Battle of Agincourt

The Battle of Agincourt (/ˈæʒɪnkɔːr(t), -kʊər/[a] French: Azincourt [azɛ̃kuʁ]) was one of the greatest English victories in the Hundred Years' War. It took place on 25 October 1415 (Saint Crispin's Day) near Azincourt in northern France.[b] England's unexpected victory against a numerically superior French army boosted English morale and prestige, crippled France, and started a new period in the war during which the English began enjoying great military successes.

After several decades of relative peace, the English had renewed their war effort in 1415 amid the failure of negotiations with the French. In the ensuing campaign, many soldiers died due to disease and the English numbers dwindled; they tried to withdraw to English-held Calais but found their path blocked by a considerably larger French army. Despite the disadvantage, the following battle ended in an overwhelming tactical victory for the English.

King Henry V of England led his troops into battle and participated in hand-to-hand fighting. King Charles VI of France did not command the French army himself, as he suffered from severe psychotic illnesses with moderate mental incapacitation. Instead, the French were commanded by Constable Charles d'Albret and various prominent French noblemen of the Armagnac party.

This battle is notable for the use of the English longbow in very large numbers, with the English and Welsh archers making up nearly 80 percent of Henry's army.

Agincourt is one of England's most celebrated victories and was one of the most important English triumphs in the Hundred Years' War, along with the Battle of Crécy (1346) and Battle of Poitiers (1356). It forms the centrepiece of the play Henry V by William Shakespeare.

Battle of Agincourt
Part of the Hundred Years' War
Schlacht von Azincourt

The Battle of Agincourt, 15th-century miniature, Enguerrand de Monstrelet
Date25 October 1415 (Saint Crispin's Day)
Location
50°27′49″N 2°8′30″E / 50.46361°N 2.14167°ECoordinates: 50°27′49″N 2°8′30″E / 50.46361°N 2.14167°E
Result English victory
Belligerents
Royal Arms of England (1399-1603).svg Kingdom of England France moderne.svg Kingdom of France
Commanders and leaders
Strength
Modern estimates range from 6,000[1] to 9,000;[2] see Numbers at Agincourt.
• About ​56 longbowmen
• ​16 dismounted knights and men-at-arms in heavy armour.
Modern estimates range from 12,000[2] to 36,000;[3] see Numbers at Agincourt.
• About 10,000 knights and men-at-arms (of which about 1,200 were mounted)
• unknown thousands of other infantry, crossbowmen and archers.
Casualties and losses
112–600 killed, unknown wounded[4][3] 1,500–11,000 killed[4]
700–2,200 captured[5]
Rubbing of the Dyrham brass, Saint Peter's Church, Dyrham, South Gloucestershire, England
Monumental brass of an English knight wearing armour at the time of Agincourt (Sir Maurice Russell (d. 1416), Dyrham Church, Gloucestershire)

Contemporary accounts

The Battle of Agincourt is well documented by at least seven contemporary accounts, three from eyewitnesses. The approximate location of the battle has never been in dispute and the place remains relatively unaltered after 600 years. Immediately after the battle, Henry summoned the heralds of the two armies who had watched the battle together with principal French herald Montjoie, and they settled on the name of the battle as Azincourt after the nearest fortified place.[6] Two of the most frequently cited accounts come from Burgundian sources, one from Jean Le Fèvre de Saint-Remy who was present at the battle, and the other from Enguerrand de Monstrelet. The English eyewitness account comes from the anonymous Gesta Henrici Quinti, believed to be written by a chaplain in the King's household who would have been in the baggage train at the battle.[7] A recent re-appraisal of Henry's strategy of the Agincourt campaign incorporates these three accounts and argues that war was seen as a legal due process for solving the disagreement over claims to the French throne.[8]

Campaign

Henry V invaded France following the failure of negotiations with the French. He claimed the title of King of France through his great-grandfather Edward III, although in practice the English kings were generally prepared to renounce this claim if the French would acknowledge the English claim on Aquitaine and other French lands (the terms of the Treaty of Brétigny).[9] He initially called a Great Council in the spring of 1414 to discuss going to war with France, but the lords insisted that he should negotiate further and moderate his claims. In the following negotiations Henry said that he would give up his claim to the French throne if the French would pay the 1.6 million crowns outstanding from the ransom of John II (who had been captured at the Battle of Poitiers in 1356), and concede English ownership of the lands of Normandy, Touraine, Anjou, Brittany and Flanders, as well as Aquitaine. Henry would marry Catherine, the young daughter of Charles VI, and receive a dowry of 2 million crowns. The French responded with what they considered the generous terms of marriage with Catherine, a dowry of 600,000 crowns, and an enlarged Aquitaine. By 1415, negotiations had ground to a halt, with the English claiming that the French had mocked their claims and ridiculed Henry himself.[10] In December 1414, the English parliament was persuaded to grant Henry a "double subsidy", a tax at twice the traditional rate, to recover his inheritance from the French. On 19 April 1415, Henry again asked the Great Council to sanction war with France, and this time they agreed.[11]

Henry's army landed in northern France on 13 August 1415, carried by a fleet described by Shakespeare as "a city on the inconstant billows dancing / For so appears this fleet majestical". It was often reported to comprise 1,500 ships, but probably far smaller. The army of about 12,000, and up to 20,000 horses besieged the port of Harfleur.[12] The siege took longer than expected. The town surrendered on 22 September, and the English army did not leave until 8 October. The campaign season was coming to an end, and the English army had suffered many casualties through disease. Rather than retire directly to England for the winter, with his costly expedition resulting in the capture of only one town, Henry decided to march most of his army (roughly 9,000) through Normandy to the port of Calais, the English stronghold in northern France, to demonstrate by his presence in the territory at the head of an army that his right to rule in the duchy was more than a mere abstract legal and historical claim.[13] He also intended the manoeuvre as a deliberate provocation to battle aimed at the dauphin, who had failed to respond to Henry's personal challenge to combat at Harfleur.[14]

