn Abd al-Muttalib
Ali ibn Abi Talib
Abu Jahl
Utba ibn Rabi'ah
Umayyah ibn Khalaf
Hind al-Hunnud
Strength
313-350 infantry and cavalry: 2 horses and 70 camels 950-1000 infantry and cavalry: 100 horses and 170 camels
Casualties and losses
14 killed 70 killed, 70 prisoners

Background

Muhammad was born in Mecca around 570 CE into the Quraish tribe. After Muhammad's revelation from Gabriel in 610 until his proclamation of monotheism to the Quraysh, Islam was practiced primarily in secret. The Quraiysh, who traditionally accepted religious practices other than their own, became increasingly more intolerant of the Muslims during the thirteen years of personal attacks against their (the Meccans) religions and gods.[7] In fear for their religion and economic viability, which heavily relied on annual pilgrimages, the Meccans began to mock and disrupt Muhammad's followers. In 622, Muhammad bade many of his followers to migrate from Mecca to the neighboring city of Medina, 320 km (200 mi) north of Mecca. Shortly thereafter, Muhammad himself left for Medina.[8][9] This migration is referred to as the Hijra.[10]

The Quranic Verse 22:39[11] uttered by Muhammad sometime shortly after the migration permitted Muslims, for the first time, to take up arms in defence. During this period Muhammad employed three broad military strategies against the Meccans. Firstly, to establish peace treaties with the tribes surrounding Medina, especially with those from whom the Meccans could derive most advantage against the Muslims. Secondly, to dispatch small groups to obtain intelligence on the Quraish and their allies and also provide, thereby, an opportunity for those Muslims still living in Mecca to leave with them. Thirdly, to intercept the trade caravans of the Meccans that passed close to Medina and to obstruct their trade route.[12][13] In September 623, Muhammad himself led a force of 200 in an unsuccessful raid against a large caravan. Shortly thereafter, the Meccans launched their own raid against Medina led by Kurz bin Jabir and fled with livestock belonging to the Muslims.[14] In January 624, Muhammad dispatched a group of eight men to Nakhlah, on the outskirts of Mecca, led by Abdullah bin Jahsh to obtain intelligence on the Quraysh.[15][16] However, Abdullah bin Jash and his party disguised as Pilgrims with shaved heads, upon being discovered by a Meccan caravan, decided to attack and kill as many of the caravan as possible, resulting in killing one of its men, Amr bin Al-Hadrami, the seizing of its goods and taking two as prisoners.[17] The situation was all the more serious since the killing occurred in the month of Rajab, a truce month sacred to the Meccans in which fighting was prohibited and a clear affront to Arab traditions. Upon their return to Medina, Muhammad initially disapproved of this decision on their part, rebuked them and refused to take any spoil until he claimed to have received revelation (Quran, 2:217) stating that the Meccan persecution was worse than this violation of the sacred month. After his revelation Muhammed took the goods and the prisoners.[18][19][20][21] The Muslims' raids on caravans prompted the Battle of Badr, the first major battle involving a Muslim army. This was the spot where the Meccans had sent their own army to protect their caravans from Muslim raiders.[22][23]

Battle

Badr campaign recolorized
A map of the Badr campaign

March to Badr

In April 624, it was reported in Medina that Abu Sufyan was leading a caravan from Syria to Mecca containing weapons to be used against the Muslims. Muhammad gathered 313 men and went to Badr to intercept the caravan. However, Meccan spies informed Abu Sufyan about the Muslims coming to intercept his caravan; Abu Sufyan changed his course to take another path to Mecca and sent a message to Mecca. Abu Jahl replied to Abu Sufyan's request and gathered an army to fight against the Muslims.[24]

Muhammad's forces included Abu Bakr, Umar, Ali, Hamza, Mus`ab ibn `Umair, Az-Zubair bin Al-'Awwam, Ammar ibn Yasir, and Abu Dharr al-Ghifari. The Muslims also brought seventy camels and two horses, meaning that they either had to walk or fit three to four men per camel.[25]The future Caliph Uthman stayed behind to care for his sick wife Ruqayyah, the daughter of Muhammad.[26] Salman the Persian also could not join the battle, as he was still not a free man.[27]

Many of the Quraishi nobles, including Amr ibn Hishām, Walid ibn Utba, Shaiba, and Umayah ibn Khalaf, joined the Meccan army. Their reasons varied: some were out to protect their financial interests in the caravan; others wanted to avenge Ibn al-Hadrami, the guard killed at Nakhlah; finally, a few must have wanted to take part in what was expected to be an easy victory against the Muslims.[28] Amr ibn Hishām is described as shaming at least one noble, Umayah ibn Khalaf, into joining the expedition.[29]

Muslim plan

Behold! Allah Promised you one of the two (enemy) parties, that it should be yours: Ye wished that the one unarmed should be yours, but Allah Willed to justify the Truth according to His Words and to cut off the roots of the Unbelievers;
— Quran: Al-Anfal 8:7
Behold! Allah Promised Me that He would definitely help me. I'm taking an oath by Allah's Excellent Name, Here will be the grave of Abu Jahl, and here will lay Utba ibn Rabiah (Prophet mentioned 14 different unbeliever leaders' names and signed they graves before the battle).
— Muhammad – Sahih Muslim

When the word reached the Muslim army about the departure of the Meccan army, Muhammad immediately called a council of war, since there was still time to retreat and because many of the fighters there were recent converts (called Ansar or "Helpers" to distinguish them from the Quraishi Muslims) who had only pledged to defend Medina. Under the terms of the Constitution of Medina, they would have been within their rights to refuse to fight and leave the army.

