Battle of Ba Gia

The Battle of Ba Gia was a major battle that marked the beginning of the Viet Cong's (VC) Summer Offensive of 1965, during the early phases of the Vietnam War, known in Vietnam as the American War. The battle took place in Quảng Ngãi Province, South Vietnam, between May 28–31, 1965.

Following the victory of VC forces in the Battle of Binh Gia earlier in the year, the North Vietnamese leadership in Hanoi decided to intensify their war effort in order to defeat the American-backed Government of South Vietnam. The North Vietnamese war effort received a major boost in the first half of 1965, when the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China stepped up the delivery of military aid, which included the deployment of military specialists and other personnel to train North Vietnam's armed forces. The North Vietnamese decision to intensify the war culminated in the Summer Offensive of 1965, which aimed to destroy the regular divisions of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) in large-scale battles, and pin down the elite units of the ARVN strategic reserve. In Quảng Ngãi Province, South Vietnam, the VC kick-started their summer campaign by attacking elements of the ARVN 51st Infantry Regiment during the early hours of May 29, 1965. In the days that followed, the VC destroyed an entire ARVN Task Force to mark a successful start to their summer campaign.

Background

During the first half of 1965 the war in South Vietnam sharply escalated. In January 1965, while on a visit to China, a North Vietnamese military delegation met with Chinese Prime Minister Zhou Enlai to discuss the situation. In the meeting the North Vietnamese were advised by Zhou Enlai to step up military operations in South Vietnam, in order to destroy the ARVN whenever they came out to fight.[3] In March, in response to the VC's appeal for support from socialist troops, Leonid Brezhnev announced that Soviet citizens were volunteering to fight on the side of North Vietnam and the VC. However, Hanoi privately informed Moscow that the VC only wanted to gain international support, and they did not need actual volunteers.[4]

In April, the Soviet Union's political support for North Vietnam materialised with the delivery of MiG fighter planes and SAM-2 anti-aircraft missiles, along with large quantities of food and ammunition. In addition, Soviet pilots and other specialists were dispatched to North Vietnam to train North Vietnamese military personnel in the use of advanced military hardware.[5][6] China, not to be outdone by its Soviet rival, increased the delivery of armaments to North Vietnam at rates which surpassed their commitments in 1964. China also offered logistical assistance to the North Vietnamese military by providing seven divisions of Chinese soldiers for road construction and other projects.[7] The logistical support offered by China had a significant impact on the North Vietnamese military, as North Vietnam needed all its combat divisions to conduct operations, to aide the Pathet Lao in Laos and the VC in South Vietnam.[7]

Buoyed by the recent victory in the Binh Gia campaign and the support of their major allies, North Vietnamese leaders began preparing a strategy to defeat South Vietnamese and United States military forces. Lê Duẩn, Secretary of the Communist Party, believed that the South Vietnamese regime was able to survive because they still had a strong army to rely upon. Therefore, to win the war and reunite the country, the South Vietnamese military had to be destroyed completely.[8] Lê Duẩn believed the Communist forces must destroy three or four of South Vietnam's nine regular army divisions in a series of large battles, and pin down the eleven elite battalions of the South Vietnamese strategic reserve. Thus, North Vietnamese leaders decided to launch a summer offensive with the objective of defeating the ARVN by drawing them into battle repeatedly with numerous, geographically dispersed attacks.[8]

Prelude

At the beginning of the summer season in 1965, VC Commanders in Military Region 5 passed a resolution to launch a military operation known as the "Le Do Campaign", which was supposed to last from May 15 to August 30, 1965. The operation was aimed at ARVN military units based in the provinces of Gia Lai, Kon Tum and Quảng Ngãi.[9] Preparations for a major military offensive was made at the beginning of 1965 when Tran Kien, Chairman of the VC Rear Services in Military Region 5, began the process of transporting soldiers and materiel into the VC areas of operation. Huynh Huu Anh, Deputy Chief of the VC Chief of Staff in Military Region 5, was responsible for conducting reconnaissance missions and air defence. PAVN Major General Chu Huy Man was sent to South Vietnam to take command of military operations.[10]