The French had raised an army during the siege which assembled around Rouen. This was not strictly a feudal army, but an army paid through a system similar to the English. The French hoped to raise 9,000 troops, but the army was not ready in time to relieve Harfleur. After Henry V marched to the north, the French moved to block them along the River Somme. They were successful for a time, forcing Henry to move south, away from Calais, to find a ford. The English finally crossed the Somme south of Péronne, at Béthencourt and Voyennes [15][16] and resumed marching north. Without a river obstacle to defend, the French were hesitant to force a battle. They shadowed Henry's army while calling a semonce des nobles,[17] calling on local nobles to join the army. By 24 October, both armies faced each other for battle, but the French declined, hoping for the arrival of more troops. The two armies spent the night of 24 October on open ground. The next day the French initiated negotiations as a delaying tactic, but Henry ordered his army to advance and to start a battle that, given the state of his army, he would have preferred to avoid, or to fight defensively: that was how Crécy and the other famous longbow victories had been won. The English had very little food, had marched 260 miles (420 km) in two and a half weeks, were suffering from sickness such as dysentery, and faced much larger numbers of well-equipped French men-at-arms. The French army blocked Henry's way to the safety of Calais, and delaying battle would only further weaken his tired army and allow more French troops to arrive.[18]

Battle

Battlefield

The precise location of the battle is not known. It may be in the narrow strip of open land formed between the woods of Tramecourt and Azincourt (close to the modern village of Azincourt). However, the lack of archaeological evidence at this traditional site has led to suggestions it was fought to the west of Azincourt.[19] In 2019, the historian Michael Livingston also made the case for a site west of Azincourt, based on a review of sources and early maps.[20]

English deployment

Map Agincort
The battle of Agincourt

Early on the 25th, Henry deployed his army (approximately 1,500 men-at-arms and 7,000 longbowmen) across a 750-yard (690 m) part of the defile. The army was organised into three battles or divisions: the vanguard, led by the Duke of York; the main battle led by Henry himself; and the rearguard, led by Lord Camoys. In addition, Sir Thomas Erpingham, one of Henry's most experienced household knights, had a role in marshalling the archers.[21] It is likely that the English adopted their usual battle line of longbowmen on either flank, with men-at-arms and knights in the centre. They might also have deployed some archers in the centre of the line. The English men-at-arms in plate and mail were placed shoulder to shoulder four deep. The English and Welsh archers on the flanks drove pointed wooden stakes, or palings, into the ground at an angle to force cavalry to veer off. This use of stakes could have been inspired by the Battle of Nicopolis of 1396, where forces of the Ottoman Empire used the tactic against French cavalry.[c]

The English made their confessions before the battle, as was customary.[22] Henry, worried about the enemy launching surprise raids, and wanting his troops to remain focused, ordered all his men to spend the night before the battle in silence, on pain of having an ear cut off. He told his men that he would rather die in the coming battle than be captured and ransomed.[23]

Henry made a speech emphasising the justness of his cause, and reminding his army of previous great defeats the kings of England had inflicted on the French. The Burgundian sources have him concluding the speech by telling his men that the French had boasted that they would cut off two fingers from the right hand of every archer, so that he could never draw a longbow again. Whether this was true is open to question; as previously noted, death was the normal fate of any soldier who could not be ransomed.[24]

French deployment

The French force was not only larger than that of the English, but their noble men-at-arms would have considered themselves superior to the large number of archers in the English army, whom the French (based on their experience in recent memory of using and facing archers) considered relatively insignificant.[25] For example, the chronicler Edmond de Dyntner stated that there were "ten French nobles against one English", ignoring the archers completely.[25] Several French accounts emphasise that the French leaders were so eager to defeat the English (and win the ransoms of the English men-at-arms) that they insisted on being in the first line; as one of the contemporary accounts put it: "All the lords wanted to be in the vanguard, against the opinion of the constable and the experienced knights."[26]

The French were arrayed in three lines or battles. The first line was led by Constable d'Albret, Marshal Boucicault, and the Dukes of Orléans and Bourbon, with attached cavalry wings under the Count of Vendôme and Sir Clignet de Brebant. The second line was commanded by the Dukes of Bar and Alençon and the Count of Nevers. The third line was under the Counts of Dammartin and Fauconberg.[27] The Burgundian chronicler Jean de Wavrin said there were 8,000 men-at-arms, 4,000 archers and 1,500 crossbowmen in the vanguard, with two wings of 600 and 800 mounted men-at-arms, and a main battle comprising "as many knights, esquires and archers as in the vanguard", with the rearguard containing "all of the rest of the men-at-arms".[28] The Herald of Berry gave figures of 4,800 men-at-arms in the first line, 3,000 men in the second line, with two "wings" containing 600 mounted men-at-arms each, and a total of "10,000 men-at-arms",[29] but does not mention a third line.