Abu Bakr stood up and gave a short speech, saying, "The chiefs and warlike men of Quraysh have joined this army. Quraysh have not at all expressed faith in a religion and have not fallen from the zenith of glory to the abyss of degradation. Furthermore, we have not come out of Madina fully prepared."[30][31] Abu Bakr was trying to say that he believed they should not fight and should return to Medina.[32]

According to traditions, Muhammad either turned away from Abu Bakr[33][34] and/or asked him to sit down.[35] Umar then spoke, expressing similar views to that of Abu Bakr. Muhammad reportedly either turned away from Umar[36][37] and/or asked him to sit down.[38] Miqdad then gave a speech supporting Muhammad, saying, "O Prophet of Allah! Our hearts are with you and you should act according to the orders given to you by Allah. By Allah! We shall not tell you what Bani Israel told Musa. When Musa asked them to perform jihad they said to him: 'O Musa! You and your Lord should go and perform jihad and we shall sit here'. We, however, tell you quite the reverse of it and say: Perform jihad under the auspices of the blessings of Allah and we are also with you and shall fight."[39] Muhammad was pleased at Miqdad's speech; however, he also wanted to know what the Ansar thought, as Miqdad was a Mujahir. Sa'd ibn Ubadah, an Ansar, then declared, "We have borne witness that you are the Messenger of God. We have given you our pledge to obey you. Wherever you go, we shall go with you. If there is a showdown with the polytheists, we shall be steadfast in our support to you. In war and in peace, we shall be consistently faithful to you."[40] So, the Muslims continued to march towards Badr.

By 11 March both armies were about a day's march from Badr. Several Muslim warriors (including, according to some sources, Ali) who had ridden ahead of the main column captured two Meccan water carriers at the Badr wells. Expecting them to say they were with the caravan, the Muslims were horrified to hear them say they were with the main Quraishi army.[41] Some traditions also say that, upon hearing the names of all the Quraishi nobles accompanying the army, Muhammad exclaimed "Mecca hath thrown unto you the best morsels of her liver."[42] The next day Muhammad ordered a forced march to Badr and arrived before the Meccans.

The Badr wells were located on the gentle slope of the eastern side of a valley called "Yalyal". The western side of the valley was hemmed in by a large hill called 'Aqanqal. When the Muslim army arrived from the east, Muhammad initially chose to form his army at the first well he encountered. Hubab ibn al-Mundhir, however, asked him if this choice was divine instruction or Muhammad's own opinion. When Muhammad responded in the latter, Hubab suggested that the Muslims occupy the well closest to the Quraishi army, and block off the other ones. Muhammad accepted this decision and moved right away.

Meccan plan

[The] Arabs will hear how we marched forth and of our mighty gathering, and they will stand in awe of us forever.
— Abu Jahl

By contrast, while little is known about the progress of the Quraishi army from the time it left Mecca until its arrival just outside Badr, several things are worth noting: although many Arab armies brought their women and children along on campaigns both to motivate and care for the men, the Meccan army did not. Also, the Quraish apparently made little or no effort to contact the many allies they had scattered throughout the Hijaz.[43] Both facts suggest the Quraish lacked the time to prepare for a proper campaign in their haste to protect the caravan. Besides, it is believed they expected an easy victory, knowing they outnumbered the Muslims by three to one.

When the Quraishi reached Juhfah, just south of Badr, they received a message from Abu Sufyan telling them the caravan was safely behind them, and that they could therefore return to Mecca.[44] At this point, according to Karen Armstrong, a power struggle broke out in the Meccan army. Abu Jahl wanted to continue, but several of the clans present, including Banu Zuhrah and Banu Adi, promptly went home. Armstrong suggests they may have been concerned about the power that Abu Jahl would gain from crushing the Muslims. The Banu Hashim tribe wanted to leave, but was threatened by Abu Jahl to stay.[45] Despite these losses, Abu Jahl was still determined to fight, boasting "We will not go back until we have been to Badr." During this period, Abu Sufyan and several other men from the caravan joined the main army.[46]

Day of battle

At midnight on 13 March, the Quraish broke camp and marched into the valley of Badr. It had rained the previous day and they struggled to move their horses and camels up the hill of 'Aqanqal. After they descended from 'Aqanqal, the Meccans set up another camp inside the valley. While they rested, they sent out a scout, Umayr ibn Wahb to reconnoitre the Muslim lines. Umayr reported that Muhammad's army was small, and that there were no other Muslim reinforcements which might join the battle.[47] However, he also predicted extremely heavy Quraishi casualties in the event of an attack (One hadith refers to him seeing "the camels of [Medina] laden with certain death").[48] This further demoralized the Quraish, as Arab battles were traditionally low-casualty affairs, and set off another round of bickering among the Quraishi leadership. However, according to Arab traditions Amr ibn Hishām quashed the remaining dissent by appealing to the Quraishi's sense of honor and demanding that they fulfill their blood vengeance.[49]

Balami - Tarikhnama - The Battle of Badr - The death of Abu Jahl, and the casting of the Meccan dead into dry wells (cropped)
The death of Abu Jahl, and the casting of the Meccan dead into dry wells