Prior to the Summer Offensive of 1965, Quang Ngai and the surrounding provinces had witnessed a substantial increase in VC military activities. On February 6, 1965, the VC 409th Sapper Battalion attacked the U.S. base at Camp Holloway at Pleiku, injuring more than a hundred American personnel and damaging about 20 aircraft.[5] The U.S. retaliated by launching Operation Flaming Dart, bombing selected targets in North Vietnam. On 10 February the VC bombed a U.S. military billet in Qui Nhơn and the U.S. retaliated by launching Operation Flaming Dart II. Following those actions the VC decided to launch a major assault on South Vietnamese units in Ba Gia, a small village in Son Tinh District about 10 kilometres away from Quảng Ngãi City.[11]

In May 1965, the VC 271st Regiment (part of the Viet Cong 9th Division) moved into northern Quảng Ngãi from the neighbouring province of Quảng Nam. The VC 271st Regiment had three battalions (the 40th, 60th and 90th Battalions), and was placed under the command of Le Huu Tru. In northern Quảng Ngãi, the 271st Regiment joined the 45th Independent Battalion and the 83rd Local Force Battalion.[11] On the other side, South Vietnamese military units in Quảng Ngãi Province formed part of the ARVN 1st Brigade, I Corps Tactical Zone, commanded by General Nguyễn Chánh Thi. In Quảng Ngãi the main ARVN force included the 51st Infantry Regiment (part of the 25th Infantry Division), Marine Corps Task Force B, 1st and 3rd Marine Battalions, the 37th and 39th Ranger Battalion, the 5th Airborne Battalion, and two artillery battalions equipped with 105mm artillery guns.[11]

Battle

On the night of May 28, 1965, the VC marched into their designated positions around Ba Gia; the 90th Battalion took up their position at Minh Thanh, the 60th Battalion at Vinh Loc 1, the 40th Battalion at Duyen Phuoc, and the 45th Battalion at Vinh Khanh. The 271st Regimental Headquarters set up camp at Nui Thanh, while the 83rd Local Force Battalion was ordered to encircle the administrative centre at Nghia Hanh.[12] At 5.45 am on May 29, elements of the VC 271st Regiment launched a surprise attack on Phuoc Loc, a small village located south of Ba Gia. Within 10 minutes of fighting, the two platoons of South Vietnamese Regional Force defending Phuoc Loc were subdued, and the VC quickly consolidated the battlefield around the area. At around 6:00 am ARVN Captain Nguyen Van Ngoc, commander of the 1st Battalion, 51st Infantry Regiment, led his unit from Go Cao south toward Phuoc Loc to stage a counter-attack against the lead element of the enemies' 271st Regiment.[13]

At 9.50 am, as the ARVN 1st Battalion marched through Loc Tho village they were encircled by the VC 90th Battalion, who had set up ambush positions and were waiting for the ARVN to arrive. Caught by surprise, the ARVN 1st Battalion descended into chaos and was unable to mount an effective counter-attack. In less than one hour of fighting, the battalion was completely destroyed with 270 soldiers either killed or wounded. Captain Nguyen Van Ngoc was amongst the 217 men who were captured. Only 65 ARVN soldiers and three American advisors managed to return to government lines.[14] The VC also claimed to have destroyed one 105mm artillery piece, four GMC trucks and one Jeep. Meanwhile, the VC 83rd Local Force Battalion marched from Tra Khuc River toward Nghia Hanh, and began applying pressure on the ARVN stationed there. Thus, the VC were asserting control over Ba Gia and the surrounding areas.[12]