Wavrin gives the total French army size as 50,000: "They had plenty of archers and crossbowmen but nobody wanted to let them fire [sic]. The reason for this was that the site was so narrow that there was only enough room for the men-at-arms."[30] A different source says that the French did not even deploy 4,000 of the best crossbowmen "on the pretext they had no need of their help".[31]

Terrain

The field of battle was arguably the most significant factor in deciding the outcome. The recently ploughed land hemmed in by dense woodland favoured the English, both because of its narrowness, and because of the thick mud through which the French knights had to walk.[32][33]

Accounts of the battle describe the French engaging the English men-at-arms before being rushed from the sides by the longbowmen as the mêlée developed. The English account in the Gesta Henrici says: "For when some of them, killed when battle was first joined, fall at the front, so great was the undisciplined violence and pressure of the mass of men behind them that the living fell on top of the dead, and others falling on top of the living were killed as well."[34]

Although the French initially pushed the English back, they became so closely packed that they were described as having trouble using their weapons properly. The French monk of St. Denis says: "Their vanguard, composed of about 5,000 men, found itself at first so tightly packed that those who were in the third rank could scarcely use their swords,"[35] and the Burgundian sources have a similar passage.

As the battle was fought on a recently ploughed field, and there had recently been heavy rain leaving it very muddy, it proved very tiring to walk through in full plate armour. The French monk of St. Denis describes the French troops as "marching through the middle of the mud where they sank up to their knees. So they were already overcome with fatigue even before they advanced against the enemy". The deep, soft mud particularly favoured the English force because, once knocked to the ground, the heavily armoured French knights had a hard time getting back up to fight in the mêlée. Barker states that some knights, encumbered by their armour, actually drowned in their helmets.[36]

Fighting

Opening moves

Morning of the Battle of Agincourt, 25th October 1415
Morning of the Battle of Agincourt, 25 October 1415, painted by Sir John Gilbert in the 19th century

On the morning of 25 October, the French were still waiting for additional troops to arrive. The Duke of Brabant (about 2,000 men),[37] the Duke of Anjou (about 600 men),[37] and the Duke of Brittany (6,000 men, according to Monstrelet),[38] were all marching to join the army.

For three hours after sunrise there was no fighting. Military textbooks of the time stated: "Everywhere and on all occasions that foot soldiers march against their enemy face to face, those who march lose and those who remain standing still and holding firm win."[39] On top of this, the French were expecting thousands of men to join them if they waited. They were blocking Henry's retreat, and were perfectly happy to wait for as long as it took. There had even been a suggestion that the English would run away rather than give battle when they saw that they would be fighting so many French princes.[40]

Henry's men were already very weary from hunger, illness and retreat. Apparently Henry believed his fleeing army would perform better on the defensive, but had to halt the retreat and somehow engage the French before a defensive battle was possible. [18] This entailed abandoning his chosen position and pulling out, advancing, and then re-installing the long sharpened wooden stakes pointed outwards toward the enemy, which helped protect the longbowmen from cavalry charges.[41] (The use of stakes was an innovation for the English: during the Battle of Crécy, for example, the archers had been instead protected by pits and other obstacles.[42])

The tightness of the terrain also seems to have restricted the planned deployment of the French forces. The French had originally drawn up a battle plan that had archers and crossbowmen in front of their men-at-arms, with a cavalry force at the rear specifically designed to "fall upon the archers, and use their force to break them,"[43] but in the event, the French archers and crossbowmen were deployed behind and to the sides of the men-at-arms (where they seem to have played almost no part, except possibly for an initial volley of arrows at the start of the battle). The cavalry force, which could have devastated the English line if it had attacked while they moved their stakes, charged only after the initial volley of arrows from the English. It is unclear whether the delay occurred because the French were hoping the English would launch a frontal assault (and were surprised when the English instead started shooting from their new defensive position), or whether the French mounted knights instead did not react quickly enough to the English advance. French chroniclers agree that when the mounted charge did come, it did not contain as many men as it should have; Gilles le Bouvier states that some had wandered off to warm themselves and others were walking or feeding their horses.[44]

French cavalry attack

The French cavalry, despite being disorganised and not at full numbers, charged towards the longbowmen, but it was a disaster, with the French knights unable to outflank the longbowmen (because of the encroaching woodland) and unable to charge through the forest of sharpened stakes that protected the archers. John Keegan argues that the longbows' main influence on the battle at this point was injuries to horses: armoured only on the head, many horses would have become dangerously out of control when struck in the back or flank from the high-elevation long range shots used as the charge started.[45] The mounted charge and subsequent retreat churned up the already muddy terrain between the French and the English. Juliet Barker quotes a contemporary account by a monk of St. Denis who reports how the wounded and panicking horses galloped through the advancing infantry, scattering them and trampling them down in their headlong flight from the battlefield.[46]

Main French assault

King Henry V at the Battle of Agincourt, 1415
King Henry V at the Battle of Agincourt, 1415, by Sir John Gilbert in the 19th century.

The plate armour of the French men-at-arms allowed them to close the 1,000 yards or so to the English lines while being under what the French monk of Saint Denis described as "a terrifying hail of arrow shot". A complete coat of plate was considered such good protection that shields were generally not used,[47] although the Burgundian contemporary sources distinguish between Frenchmen who used shields and those who did not, and Rogers has suggested that the front elements of the French force used axes and shields.[48] Modern historians are divided on how effective the longbow fire would have been against plate armour of the time, with some suggesting that arrows could not penetrate, especially the better quality steel armour, but others suggesting arrows could penetrate, especially the poorer quality wrought iron armour. Rogers suggested that the longbow could penetrate a wrought iron breastplate at short range and penetrate the thinner armour on the limbs even at 220 yards (200 m). He considered a knight in the best-quality steel armour invulnerable to an arrow on the breastplate or top of the helmet, but vulnerable to shots hitting the limbs, particularly at close range.[49] In any case, to protect themselves as much as possible from the arrows, the French had to lower their visors and bend their helmeted heads to avoid being shot in the face, as the eye- and air-holes in their helmets were among the weakest points in the armour. This head-lowered position restricted their breathing and their vision. Then they had to walk a few hundred yards (metres) through thick mud and a press of comrades while wearing armour weighing 50–60 pounds (23–27 kg), gathering sticky clay all the way. Increasingly, they had to walk around or over fallen comrades.[50]

Vigiles du roi Charles VII 57
Miniature from Vigiles du roi Charles VII. The battle of Azincourt 1415.