The battle began with champions from both armies emerging to engage in combat. Three of the Medinan Ansar emerged from the Muslim ranks, only to be shouted back by the Meccans, who were nervous about starting any unnecessary feuds and only wanted to fight the Quraishi Muslims, keeping the dispute within clan. So Hamza approached forward and called on Ubayda and Ali to join him. The Muslims dispatched the Meccan champions in a three-on-three melee. The first fight was between Ali and Walid ibn Utba; Ali killed his opponent. After the fight between Ali and Walid, Hamza fought Utba ibn Rabi'ah, and Ubayda fought Shaybah ibn Rabi'ah. Hamza killed Utba; however, Ubayda was mortally wounded by Shaybah. Ali (and, according to some sources, Hamza as well) killed Shaybah. Ali and Hamza then carried Ubayda back into the Muslim lines, where he died.[50][51][52]

Now both armies began showering each other with arrows. A few Muslims and an unknown number of Quraish warriors were killed. Before the battle, Muhammad had given orders for the Muslims to attack first with their ranged weapons and only afterwards advance to engage the Quraish with melee weapons. Now he gave the order to charge, throwing a handful of pebbles at the Meccans in what was probably a traditional Arabian gesture while yelling "Defaced be those faces!"[53][54] The Muslim army yelled "Yā manṣūr amit!"[55] "O thou whom God hath made victorious, slay!" and rushed the Quraishi lines. The Meccans, understrength and unenthusiastic about fighting, promptly broke and ran. The battle itself only lasted a few hours and was over by the early afternoon.[53] The Quran describes the force of the Muslim attack in many verses, which refer to thousands of angels descending from Heaven at Badr to terrify the Quraish.[54][56] Muslim sources take this account literally, and there are several hadith where Muhammad discusses the Angel Jibreel and the role he played in the battle.

Aftermath

Prisoners

After the battle Muhammad returned to Medina. Some seventy prisoners were taken captive and are noted to have been treated humanely including a number of Quraish leaders.[57][58] Most of the prisoners were released upon payment of ransom and those who were literate were released on the condition that they teach ten persons how to read and write and this teaching was to count as their ransom.[59][60]

William Muir wrote of this period:

In pursuance of Mahomet's commands, the citizens of Medîna, and such of the Refugees as possessed houses, received the prisoners, and treated them with much consideration. "Blessings be on the men of Medina!" said one of these prisoners in later days; "they made us ride, while they themselves walked: they gave us wheaten bread to eat when there was little of it, contenting themselves with dates. It is not surprising that when, some time afterwards, their friends came to ransom them, several of the prisoners who had been thus received declared themselves adherents of Islam...Their kindly treatment was thus prolonged, and left a favourable impression on the minds even of those who did not at once go over to Islam"[58]

— William Muir, The Life of Mahomet

Executions

Ali Beheading Nadr ibn al-Harith in the Presence of the Prophet Muhammad. Miniature from volume 4 of a copy of Mustafa al-Darir’s Siyar-i-Nabi. Istanbul; c. 1594 The David Col.
A painting from Siyer-i Nebi, Ali beheading Nadr ibn al-Harith in the presence of Muhammad and his companions.

Two of the prisoners taken at Badr, namely Nadr ibn al-Harith and ‘Uqbah ibn Abū Mu‘ayṭ are reported to have been executed upon the order of Muhammad. According to Muslim scholar Safiur Rahman al-Mubarakpuri, these two captives were executed by Ali. Mubarakpuri says that this incident is also mentioned in the Sunan Abu Dawud no 2686 and Anwal Ma'bud 3/12[61] However, according to numerous accounts deemed reliable, such as a number of narrations in Sahih Bukhari, and Ibn Sa'd's biographical compendium, the Tabaqat Al-Kubra, Uqba was not executed but was killed during fighting in the field of battle at Badr and was among those Quraysh leaders whose corpses were buried in a pit.[62][63][64]

Muslims killed in the Battle of Badr

Fourteen Muslims were killed in that battle.

  1. Haritha bin Suraqa al-Khazraji
  2. Zish Shamalain ibn 'Abdi 'Amr al-Muhajiri
  3. Rafi' bin al-Mu'alla al-Khazraji
  4. Sa'd bin Khaythama al-Awsi
  5. Safwan bin Wahb al-Muhajiri
  6. Aaqil bin al-Bukayr al-Muhajiri
  7. Ubayda bin al-Harith al-Muhajiri
  8. Umayr bin al-Humam al-Khazraji
  9. Umayr bin Abi Waqqas al-Muhajiri
  10. Awf bin al-Harith al-Khazraji
  11. Mubashshir bin 'Abdi'l Mundhir al-Awsi
  12. Mu'awwidh bin al-Harith al-Khazraji
  13. Mihja' bin Salih al-Muhajiri
  14. Yazid bin al-Harith bin Fus.hum al-Khazraji

Implications

The Battle of Badr was extremely influential in the rise of two men who would determine the course of history on the Arabian peninsula for the next century. The first was Muhammad, who was transformed overnight from a Meccan outcast into a major leader. Marshall Hodgson adds that Badr forced the other Arabs to "regard the Muslims as challengers and potential inheritors to the prestige and the political role of the [Quraish]." Shortly thereafter he expelled the Banu Qaynuqa, one of the Jewish tribes at Medina that had been threatening his political position, and who had assaulted a Muslim woman which led to their expulsion for breaking the peace treaty. At the same time Abd-Allah ibn Ubayy, Muhammad's chief opponent in Medina, found his own position seriously weakened. Henceforth, he would only be able to mount limited challenges to Muhammad.[65]

The other major beneficiary of the Battle of Badr was Abu Sufyan, safely away from the battle leading the caravan. The death of Amr ibn Hashim, as well as many other Quraishi nobles[66] gave Abu Sufyan the opportunity, almost by default, to become chief of the Quraish. As a result, when Muhammad marched into Mecca six years later, it was Abu Sufyan who helped negotiate its peaceful surrender. Abu Sufyan subsequently became a high-ranking official in the Muslim Empire, and his son Muawiya would later go on to found the Umayyad Caliphate.