On the afternoon of May 29, ARVN General Nguyễn Chánh Thi, commander of South Vietnam's I Corps Tactical Zone, responded to the VC assault by forming a Task Force with the objective of recapturing Ba Gia. The Task Force consisted of the 2nd Battalion, 51st Infantry Regiment, the 3rd Marine Battalion, the 39th Ranger Battalion and one squadron of M113 armored personnel carriers.[12] According to General Nguyen Chanh Thi's plan, the Task Force would achieve the following objectives: the 3rd Marine Battalion would advance along Route 5 toward the objective of Ba Gia; the 39th Ranger Battalion through An Thuyet, Vinh Loc and Vinh Khanh and than capture Mount Chop Non; and the 2nd Battalion, 51st Infantry Regiment towards Phuoc Loc and capture Mount Ma To. On the morning of May 30 the South Vietnamese Task Force assembled in Quang Ngai City and waited for further orders, while ARVN artillery and U.S. Air Force fighter-bombers pounded VC positions around Ba Gia.[11]

At around 12 noon on May 30, with extensive air support from U.S. fighter-bombers and UH-1 helicopter gunships,[15] the ARVN advanced towards their objectives in two separate columns. In the first, the ARVN 39th Ranger Battalion approached northern Phuoc Loc to secure Mount Chop Non, from where they could strike at the VC's southern flank. In the second column the ARVN 2nd Battalion and the 3rd Marine Battalion advanced towards their objectives of Mount Ma To and Ba Gia respectively.[16] However, South Vietnamese manoeuvres on the ground did not go unnoticed, because VC reconnaissance teams on Mount Khi had spotted the columns and responded accordingly. Elements of the VC 45th Battalion were ordered to set up ambush positions inside the village of Vinh Khanh, while the 60th Battalion was redeployed to Mount Ma To and waited for the enemy there. At about 1 pm the ARVN 2nd Battalion, 51st Infantry Regiment arrived on Hill 47 in the vicinity of Mount Ma To, but the VC 60th Battalion allowed them to advance toward their objective.[15]

Meanwhile, the ARVN 39th Ranger Battalion secured their objective on Mount Chop Non, with the main formation of the VC 45th Battalion lining their troops on the rear positions of the ARVN Rangers. At 2:05 pm the VC unleashed their ambush on the ARVN 2nd Battalion, forcing the ARVN infantrymen to fight for their lives.[15] As fighting erupted on Mount Ma To, the ARVN 3rd Marine Battalion inside the village of Phuoc Loc was ordered to relieve the 2nd Battalion. However, by 3:30 pm the 3rd Marine Battalion was also surrounded by the VC 60th Battalion on Hill 47, which had moved out from Vinh Loc village to engage the Marines.[15] At the same time, VC mortar fire began slamming into South Vietnamese positions in the village of Phuoc Loc, and fighting continued until 5 pm. When it concluded that evening both sides had suffered heavy casualties and the South Vietnamese 2nd Battalion and the 3rd Marine Battalion were forced to retreat back to Phuoc Loc with four M-113 APCs providing fire support.[17]

During the night of May 30, VC formations on the battlefield were ordered to wipe out what was left of the South Vietnamese Task Force in Phuoc Loc village, as local villagers in Ba Gia helped the VC round up South Vietnamese prisoners.[18] On Mount Chop Non, the VC 45th Battalion were able to advance within 100 metres of the ARVN 39th Ranger Battalion's line of defence without being noticed. In the early hours of May 31, the VC 40th Battalion resumed its attack on South Vietnamese positions in Phuoc Loc, but the ARVN 2nd Battalion and 3rd Marine Battalion put up stiff resistance. After several hours of fierce fighting, the VC recaptured Phuoc Loc where they found the bodies of 94 dead South Vietnamese soldiers.[19] At the same time, the VC 45th Battalion attacked the ARVN 39th Ranger Battalion on Mount Chop Non. The VC bombarded the South Vietnamese with heavy mortars, which were followed by infantry assaults. By 4 am the VC 45th Battalion had successfully recaptured their final objective of Mount Chop Non, leaving the 39th Ranger Battalion decimated with 108 soldiers killed.[20]