The surviving French men-at-arms reached the front of the English line and pushed it back, with the longbowmen on the flanks continuing to shoot at point-blank range. When the archers ran out of arrows, they dropped their bows and using hatchets, swords and the mallets they had used to drive their stakes in, attacked the now disordered, fatigued and wounded French men-at-arms massed in front of them. The French could not cope with the thousands of lightly armoured longbowmen assailants (who were much less hindered by the mud and weight of their armour) combined with the English men-at-arms. The impact of thousands of arrows, combined with the slog in heavy armour through the mud, the heat and difficulty breathing in plate armour with the visor down[51], and the crush of their numbers meant the French men-at-arms could "scarcely lift their weapons" when they finally engaged the English line.[52] The exhausted French men-at-arms were unable to get up after being knocked to the ground by the English. As the mêlée developed, the French second line also joined the attack, but they too were swallowed up, with the narrow terrain meaning the extra numbers could not be used effectively. Rogers suggested that the French at the back of their deep formation would have been attempting to literally add their weight to the advance, without realising that they were hindering the ability of those at the front to manoeuvre and fight by pushing them into the English formation of lancepoints. After the initial wave, the French would have had to fight over and on the bodies of those who had fallen before them. In such a "press" of thousands of men, Rogers suggested that many could have suffocated in their armour, as was described by several sources, and which was also known to have happened in other battles.[53]

The French men-at-arms were taken prisoner or killed in the thousands. The fighting lasted about three hours, but eventually the leaders of the second line were killed or captured, as those of the first line had been. The English Gesta Henrici described three great heaps of the slain around the three main English standards.[34] According to contemporary English accounts, Henry fought hand to hand. Upon hearing that his youngest brother Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester had been wounded in the groin, Henry took his household guard and stood over his brother, in the front rank of the fighting, until Humphrey could be dragged to safety. The king received an axe blow to the head, which knocked off a piece of the crown that formed part of his helmet.[54]

Attack on the English baggage train

King Henry V at the Battle of Agincourt
1915 depiction of Henry V at the Battle of Agincourt : The King wears on this surcoat the Royal Arms of England, quartered with the Fleur de Lys of France as a symbol of his claim to the throne of France.

The only French success was an attack on the lightly protected English baggage train, with Ysembart d'Azincourt (leading a small number of men-at-arms and varlets plus about 600 peasants) seizing some of Henry's personal treasures, including a crown.[55] Whether this was part of a deliberate French plan or an act of local brigandage is unclear from the sources. Certainly, d'Azincourt was a local knight but he might have been chosen to lead the attack because of his local knowledge and the lack of availability of a more senior soldier.[56] In some accounts the attack happened towards the end of the battle, and led the English to think they were being attacked from the rear. Barker, following the Gesta Henrici, believed to have been written by an English chaplain who was actually in the baggage train, concluded that the attack happened at the start of the battle.[56]

Henry executes the prisoners

Regardless of when the baggage assault happened, at some point after the initial English victory, Henry became alarmed that the French were regrouping for another attack. The Gesta Henrici places this after the English had overcome the onslaught of the French men-at-arms and the weary English troops were eyeing the French rearguard ("in incomparable number and still fresh").[34] Le Fèvre and Wavrin similarly say that it was signs of the French rearguard regrouping and "marching forward in battle order" which made the English think they were still in danger.[57] A slaughter of the French prisoners ensued. It seems it was purely a decision of Henry, since the English knights found it contrary to chivalry, and contrary to their interests to kill valuable hostages for whom it was commonplace to ask ransom. Henry threatened to hang whoever did not obey his orders.

In any event, Henry ordered the slaughter of what were perhaps several thousand French prisoners, sparing only the highest ranked (presumably those most likely to fetch a large ransom under the chivalric system of warfare). According to most chroniclers, Henry's fear was that the prisoners (who, in an unusual turn of events, actually outnumbered their captors) would realize their advantage in numbers, rearm themselves with the weapons strewn about the field and overwhelm the exhausted English forces. Contemporary chroniclers did not criticise him for it.[58] In his study of the battle John Keegan argued that the main aim was not to actually kill the French knights but rather to terrorise them into submission and quell any possibility they might resume the fight, which would probably have caused the uncommitted French reserve forces to join the fray, as well.[59] Such an event would have posed a risk to the still-outnumbered English and could have easily turned a stunning victory into a mutually-destructive defeat, as the English forces were now largely intermingled with the French and would have suffered grievously from the arrows of their own longbowmen had they needed to resume shooting. Keegan also speculated that due to the relatively low number of archers actually involved in killing the French knights (roughly 200 by his estimate), together with the refusal of the English knights to assist in a duty they saw as distastefully unchivalrous, and combined with the sheer difficulty of killing such a large number of prisoners in such a short space of time, the actual number of French prisoners put to death may not have been substantial before the French reserves fled the field and Henry rescinded the order.[60]

Aftermath

The lack of reliable sources makes it impossible to give a precise figure for the French and English casualties (dead, wounded, taken prisoner). The French sources all give 4,000–10,000 French dead, with up to 1,600 English dead. The lowest ratio in these French sources has the French losing six times more men than the English. It has been possible to name at least 500 individuals from the French army killed in the battle and over 300 prisoners.[61]