In later days, the battle of Badr became so significant that Ibn Ishaq included a complete name-by-name roster of the Muslim army in his biography of Muhammad. In many hadiths, veterans who fought at Badr are identified as such as a formality, and they may have even received a stipend in later years.[67] The death of the last of the Badr veterans occurred during the First Islamic civil war.[68]

As Paul K. Davis sums up, "Mohammed's victory confirmed his authority as leader of Islam; by impressing local tribes that joined him, the expansion of Islam began."[69]

Islamic primary sources

Balami - Tarikhnama - The Battle of Badr - The angelic host is sent to assist the Muslims
The angelic host is sent to assist the Muslims

Badr in the Quran

The Battle of Badr is one of the few battles explicitly discussed in the Quran. It is even mentioned by name as part of a comparison with the Battle of Uhud.

Quran: Al Imran 3:123–125 (Yusuf Ali). "Allah had helped you at Badr, when ye were a contemptible little force; then fear Allah; thus May ye show your gratitude. Remember thou saidst to the Faithful: "Is it not enough for you that Allah should help you with three thousand angels (Specially) sent down? "Yea, – if ye remain firm, and act aright, even if the enemy should rush here on you in hot haste, your Lord would help you with five thousand angels Making a terrific onslaught."

According to Abdullah Yusuf Ali, the term "gratitude" may be a reference to discipline. At Badr, the Muslim forces had allegedly maintained firm discipline, whereas at Uhud they broke ranks to pursue the Meccans, allowing Meccan cavalry to flank and rout their army. The idea of Badr as a furqan, an Islamic miracle, is mentioned again in the same surah.

Quran: Al Imran 3:13 (Yusuf Ali). "There has already been for you a Sign in the two armies that met (in combat): One was fighting in the cause of Allah, the other resisting Allah; these saw with their own eyes Twice their number. But Allah doth support with His aid whom He pleaseth. In this is a warning for such as have eyes to see."

Badr is also the subject of Sura 8: Al-Anfal, which details military conduct and operations. "Al-Anfal" means "the spoils" and is a reference to the post-battle discussion in the Muslim army over how to divide up the plunder from the Quraishi army. Though the Sura does not name Badr, it describes the battle, and several of the verses are commonly thought to have been from or shortly after the battle.

Hadith literature

This battle is also mentioned in the Sunni Hadith collection Sahih al-Bukhari and Sunan Abu Dawud. Sahih al-Bukhari mentions that Uthman did not join the battle:

Narrated Ibn 'Umar: 'Uthman did not join the Badr battle because he was married to one of the daughters of Allah's Apostle and she was ill. So, the Prophet said to him. "You will get a reward and a share (from the war booty) similar to the reward and the share of one who has taken part in the Badr battle."

Sahih al-Bukhari, 4:53:359

It also mentions the war booty that each fighter who participated in the battle received in Sahih al-Bukhari, 5:59:357. Sahih al-Bukhari, 4:53:369 also mentions how Abu Jahl was killed:

Narrated 'Abdur-Rahman bin 'Auf: While I was standing in the row on the day (of the battle) of Badr, I looked to my right and my left and saw two young Ansari boys, and I wished I had been stronger than they. One of them called my attention saying, "O Uncle! Do you know Abu Jahl?" I said, "Yes, what do you want from him, O my nephew?" He said, "I have been informed that he abuses Allah's Apostle. By Him in Whose Hands my life is, if I should see him, then my body will not leave his body till either of us meet his fate." I was astonished at that talk. Then the other boy called my attention saying the same as the other had said. After a while I saw Abu Jahl walking amongst the people. I said (to the boys), "Look! This is the man you asked me about." So, both of them attacked him with their swords and struck him to death and returned to Allah's Apostle to inform him of that. Allah's Apostle asked, "Which of you has killed him?" Each of them said, "I Have killed him." Allah's Apostle asked, "Have you cleaned your swords?" They said, "No. " He then looked at their swords and said, "No doubt, you both have killed him and the spoils of the deceased will be given to Muadh bin Amr bin Al-Jamuh." The two boys were Muadh bin 'Afra and Muadh bin Amr bin Al-Jamuh.

Sahih al-Bukhari, 4:53:369

It is also mentioned in the Sunni hadith collection Sunan Abu Dawood, 14:2716

There is also a narration of the Battle in Kitab al-Kafi, a primary source of Shi'a Hadith, where Ali ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin describes the participation of the angels in the battle:

Narrated Zurara: On the Day of Badr, Iblees used to belittle the Muslims in the eyes of the infidels and magnify the infidels in the eyes of the Muslims. So Jibrael pulled the sword against him and he fled from him pleading "Oh Jibrael, I have been granted a term, I have been granted a term" until he ended up in the sea. So I (Zurara) said to Abu Ja'far, "What was it that he was so afraid of since he had been granted a specific term?" He said, "some parts of his sides to be cut off."[70]

Biographical literature

The incident is also mentioned in Ibn Ishaq's biography of Muhammad.[71]

In modern culture

"Badr" has become popular among Muslim armies and paramilitary organizations. "Operation Badr" was used to describe Egypt's offensive in the 1973 Yom Kippur War as well as Pakistan's actions in the 1999 Kargil War. Iranian offensive operations against Iraq in the late 1980s were also named after Badr.[72] During the 2011 Libyan civil war, the rebel leadership stated that they selected the date of the assault on Tripoli to be the 20th of Ramadan, marking the anniversary of the Battle of Badr.[73]

The Battle of Badr was featured in the 1976 film The Message, the 2004 animated movie Muhammad: The Last Prophet, and the 2012 TV series Omar.