Aftermath

The battle at Ba Gia, which marked the beginning of the VC's Summer Offensive of 1965, had dealt a severe blow to South Vietnam's armed forces. For the first time in the VC's history, their forces at Ba Gia successfully decimated a regimental-sized ARVN Task Force in battle.[21] According to Vietnam's official account of the battle, the VC killed or wounded 915 South Vietnamese soldiers, and 270 others were captured.[1] In addition to the human casualties, the VC also captured 370 weapons of various kinds and destroyed 14 GMC trucks. South Vietnam, on the other hand, claimed to have killed 556 enemy soldiers, but only captured 20 weapons.[2] Following their military victory, the VC Quang Ngai Provincial Committee initiated a political campaign to exercise political influence over the province. By June 3, 1965, the VC virtually controlled five districts in northern Quang Ngai Province (Binh Son, Son Tinh, Nghia Hanh, Tu Nghia and Mo Duc), home to 10,000 civilians.[22]

Even though the fighting at Ba Gia was minor in scale, it convinced President Lyndon B. Johnson that South Vietnam's armed forces could not deal with the growing Communist forces by themselves. On July 20, 1965, U.S. Secretary of Defence Robert McNamara laid out three options before Johnson concerning the American involvement in Vietnam: 1) withdraw all American personnel from Vietnam to minimise their losses; 2) continue American commitments at their then approximate level of about 75,000 men; 3) substantially expand the American military presence in Vietnam.[2] Ultimately, President Johnson chose the third option and decided to 'Americanise' the Vietnam War, and by July 22 the U.S. military was authorised to raise its combat strength in Vietnam to 44 battalions. Thus, total U.S. military presence in Vietnam grew from 75,000 to 125,000 men, drawn mainly from the U.S. Army and the U.S. Marine Corps. Undeterred by this growing U.S. military strength, North Vietnamese leaders decided to match American commitments by increasing the number of their troops in South Vietnam, thereby escalating the war.[2]

Notes

  1. ^ a b Anonymous (1988), p. 74
  2. ^ a b c d Tucker (1999), p. 116
  3. ^ Guan (2002), p. 85
  4. ^ Moyer (2006), p. 360
  5. ^ a b Guan (2002), p. 86
  6. ^ Moyer (2006), pp. 359–360
  7. ^ a b Moyer (2006), p. 363
  8. ^ a b Moyer (2006), p. 359
  9. ^ Dinh Uoc & Van Minh (1997), p. 117
  10. ^ Guan (2002), p. 92
  11. ^ a b c d Dinh Uoc & Van Minh (1997), p. 118
  12. ^ a b c Dinh Uoc & Van Minh (1997), p. 118
  13. ^ Comrade T.N. (1965), pp. 5–6
  14. ^ Comrade T.N. (1965), pp. 7–8
  15. ^ a b c d Comrade T.N. (1997), pp. 14–15
  16. ^ Comrade T.N. (1965), pp. 12–13
  17. ^ Comrade T.N. (1997), p. 15
  18. ^ Comrade T.N. (1997), pp. 15–16
  19. ^ Comrade T.N. (1997), p. 16
  20. ^ Comrade T.N. (1997), p. 17
  21. ^ Toan & Dinh (1990), p. 28
  22. ^ Dinh Uoc & Van Minh (1997), p. 119
Bibliography
  • Ang Cheng Guan. (2002). The Vietnam War from the other side: The Vietnamese Communists' Perspective. London: Routledge. ISBN 0700716157
  • Anonymous. (1988). The Great Anti-U.S. War of Resistance for National Salvation: Military Events. Hanoi: People's Army Publishing House.
  • Comrade T.N. (1965). A Diary on the Battle of Ba Gia. Saigon-Gia Dinh: Office of Information, Culture and Education.
  • Mark Moyer. (2006). Triumph Forsaken: The Vietnam War 1954–1975. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521869110
  • Nguyen Huy Toan & Pham Quang Dinh. (1990). History of the 304th Division: March–December 1965 (2nd edn). Hanoi: People's Army Publishing House.
  • Nguyen Dinh Uoc & Nguyen Van Minh. (1997). History of the War of Resistance Against America (3rd edn). Hanoi: National Politics Publishing.
  • Spencer Tucker. (1999). Warfare and History: Vietnam. Abingdon: Routledge.
1965 in the Vietnam War