English claims range from 1,500 to 11,000 for the French dead, with English dead put at no more than 100.[62] Barker identifies from the available records "at least" 112 Englishmen killed in the fighting, including Edward of Norwich, 2nd Duke of York, a grandson of Edward III.[3] One widely used estimate puts the English casualties at 450, a significant number in an army of about 8,500, but far fewer than the thousands the French lost, nearly all of whom were killed or captured. Using the lowest French estimate of their own dead of 4,000 would imply a ratio of nearly 9 to 1 in favour of the English, or over 10 to 1 if the prisoners are included.[63]

The French suffered heavily. Three dukes, at least eight counts, a viscount, and an archbishop died, along with numerous other nobles. Of the great royal office holders, France lost her Constable, Admiral, Master of the Crossbowmen and prévôt of the marshals.[64] The baillis of nine major northern towns were killed, often along with their sons, relatives and supporters. In the words of Juliet Barker, the battle "cut a great swath through the natural leaders of French society in Artois, Ponthieu, Normandy, Picardy." [65] Estimates of the number of prisoners vary between 700 and 2,200, amongst them the Duke of Orléans (the famous poet Charles d'Orléans) and Jean Le Maingre (known as Boucicault), Marshal of France.[5]

Although the victory had been militarily decisive, its impact was complex. It did not lead to further English conquests immediately as Henry's priority was to return to England, which he did on 16 November, to be received in triumph in London on the 23rd.[66] Henry returned a conquering hero, in the eyes of his subjects and European powers outside France, blessed by God. It established the legitimacy of the Lancastrian monarchy and the future campaigns of Henry to pursue his "rights and privileges" in France.[67] Other benefits to the English were longer term. Very quickly after the battle, the fragile truce between the Armagnac and Burgundian factions broke down. The brunt of the battle had fallen on the Armagnacs and it was they who suffered the majority of senior casualties and carried the blame for the defeat. The Burgundians seized on the opportunity and within 10 days of the battle had mustered their armies and marched on Paris.[68] This lack of unity in France allowed Henry eighteen months to prepare militarily and politically for a renewed campaign. When that campaign took place, it was made easier by the damage done to the political and military structures of Normandy by the battle.[69]

Notable casualties

French

Notable casualties (most named by Enguerrand de Monstrelet[70]) include:[71]

Leading officers:

Three dukes:

Six counts (seven with d'Albret):

and some 90 bannerets and others, including:

English

Notable casualties included:

French prisoners

Among the circa 1,500 prisoners taken by the English, were the following French notables:

Numbers at Agincourt

Anne Curry in her 2005 book Agincourt: A New History, argues (based on research into the surviving administrative records) that the French army was about 12,000 strong, and the English army about 9,000, giving proportions of four to three.[2] By contrast, Juliet Barker in her book Agincourt: The King, the Campaign, the Battle (also published in 2005) argues the English and Welsh were outnumbered "at least four to one and possibly as much as six to one".[77] She suggests figures of about 6,000 for the English and 36,000 for the French, based on the Gesta Henrici's figures of 5,000 archers and 900 men-at-arms for the English, and Jean de Wavrin's statement "that the French were six times more numerous than the English".[78] The 2009 Encyclopædia Britannica uses the figures of about 6,000 for the English and 20,000 to 30,000 for the French. The 1911 Britannica use somewhat different figures of 6,000 archers, 1,000 men-at-arms and "a few thousands of other foot" for the English, with the French outnumbering them by "at least four times".[79]

While not necessarily agreeing with the exact numbers Curry uses, Bertrand Schnerb, a professor of medieval history at the University of Lille, states the French probably had 12,000–15,000 troops.[80] Ian Mortimer, in his 2009 book 1415: Henry V's Year of Glory, notes how Curry "minimises French numbers (by limiting her figures to those in the basic army and a few specific additional companies) and maximises English numbers (by assuming the numbers sent home from Harfleur were no greater than sick lists)", but agrees that previous estimates have exaggerated the odds, and suggests that "the most extreme imbalance which is credible is fifteen thousand French troops against 8,100 English: a ratio of about two-to-one".[81]

However, Clifford J. Rogers, professor of history at the United States Military Academy at West Point, has recently argued that archival records are too incomplete to substantially change his view that the English were outnumbered about 4–1.[80][82] Juliet Barker also disagrees with Curry's arguments in the acknowledgements section of her 2005 book on Agincourt, saying: "Surviving administrative records on both sides, but especially the French, are simply too incomplete to support [Curry's] assertion that nine thousand English were pitted against an army only twelve thousand strong. And if the differential really was as low as three to four then this makes a nonsense of the course of the battle as described by eyewitnesses and contemporaries."[83]

Those supporting a greater imbalance have generally put more store by contemporary (and especially eyewitness) accounts. The Gesta Henrici gives plausible figures for the English of 5,000 archers and 900 men-at-arms, but Mortimer notes it is "wildly inaccurate" in stating the English were outnumbered 30–1, and there have also been doubts as to how much it was written as propaganda for Henry V. The proportions also seem incorrect, as from surviving records we know that Henry set out with about four times as many archers as men-at-arms, not five and a half times as many. Those who have supported the Gesta figures for the English army have generally thought that although the English army may have left Harfleur with eight or nine thousand men, it is plausible that after weeks of campaigning and disease in hostile territory they would have lost two or three thousand fighting men; however Mortimer states: "Despite the trials of the march, Henry had lost very few men to illness or death; and we have independent testimony that no more than 160 had been captured on the way." [84]