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ Quraish refers to the tribe in control of Mecca. The plural and adjective are Quraishi. The terms "Quraishi" and "Meccan" are used interchangeably between the Hijra in 622 and the Muslim Conquest of Mecca in 630.
  2. ^ The development of exegesis in early Islam: the authenticity of Muslim ... By Herbert Berg.
  3. ^ The Sealed Nectar, p. 274
  4. ^ Noor Muhammad, Farkhanda. "Islamiat". Fifth Revised Edition, 2008, p. 61
  5. ^ Dr. Iftikhar ul Haq and Maulvi Jahangir."O' Level Islamiyat [Endorsed by CIE]", Bookland Publishers, 2008, p. 74
  6. ^ Razwy, Sayed Ali Asgher. A Restatement of the History of Islam & Muslims. p. 139.
  7. ^ Ibn Ishaq/Hisham 167
  8. ^ Ibn Ishaq/Hisham (326–328)
  9. ^ Ibn Ishaq 299–301
  10. ^ Nigosian, S. A. (2004). Islam: Its History, Teaching, and Practices. Indiana: Indiana University Press. p. 10. ISBN 0-253-21627-3. Retrieved 16 March 2016.
  11. ^ Quran 22:39
  12. ^ The Life of Muḥammad: A Translation of ibn Isḥāq's Sīrat Rasul Allāh with introduction & notes by Alfred Guillaume, Oxford University Press, 1955, pp. 281–86
  13. ^ Mirza Bashir Ahmad. "The Life and Character of the Seal of Prophets", Volume II Islam International Publications, 2013, pp. 89–92
  14. ^ Ar-Raheeq Al-Makhtum (The Sealed Nectar) at the Wayback Machine
  15. ^ Ibn Ishaq/Hisham 425
  16. ^ Muḥammad ibn Jarīr al-Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-Rusul wa al-Mulūk, volume 3, p. 14, Lebanon, Bihī Dārul-Fikr, 2nd ed., (2002)
  17. ^ Ibn Ishaq/Hisham 424–425
  18. ^ Quran 2:217
  19. ^ The Life of Muḥammad: A Translation of ibn Isḥāq's Sīrat Rasul Allāh with introduction & notes by Alfred Guillaume, Oxford University Press, 1955, pp. 287–88
  20. ^ Hodgson, pp. 174–75.
  21. ^ Ibn Ishaq/Hisham 424–426
  22. ^ Ibn Ishaq/Hisham 428
  23. ^ Ibn Kathir v. II p. 253
  24. ^ Razwy, Sayed Ali Asgher. A Restatement of the History of Islam & Muslims. pp. 132–133.
  25. ^ Lings, pp. 138–39
  26. ^ "Sahih al-Bukhari: Volume 4, Book 53, Number 359". Usc.edu. Archived from the original on 20 July 2010. Retrieved 16 September 2010.
  27. ^ "Witness-pioneer.org". Witness-pioneer.org. 16 September 2002. Archived from the original on 5 February 2010. Retrieved 19 March 2010.
  28. ^ Martin Lings, pp. 139–40.
  29. ^ "Sahih al-Bukhari: Volume 5, Book 59, Number 286". Usc.edu. Archived from the original on 16 August 2010. Retrieved 16 September 2010.
  30. ^ Subhani, Ayatullah Jafar. "30". The Message. Karachi, Pakistan: Islamic Seminary Publications.
  31. ^ Mughazi-i Waqidi, Volume I. p. 48.
  32. ^ Subhani, Ayatullah Jafar. "30". The Message. Karachi, Pakistan: Islamic Seminary Publications.
  33. ^ "Umar Ibn Al-Khattab in the battle of Badr - Sunni Sources".
  34. ^ ibn al-Hajjaj, Muslim. Sahih Muslim, Volume 2. p. 855.
  35. ^ Subhani, Ayatullah Jafar. "30". The Message. Karachi, Pakistan: Islamic Seminary Publications.
  36. ^ "Umar Ibn Al-Khattab in the battle of Badr - Sunni Sources".
  37. ^ ibn al-Hajjaj, Muslim. Sahih Muslim, Volume 2. p. 855.
  38. ^ Subhani, Ayatullah Jafar. "30". The Message. Karachi, Pakistan: Islamic Seminary Publications.
  39. ^ Subhani, Ayatullah Jafar. "30". The Message. Karachi, Pakistan: Islamic Seminary Publications.
  40. ^ Razwy, Sayed Ali Asgher. A Restatement of the History of Islam & Muslims. p. 134.
  41. ^ "Sahih Muslim: Book 19, Number 4394". Usc.edu. Archived from the original on 20 August 2010. Retrieved 16 September 2010.
  42. ^ Martin Lings, p. 142
  43. ^ Lings, p. 154.
  44. ^ Lings, p. 142.
  45. ^ Armstrong, p. 174