In 1965, the United States rapidly increased its military forces in South Vietnam, prompted by the realization that the South Vietnamese government was losing the Vietnam War as the communist-dominated Viet Cong gained influence over much of the population in rural areas of the country. North Vietnam also rapidly increased its infiltration of men and supplies to combat South Vietnam and the U.S.. The objective of the U.S. and South Vietnam was to prevent a communist take-over. North Vietnam and the insurgent Viet Cong sought to unite the two sections of the country.

Political instability and internal dissent continued to plague the government of South Vietnam, although in June General Nguyễn Văn Thiệu and Air Marshall Nguyễn Cao Kỳ took control of the country and remained in power for the remainder of the year. In the United States, a majority of Congress and the people supported U.S. participation in the war, although protests against the war became larger and more frequent, especially among college students.

The U.S. began bombing North Vietnam in March, in Operation Rolling Thunder. The U.S. Army and Marines began ground operations to ferret out and defeat the communist forces. General William Westmoreland commanded U.S. forces in South Vietnam. Westmoreland's strategy was attrition, employing U.S. superiority in firepower, technology, and mobility. The usual military tactic of the United States was search and destroy operations in which large U.S. and South Vietnamese units, supported by air and artillery, swept through an area to attempt to engage the communists in battle. North Vietnam and the Viet Cong, by contrast, relied on hit-and-run operations and ambushes, avoiding set-piece battles except at their own initiative.

In November, the U.S. and North Vietnamese armies met head-on for the first time in the Battle of Ia Drang. Both sides claimed victory. The U.S. inflicted heavy casualties on the North Vietnamese, but the battle vindicated the conviction by North Vietnam that its military could slowly grind down the U.S.'s commitment to the war.

South Korea contributed an army division to South Vietnam, while Australia, New Zealand and other countries provided smaller numbers of soldiers. North Vietnam received military aid from the Soviet Union and China.

At year's end, President Lyndon Johnson declared a temporary halt to the bombing of North Vietnam and undertook a diplomatic initiative to seek negotiations with North Vietnam. North Vietnam, on its part, aimed to achieve a decisive military victory, but prepared also for an expanded war if the U.S. continued to escalate its involvement.

Most of the reports and conversations mentioned below were secret and not made public for many years. They reflect the ongoing debate among American officials, military leaders, and the American people about the scope and character of American intervention in the Vietnam War.

25th Division (South Vietnam)

The 25th Division of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN)—the army of the nation state of South Vietnam that existed from 1955 to 1975—was part of the III Corps that oversaw the region of the country surrounding the capital, Saigon. It was based at Củ Chi Base Camp to the northwest of the city.

9th Division (Vietnam)

The 9th Infantry Division is a division of the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN), first formed from Viet Cong units in 1964/5 in the Mekong Delta region.

List of battles (geographic)

This list of battles is organized geographically, by country in its present territory.

People's Liberation Armed Forces of South Vietnam

The People's Liberation Armed Forces of South Vietnam (PLAF), or Viet Cong's army, was the official army of the National Liberation Front of South Vietnam. The PLAF forces were independent of the People's Army of Vietnam. The PLAF was unofficially established after 1954 and was recognized as main battle forces in South Vietnam by North Vietnam in 1961. The PLAF forces appeared to be outside of the control of the People's Army of Vietnam, but under the command of the Central Office for South Vietnam, politically and militarily controlled by Hanoi and functioned as a branch of the North Vietnamese Army.