As Mortimer notes, the Burgundian numbers for the size of the French vanguard of 8,000 men-at-arms in the vanguard with 1,400 (or 2,400) men-at-arms in the wings correspond roughly with the figures of ten thousand men-at-arms recorded by the duke of Berry's herald. The Burgundians also recorded 4,000 archers and 1,500 crossbowmen in the "vanguard", which would suggest "fourteen or fifteen thousand fighting men".[84] The Burgundians actually give the total size of the French army as an implausible 50,000,[4] and the numbers they use do not correspond closely to the odds they describe. Using very similar numbers, Jean Le Fevre states that the English were outnumbered 3–1, whereas Wavrin states that the English were outnumbered 6–1.[85]

One particular cause of confusion may have been the number of servants on both sides. Mortimer suggests that because there were a much higher proportion of men-at-arms on the French side, the number of non-combatants was much higher. Each man-at-arms could be expected to have a page, who would have ridden one of his spare horses. If the French army had an extra 10,000 mounted men (as opposed to only 1,500 extra for the English), then "the English probably did see an army about three times the size of their own fighting force".[86]

It is open to debate whether these should all be counted as non-combatants; Rogers (for example) accepts that the French probably had about 10,000 men-at-arms, but explicitly includes one "gros valet" (an armed, armoured and mounted military servant) per French man-at-arms in his calculation of the odds.[87]

Popular representations

Agincourtcarol
The 15th century Agincourt Carol
Music

Soon after the English victory at Agincourt, a number of popular folk songs were created about the battle, the most famous being the "Agincourt Carol", produced in the first half of the 15th century.[88] Other ballads followed, including "King Henry Fifth's Conquest of France", raising the popular prominence of particular events mentioned only in passing by the original chroniclers, such as the gift of tennis balls before the campaign.[89]

Literature

The most famous cultural depiction of the battle today is William Shakespeare's Henry V, written in 1599. The play focuses on the pressures of kingship, the tensions between how a king should appear – chivalric, honest, and just – and how a king must sometimes actMachiavellian and ruthless.[90] Shakespeare illustrates these tensions by depicting Henry's decision to kill some of the French prisoners, whilst attempting to justify it and distance himself from the event. This moment of the battle is portrayed both as a break with the traditions of chivalry and as key example of the paradox of kingship.[91]

Shakespeare's depiction of the battle also plays on the theme of modernity. He contrasts the modern, English king and his army with the medieval, chivalric, older model of the French.[92]

Shakespeare's play presented Henry as leading a truly English force into battle, playing on the importance of the link between the monarch and the common soldiers in the fight.[93] The original play does not, however, feature any scenes of the actual battle itself, leading critic Rose Zimbardo to characterise it as "full of warfare, yet empty of conflict."[94]

The play introduced the famous St Crispin's Day Speech, considered one of Shakespeare's most heroic speeches, in which Henry delivers movingly to his soldiers just before the battle, urging his "band of brothers" to stand together in the forthcoming fight.[95] Critic David Margolies describes how it "oozes honour, military glory, love of country and self-sacrifice", and forms one of the first instances of English literature linking solidarity and comradeship to success in battle.[95][96] Partially as a result, the battle was used as a metaphor at the beginning of the First World War, when the British Expeditionary Force's attempts to stop the German advances were widely likened to it.[97]

Films

Shakespeare's version of the battle of Agincourt has been turned into (several minor and) two major films, starring Laurence Olivier in 1944 and Kenneth Branagh in 1989. Made just prior to the invasion of Normandy, Olivier's rendition gives the battle what Sarah Hatchuel has termed an "exhilarating and heroic" tone, with an artificial, cinematic look to the battle scenes.[98] Branagh's version gives a longer, more realist portrayal of the battle itself, drawing on both historical sources and images from the Vietnam and Falkland Wars.[99] In his 2007 film adaptation, director Peter Babakitis uses digital effects to exaggerate realist features during the battle scenes, producing a more avant-garde interpretation of the fighting at Agincourt.[100]

Mock trial

The battle remains an important symbol in popular culture. For example, a mock trial of Henry V for the crimes associated with the slaughter of the prisoners was held in Washington, D.C. in March 2010, drawing from both the historical record and Shakespeare's play. Participating as judges were Justices Samuel Alito and Ruth Bader Ginsburg. The trial ranged widely over whether there was just cause for war and not simply the prisoner issue. Although an audience vote was "too close to call", Henry was unanimously found guilty by the court on the basis of "evolving standards of civil society".[101][102][103]

Battlefield today
Battlefield today

Azincourt today

Agincourt Memorial
Agincourt Memorial
Agincourt archers memorial
A list of English archers killed at Azincourt, as recorded in the village's museum

There is a modern museum in Azincourt village dedicated to the battle.[104] The museum lists the names of combatants of both sides who died in the battle.

See also

  • V sign, for more on the "two-finger salute" which legends claim derives from the gestures of longbowmen fighting in the English army at the battle of Agincourt.