  46. ^ Lings, pp. 142–43.
  47. ^ Lings, pp. 143–44.
  48. ^ Armstrong, pp. 174–75.
  49. ^ Lings, pp. 144–146.
  50. ^ Razwy, Sayed Ali Asgher. A Restatement of the History of Islam & Muslims. pp. 136–137.
  51. ^ Muir, Sir William (1877). The Life of Mohammed. London.
  52. ^ Glubb, Sir John (1963). The Great Arab Conquests.
  53. ^ a b Armstrong, p. 176.
  54. ^ a b Lings, p. 148.
  55. ^ "O thou whom God hath made victorious, slay!"
  56. ^ Quran: Al-i-Imran 3:123–125 (Yusuf Ali). "Allah had helped you at Badr, when ye were a contemptible little force; then fear Allah; thus May ye show your gratitude. Remember thou saidst to the Faithful: "Is it not enough for you that Allah should help you with three thousand angels (Specially) sent down? "Yea, – if ye remain firm, and act aright, even if the enemy should rush here on you in hot haste, your Lord would help you with five thousand angels Making a terrific onslaught."
  57. ^ "Sahih Bukhari, Volume 4, Book 52, Number 252". Archived from the original on 13 October 2012. Retrieved 20 September 2015. Narrated Jabir bin 'Abdullah: When it was the day (of the battle) of Badr, prisoners of war were brought including Al-Abbas who was undressed. The Prophet looked for a shirt for him. It was found that the shirt of 'Abdullah bin Ubai would do, so the Prophet let him wear it. That was the reason why the Prophet took off and gave his own shirt to 'Abdullah. (The narrator adds, "He had done the Prophet some favor for which the Prophet liked to reward him.")
  58. ^ a b Muir, William (1861). The Life of Mahomet (Volume 3 ed.). London: Smith, Elder and Co. p. 122. Retrieved 26 February 2015.
  59. ^ William Muir (1861). "The Life of Mahomet: With Introductory Chapters on the Original Sources for the Biography of Mahomet, and on the Pre-Islamite History of Arabia". London: Smith, Elder and Co. p. ix. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
  60. ^ The Life of Muhammad The Prophet
  61. ^ Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar (Free Version), p. 129
  62. ^ Sahih Bukhari: Volume 1, Book 4, Number 241
  63. ^ Sahih Bukhari: Volume 1, Book 9, Number 499
  64. ^ Al Tabaqat-al-Kubra, Muhammad Ibn Sa'd, Volume 2, p. 260, ghazwatul Badr, Darul Ihya'it-Turathil-'Arabi, Beirut, Lebanon, First Edition, (1996)
  65. ^ Hodgson, pp. 176–78.
  66. ^ Including the elderly Abu Lahab, who was not at Badr but died within days of the army's return.
  67. ^ "Sahih al-Bukhari: Volume 5, Book 59, Number 357". Usc.edu. Archived from the original on 16 August 2010. Retrieved 16 September 2010.
  68. ^ Sahih Al-Bukhari: Volume 5, Book 59, Number 358 Archived 16 August 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
  69. ^ Paul K. Davis, 100 Decisive Battles from Ancient Times to the Present: The World's Major Battles and How They Shaped History (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999), 95–96.
  70. ^ al-Kulayni, Muhammad ibn Ya‘qūb (2015). Al-Kafi (Volume 8 ed.). NY: Islamic Seminary Incorporated. ISBN 9780991430864. |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  71. ^ Ibn Hisham; Ibn Ishaq (1998). The life of Muhammad: a translation of Isḥāq's Sīrat rasūl Allāh. Translated by Alfred Guillaume. Oxford University Press. p. 304. Retrieved 16 March 2016.
  72. ^ Wright, Robin (1989). In the name of God: The Khomeini decade. New York: Simon and Schuster. p. 133. ISBN 9780671672355.
  73. ^ Laub, Karin (21 August 2011). "Libyan Rebels Say They Are Closing In on Tripoli". Associated Press (via The Atlanta Journal-Constitution). Retrieved 21 August 2011.