Republic of Vietnam Marine Division

The Republic of Vietnam Marine Division (RVNMD, Vietnamese: Sư Đoàn Thủy Quân Lục Chiến [TQLC]) was part of the armed forces of South Vietnam. It was established by Ngo Dinh Diem in 1954 when he was Prime Minister of the State of Vietnam, which became the Republic of Vietnam in 1955. The longest-serving commander was Lieutenant General Le Nguyen Khang. In 1969, the VNMC had a strength of 9,300, 15,000 by 1973., and 20,000 by 1975.The Marine Division trace their origins to French-trained Commandos Marine divisions recruited and placed under the command of the French Navy but officially incorporated in 1960. From 1970 onwards, the South Vietnamese marines and Airborne Division grew significantly, supplanting the independent, Central Highlands based Vietnamese Rangers as the most popular elite units for volunteers. Along with the Airborne the Marine Division formed the General Reserve with the strategic transformation under Vietnamization, with elite and highly-mobile units meant to be deployed in People's Army of Vietnam attacking points and incursions. By then, the level of training had improved considerably and U.S. General Creighton Abrams who oversaw Vietnamization stated that South Vietnam's Airborne and Marines had no comparable units to match it in the PAVN.This division had earned a total of 9 U.S. presidential citations, with the 2nd Battalion "Crazy Buffaloes" earning two.

Vietnamese Rangers

The Vietnamese Rangers, properly known in Vietnamese as the Biệt Động Quân and commonly known as the ARVN Rangers, were the light infantry of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam. Trained and assisted by American Special Forces and Ranger advisers, the Vietnamese Rangers infiltrated beyond enemy lines in daring search and destroy missions. Initially trained as a counter-insurgency light infantry force by removing the fourth company each of the existing infantry battalions, they later expanded into a swing force capable of conventional as well as counter-insurgency operations, and were relied on to retake captured regions. Later during Vietnamization the Civilian Irregular Defense Group program was transferred from MACV and integrated as Border Battalions responsible for manning remote outposts in the Central Highlands.Rangers were often regarded as among the most effective units in the war, the most well-led ARVN unit and formed part of the highly-mobile response units operating in key areas. Part of this was due to the specialized role of these units, given that they had their origins in French-raised Commando Units, the GCMA which were drawn from Viet Minh defectors and Tai-Kadai groups, operating in interdiction and counter-intelligence roles, and were trained specifically for counter-insurgency and rough-terrain warfare in the region. Ranger Units often had a US Military Adviser attached to these units although operated independently. The foremost counterinsurgency expert Sir Robert Thompson remarked in 1974 that the ARVN as a whole were the third-best trained army in the free-world and second only to the Israelis in counter-insurgency, with the Rangers, ARVN Airborne and Marine Division forming the vanguard. With improvements in the ARVN from 1969 onward and the growing prestige of the Airborne and Marine Division, depredation had caused the Central Highlands-based Rangers to become manned by deserters, released convicts and Montagnards nevertheless the unit continued to perform critical roles in the Easter Offensive and frontier skirmishes in 1973 and 1974.

A total of 11 U.S Presidential Unit Citation (United States) were issued to the 22 original Ranger Battalions, including one unit whom earned three total citations from two different presidents. See List of Non-US Presidential Unit Citations in Vietnam.

Zone 5 Military Museum, Danang

The Zone 5 Military Museum (Bao Tang Khu 5) is a military museum located at 3 Duy Tân, Da Nang, Vietnam. It covers all Vietnamese resistance to foreign occupation from the Chinese occupation, the First Indochina War with the French, the Vietnam War and the current standoff with China over the Spratly Islands and the Paracel Islands.

The Museum's opening hours are from 07:30 to 10:30 and from 13:30 to 16:30 daily except Monday. Admission is free for Vietnamese and VND 60,000 for non-Vietnamese, plus VND 10,000 to take photos.

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