Notes

  • a. ^ Pronunciation: The story of the battle has been retold many times in English, from the fifteenth-century Agincourt song onwards, and an English pronunciation of /ˈædʒɪnkɔːrt/ has become established. Merriam-Webster has a small audio file here.[105] The modern tendency, however, is to use a style closer to the original French pronunciation French pronunciation: ​[azɛ̃kuʁ], such as /ˈædʒɪnkɔːr/ or /ˈæʒɪnkʊər/,[106][107] as exampled in this interview with Juliet Barker on Meet the Author, here.[108]
  • b. ^ Dates in the fifteenth century are difficult to reconcile with modern calendars: see Barker 2005, pp. 225–7 for the way the date of the battle was established.
  • c. ^ The first known use of angled stakes to thwart a mounted charge was at the Battle of Nicopolis, an engagement between European states and Turkish forces in 1396, twenty years before Agincourt. French knights, charging uphill, were unseated from their horses, either because their mounts were injured on the stakes or because they dismounted to uproot the obstacles, and were overpowered. News of the contrivance circulated within Europe and was described in a book of tactics written in 1411 by Boucicault, Marshal of France.[109]

References

Citations

  1. ^ Barker 2005, p. 227.
  2. ^ a b c Curry 2006, p. 192.
  3. ^ a b c Barker 2005, p. 320.
  4. ^ a b c Curry 2000, p. 12.
  5. ^ a b Barker 2005, pp. 337, 367, 368.
  6. ^ Keegan 1976, p. 86.
  7. ^ Curry 2000, pp. 22–6.
  8. ^ Honig, Jan Willem (2012). "Reappraising Late Medieval Strategy: The Example of the 1415 Agincourt Campaign". War in History. 19 (123): 123–151. doi:10.1177/0968344511432975. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
  9. ^ Barker 2005, p. 13.
  10. ^ Barker 2005, pp. 67–69.
  11. ^ Barker 2005, pp. 107, 114.
  12. ^ Guardian newspaper:French correction: Henry V's Agincourt fleet was half as big, historian claims, 28 July 2015
  13. ^ Hibbert 1971, p. 67.
  14. ^ Barker 2005, p. 219.
  15. ^ Wylie & Waugh 1914, p. 118.
  16. ^ Seward 1999, p. 162.
  17. ^ "Living dictionary of the French language". 25 May 2013. Archived from the original on 14 December 2013.
  18. ^ a b Mortimer 2009, pp. 436–7.
  19. ^ Sutherland (2015)
  20. ^ Livingston, Michael (2019). "Where was Agincourt Fought?". Medieval Warfare. IX (1): 20–33. ISSN 2211-5129.
  21. ^ Barker 2005, pp. 271, 290.
  22. ^ Curry 2006, p. 166.
  23. ^ Barker 2005, pp. 267–8.
  24. ^ Barker 2005, pp. 283–4.
  25. ^ a b Mortimer 2009, p. 422.
  26. ^ Rogers 2008b, p. 107.
  27. ^ Barker 2005, pp. 276–8.
  28. ^ Battle of Agincourt 1415, Wavrin
  29. ^ Quoted in Curry 2000, p. 181.
  30. ^ Quoted in Curry 2000, p. 159.
  31. ^ Quoted in Curry 2000, p. 106.
  32. ^ Wason 2004, p. 74.
  33. ^ Holmes 1996, p. 48.
  34. ^ a b c Curry 2000, p. 37.
  35. ^ Quoted in Curry 2000, p. 107.
  36. ^ Barker 2005, p. 300.
  37. ^ a b Mortimer 2009, p. 449.
  38. ^ Mortimer 2009, p. 416.
  39. ^ Barker 2005, p. 287.
  40. ^ Barker 2005, p. 288.
  41. ^ Keegan 1976, pp. 90–1.
  42. ^ Bennett 1994.
  43. ^ Barker 2005, p. 273.
  44. ^ Barker 2005, p. 291.
  45. ^ Keegan 1976, pp. 92–6.
  46. ^ Barker 2005, p. 293.
  47. ^ Nicholson 2004, p. 109.
  48. ^ Rogers 2008, p. 90.
  49. ^ Rogers 2008, pp. 110–13.
  50. ^ Barker 2005, pp. 297–298.
  51. ^ Askew, Graham N.; Formenti, Federico; Minetti, Alberto E. (2012). "Limitations imposed by wearing armour on Medieval soldiers' locomotor performance". Proc. R. Soc. B. 279 (1729): 640–644. doi:10.1098/rspb.2011.0816. PMC 3248716. PMID 21775328.
  52. ^ Curry 2000, p. 159.
  53. ^ Rogers 2008, pp. 95–8.
  54. ^ Mortimer 2009, p. 443.
  55. ^ Curry 2006, pp. 207–9.
  56. ^ a b Barker 2005, p. 308.
  57. ^ Curry 2000, p. 163.
  58. ^ Barker 2005, pp. 302–305.
  59. ^ Keegan 1976, pp. 107–12.
  60. ^ Keegan 1976, p. 112.
  61. ^ Curry & Mercer (2015), p.165
  62. ^ All figures on number of dead from table in Curry 2000, p. 12.
  63. ^ Casualty estimates from the Religeux of St Denis and Jean Juvenal des Ursins given in Curry 2000, p. 12.
  64. ^ Barker 2005, pp. x, 321, 323.
  65. ^ Barker 2005, pp. 322–3.
  66. ^ Mortimer 2009, pp. 475, 479.
  67. ^ Mortimer 2009, pp. 547–9.
  68. ^ Barker 2005, p. 354.
  69. ^ Barker 2005, p. 381.
  70. ^ Monstrelet 1853, ch. 147.
  71. ^ For a fuller list of French casualties, see
  72. ^ a b c d Walsingham 2005, p. 412.
  73. ^ Gilliot (2015)
  74. ^ Rosemary Horrox, ‘Edward, second duke of York (c.1373–1415)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 accessed 14 March 2011
  75. ^ Simon Walker, ‘Pole, Michael de la, second earl of Suffolk (1367/8–1415)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, Jan 2008 accessed 14 March 2011
  76. ^ T. F. Tout, ‘Dafydd Gam (d. 1415)’, rev. R. R. Davies, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 ;online edn, Jan 2008 accessed 14 March 2011
  77. ^ Barker 2005, p. x.
  78. ^ Barker 2005, p. 274.
  79. ^ Chisholm 1911, p. 375.
  80. ^ a b Glanz 2009.
  81. ^ Mortimer 2009, p. 566.
  82. ^ Rogers 2008a, pp. 114–21.
  83. ^ Barker 2005, p. xvi.
  84. ^ a b Mortimer 2009, p. 565.
  85. ^ Curry 2000, p. 157.
  86. ^ Mortimer 2009, pp. 421–2.
  87. ^ Rogers 2008, pp. 60–2.
  88. ^ Curry 2000, p. 280–3.
  89. ^ Woolf 2003, p. 323.
  90. ^ Cantor 2006, p. 15.
  91. ^ Cantor 2006, pp. 21–2.
  92. ^ Cantor 2006, p. 20.
  93. ^ Cantor 2006, p. 16.
  94. ^ Hatchuel 2008, p. 193.
  95. ^ a b Margolies 2006, p. 149.
  96. ^ Adams 2002, p. 31.
  97. ^ Adams 2002, p. 183.
  98. ^ Hatchuel 2008, pp. 194–5.
  99. ^ Hatchuel 2008, p. 195.
  100. ^ Hatchuel 2008, p. 200.
  101. ^ "Judgment at Agincourt". C-SPAN. 16 March 2010. link to video
  102. ^ Treanor, Tim (18 March 2010). "High Court Rules for French at Agincourt". DC Theater Scene.
  103. ^ Jones, Andy (8 March 2010). "High Court Justices, Legal Luminaries Debate Shakespeare's 'Henry V'". National Law Journal.
  104. ^ Agincourt Museum
  105. ^ "Agincourt". Merriam-Webster Pronunciation. Retrieved 26 October 2014.
  106. ^ Olausson, Lena; Sangster, Catherine (2006). Oxford BBC Guide to Pronunciation: The Essential Handbook of the Spoken Word. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-19-280710-6. aj-in-kor/ˈadʒɪnˌkɔː(r)/ the established anglicization
  107. ^ Jones, Daniel (2003). Roach, Peter; et al. (eds.). English Pronouncing Dictionary (16th ed.). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. p. 12. ISBN 978-0-521-01712-1.
  108. ^ "Juliet Barker". Meet the Author. Archived from the original on 21 February 2014. Retrieved 26 October 2014.
  109. ^ Bennett 1994, pp. 7, 15–16.