References

Books and articles

Online references

External links

Coordinates: 23°44′N 38°46′E / 23.733°N 38.767°E

'Abd al-Rahman ibn 'Awf

'Abd al-Rahman ibn 'Awf (Arabic: عبد الرحمن بن عوف‎) (c.581 CE – c.654 CE) was one of the companions of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. He is known for being one of the Ten Promised Paradise.

Abd-Allah ibn Ibadh

Abdullāh ibn 'Ibādh al-Tamimi (Arabic: عبدالله بن اباض التميمي‎; d. 708) was a Tabi'i, a jurist and one of the best students of Ibn Abbas, who narrated hadiths from Aisha and a large number of the Sahaba who witnessed the Battle of Badr. He and Jābir ibn Zayd were imams in the tafsir and sciences of Hadith.

Abu Bakr

Abdallah bin Abi Quhafah (Arabic: عبد الله بن أبي قحافة‎; c. 573 CE – 23 August 634 CE), popularly known as Abu Bakr (Arabic: أبو بكر‎), was a companion and—through his daughter Aisha—a father-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

Abu Bakr was born in Mecca in 573 CE to Uthman Abu Quhafa and Salma Umm al-Khair. He is commonly regarded as the fourth person to have accepted Islam, after Khadija bint Khuwaylid, Ali ibn Abi Talib, and Zayd ibn Harith. Abu Bakr was present at a number of battles of Islam, such as the Battle of Badr and the Battle of Uhud; his role in the early battles of Islam has been the subject of extensive analysis by historians.Abu Bakr was present at the Farewell Pilgrimage, as well as the event of Ghadir Khumm, in 632 CE. However, shortly after Muhammad died, Abu Bakr and some others left the still-unburied body of Muhammad and gathered at a place known as Saqifa. After lengthy debates that included violence, Umar ibn Al-Khattab pledged allegiance to Abu Bakr at Saqifa; he was followed in this by two others at Saqifa, as well as a group of Bedouin tribesmen who had arrived at the scene. Saqifa was later described by the famous Sunni historian Al-Tabari as "a scene from the period of Jahiliya (the pre-Islamic era)".Abu Bakr thus assumed power, ruling over the Rashidun Caliphate from 632 to 634 CE. Once in power, Abu Bakr launched the Ridda Wars to quell an outbreak of "apostasy" in various lands outside Medina. The Ridda Wars, however, were expanded to include the use of force against Muslims who did not recognize Abu Bakr's government, instead of solely focusing on those who had left Islam. After the conclusion of the Ridda Wars, Abu Bakr launched campaigns into Syria and Persia, but died before their conclusion. Another significant event during Abu Bakr's reign was the seizure of the land of Fadak from Fatimah, Muhammad's daughter.In 634 CE, Abu Bakr fell ill from a sickness and died shortly thereafter. He was succeeded by Umar.

Abu Hudhayfa ibn 'Utba

Abu Hudhayfa ibn Utbah (Arabic: أبو حذيفة بن عتبة; died 633), full name Abu Hudhayfa ibn Utbah ibn Rabi'ah was an early companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. He was the son of Utbah ibn Rabi'ah, one of the Leaders of Banu Abd Shams. He was the brother of Walid ibn Utbah and Hind bint Utbah, the wife of Abu Sufyan.

Abu Sufyan ibn Harb

Sakhr ibn Harb (Arabic: صخر بن حرب‎), more commonly known as Abu Sufyan (560–650), was the leader of the Quraysh of Mecca, the most powerful tribe of pre-Islamic Arabia. He was a staunch opponent of Muhammad, the prophet of Islam, until later accepting Islam and becoming a warrior later in his life during the early Muslim conquests.

Sakhr's mother, Safya, was the paternal aunt of Maymunah bint al-Harith, who married Muhammad.

Al-Anfal

al-Anfāl (Arabic: الأنفال‎, "The Spoils of War") is the eighth chapter (sūrah) of the Qur'an, with 75 verses (āyāt). It is a Medinan sura, completed after the

Battle of Badr. It forms a pair with the next sura, At-Tawba.

Al Kudr Invasion

The expedition against the Banu Salim tribe, also known as the Al Kudr Invasion, occurred directly after the Battle of Badr in the year 2 A.H of the Islamic calendar. The expedition was ordered by Muhammad after he received intelligence that the Banu Salim were planning to invade Madina.This was Muhammad's first interaction with the people of Bahrain. He had gotten news that some tribes were amassing an army on march from Bahrain.Muhammad responded by launching a pre-emptive strike against their base in Al Kudr which was a watering place at the time. When the tribe heard of this, they fled. Muhammad captured 500 of their camels from the raid, and distributed it between his fighters. He also kept a fifth of the spoils as khums.This event is mentioned in Ibn Hisham's biography of Muhammad and other historical books. Modern secondary sources which mention this include the award-winning book Ar-Raheeq Al-Makhtum (The Sealed Nectar).

Amr ibn Hishām

Amr ibn Hisham (Arabic: عمرو بن هشام‎), often known as Abu Jahl (Arabic: أبو جهل‎), (born 556 — died 17 March 624), was one of the Meccan polytheist pagan Qurayshi leaders known for his critical opposition towards Muhammad and the early Muslims in Mecca.

He was brother of Umar Ibn Abi Rabi'ah and the uncle of Umar ibn al-Khattab and one of the arch-enemies of Muhammad and the flag-bearer of opposition towards Islam and the early Muslims. Islam views him as having malevolence and enmity to such an extent that Muhammad gave him the title of "The Pharaoh of this Ummah" Muhammad said, “He who calls Abu Jahl 'Abu Hakam' has made a serious mistake. He should seek forgiveness from Allah for this.” Contrary to general misconception, ibn Hisham was not an uncle (as was Abu Lahab) or another blood relative of Muhammad. Muhammad belonged to the Banu Hashim clan of the Quraysh tribe, and ibn Hisham belonged to the Banu Makhzūm clan of the Quraysh. Amr ibn Hisham was also known as Asadul ahlaf, as he was the lion of the opposing groups that had sworn to fight against Islam and Muhammad.Abu Jahl was eventually killed in 624, when he died fighting the Muslims in the Battle of Badr.

Badr, Saudi Arabia

Badr (Arabic: بَـدْر‎, full name: Badr Hunayn, Arabic: بدر حنین‎) is a town in Al Madinah Province, Al-Hijaz, Saudi Arabia. It is located at around 23°46′48″N 38°47′26″E, and about 130 km (81 mi) from the Islamic holy city of Medina. It was the location of the famous Battle of Badr, between the Quraishi-led Polytheists, and the Muslims under the leadership of Muhammad, in 624 CE.

Banu Thaqif

Banū Thaqīf is an Arab tribe that came originally from the Ta'if area, they are a branch of Qays 'Aylan.

Bilal ibn Rabah

Bilal ibn Rabah (Arabic: بلال ابن رباح‎‎; 580–640 AD) also known as Bilal ibn Riyah, and ibn Rabah), was one of the most trusted and loyal Sahabah (companions) of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. He was born in Mecca and is considered as the first muezzin, chosen by Muhammad himself. He was known for his beautiful voice with which he called people to their prayers. He died in 640, at the age of 57.

Hamza ibn Abdul-Muttalib

Ḥamzah ibn ‘Abdul-Muṭṭalib (Arabic: حمزة ابن عبد المطّلب‎) (c.570–625) was a companion and paternal uncle of the Islamic Nabī (نَبي, Prophet) Muhammad.

His kunyas were "Abū Umārah" (أَبُو عُمَارَةَ) and "Abū Ya‘lā" (أَبُو يَعْلَى). He had the by-names Asad Allāh (أسد الله, "Lion of God") and Asad al-Jannah (أسد الجنّة, "Lion of the Paradise"), and Muhammad gave him the posthumous title Sayyid ash-Shuhadā’ (سَيِّدُ الشُّهَدَاء, "Chief of the Martyrs").

Invasion of Sawiq

The Invasion of Sawiq occurred after the Quraysh's defeat in the Battle of Badr. After suffering the ignominious defeat at the Battle of Badr, Abu Sufyan ibn Harb, the Quraysh leader, vowed that he would not bathe until he avenges his defeat. Abu Sufyan gathered two hundred mounted men, took the eastern road through the Nejd and secretly arrived by night, at the settlement of Banu Nadir, a Jewish tribe. However, the Jewish chief, Huwey refused him admission to the Jewish quarters (reportedly out of fear). Abu Sufyan along with another leader of the Banu Nadir tribe of Jews, Sallam ibn Mishkam, conspired to attack Madinah but they were unsuccessful. Abu Sufyan took refuge with Sallam bin Mishkan. Salam gave Abu Sufyan a hospitable welcome and the intelligence regarding Medina. At night, Abu Sufyan took his men to the Urayd corn fields, a place about two or three miles to the north-east of Medina. He burnt these farms and killed 2 Muslims. Abu Sufyan and his men ran away. When Muhammad found out, he gathered his men in hot pursuit. Abu Sufyan and his men, however, managed to flee. The Muslims managed to capture some of the sawiq (a type of flour) thrown away by the Quraysh men, who did so to lighten their burden and flee.

Khunais ibn Hudhaifa

Khunais ibn Hudhaifa (خنيس بن حذيفة) (d. 2 AH/624) was a companion of Muhammad.

Muawwaz ibn Amr

Muawwaz ibn Amr was a companion of Muhammad. He and his brother, Muaaz ibn Amr, wounded Abu Jahl in the Battle of Badr.He was the son of Amr ibn al-Jamuh but converted to Islam, at first secretly. Before the hijra, Muhammad had appointed Mus`ab ibn `Umair to carry out dawah (inviting others to join Islam), which he did excellently. Stirrings of change did not leave even the household of Am’r bin Jamooh. All of his three sons, Muawwaz ibn Amr, Muaaz ibn Amr and Khallad ibn Amr, entered the fold of Islam. On their initiation, even their mother, Hind the wife of Amr, professed the shahadah.

Muhammad (surah)

Sūrat Muḥammad (Arabic: سُـورَة مُـحَـمَّـد‎, "Chapter of Muhammad") is the 47th sura of the Qur'an with 38 ayat. The title is derived from the direct mentioning of the Islamic Nabī (Arabic: نَـبِي‎, Prophet) Muhammad in 47:2. It also has the name of Al-Qiṫāl (Arabic: الـقِـتَـال‎), which translates to fighting due to the context of the sura. This sura pertains to a specific conflict that arose from people prohibiting the acceptance and spread of Islam. It refers to the Battle of Badr, where an army was being gathered to attack Medina. The Battle of Badr took place during Ramadan, in year 2 of the Islamic calendar.

Umayyah ibn Khalaf

Umayyah ibn Khalaf ibn Safwan was a Meccan Arab, a leading member of the Quraish and head of Bani Jumah. He was an opponent of the Muslims led by Muhammad and is best known as the master of Bilal ibn Rabah, a slave he tortured for converting to Islam. Called also as Abu Ali.

He was killed in the Battle of Badr by Bilal ibn Rabah himself.Other transliterations of the name include: Umayya, Umaiiya and Umaiya.

Utbah ibn Rabi'ah

ʿUtbah ibn Rabīʿah (Arabic: عتبة بن ربيعة‎) (c.563-624) was one of the prominent pagan leaders of the Quraysh during the era of Muhammad. He is the father of Abu Hudhayfa ibn 'Utba, Walid ibn Utbah, Hind bint Utbah and father-in-law of Abu Sufyan ibn Harb.

Walid ibn Utbah

Walid ibn Utbah (died 624) was the son of Utba ibn Rabi'ah and brother of Abu Hudhayfa ibn Utbah and Hind bint Utbah. Just like his father, Walid was against Muhammad and his religion Islam.

He was a fierce Meccan warrior who was killed by Ali (Ali ibn Abi Talib) in the traditional 3 champions' combat duel on the day of the Battle of Badr before the full battle began. Walid, his father and uncle were the three champions of the Meccan army in duel against Hamza ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib, Ali, and Ubaydah ibn al-Harith. In the combat duel, Walid was killed by Ali, Walid's father was killed by Hamza, and then his uncle Shaibah was killed by Ubaydah.

People and things in the Quran

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