Sources

Further reading

External links

Agincourt

Agincourt may refer to:

Battle of Agincourt, a major English victory in the Hundred Years' War

Anthony, Duke of Brabant

Anthony, Duke of Brabant, also known as Antoine de Brabant, Antoine de Bourgogne and Anthony of Burgundy (August 1384 – 25 October 1415, at the battle of Agincourt), was Count of Rethel (1402–1406), Duke of Brabant, Lothier and Limburg (1406–1415), and Co-Duke of Luxemburg (1411-1415).

Ascott, Buckinghamshire

Ascott is a hamlet and country house in the parish of Wing, Buckinghamshire, England. The hamlet lies completely within the boundary of the Ascott Estate; it is home to many of the estate and house staff.

Prior to the Norman Conquest there was an abbey at Ascott, that had been given by a royal to a Benedictine convent in Angiers. In 1415 however, the same year as the Battle of Agincourt, the convent was seized by the English church because it belonged to the French and awarded to the Convent of St Mary du Pre, near St Albans.

In the early 16th century the abbey (along with the manor of Wing) was seized by the Crown and given to Cardinal Wolsey, however not long after it was seized once again in the Dissolution of the Monasteries and given to Lord Dormer. It was in 1554 that Dormer entertained Princess Elizabeth at the house, when she was on the road to London under arrest as a Protestant because her sister Mary had just taken the throne.

The former abbey, now a house, itself once featured additions that were attributed to Inigo Jones. The house fell into decay following the death without heir of its owner the Earl of Caernarvon in 1709. In 1727 the house and estate were broken up, the deer sold and all the timber cut down and sold off. In the late 19th century members of the Rothschild banking family began to acquire estates in the area, including Ascott. In 1873 a farm house in the parish known as Ascott Hall was bought by Baron Mayer de Rothschild he gave it to his nephew Leopold de Rothschild who employed the architect George Devey to enlarge the property into a substantial country house. Today this is the National Trust property known as Ascott House or sometimes known more simply as just "Ascott".

Azincourt

Azincourt (French pronunciation: ​[azɛ̃kuʁ]; historically, Agincourt in English) is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in northern France.

The Battle of Agincourt (1415) took place nearby.

Battle of Yeavering

The Battle of Yeavering (or Battle of Geteryne) was fought in 1415 between English and Scottish forces near Yeavering in Northumberland. A small English force consisting of 440 men led by the Earl of Westmoreland defeated 4000 Scots. Fought in the same year as the Battle of Agincourt, which famously demonstrated the efficacy of the longbow against cavalry, it is notable that the English side at Yeavering consisted mostly of archers.

The site is marked by a Battle Stone, probably originally a Bronze Age standing stone.

Dennington

Dennington is a village and civil parish in the English county of Suffolk. It is 2 miles (3.2 km) north of Framlingham and 15 miles (24 km) north-east of Ipswich in the east of the county. It lies along the A1120 road around 8 miles (13 km) west of the road's junction with the main A12 road in Yoxford.

At the 2011 census Dennington had a population of 578. The parish church is dedicated to St Mary. The village has a primary school, village hall and pub.Dennington is served by occasional bus services. The nearest railway station is at Darsham with an hourly service to either Ipswich or Lowestoft.The tomb of Sir William Phelip, 6th Baron Bardolf, Treasurer of the Household, Lord Chamberlain and hero of the Battle Of Agincourt lies in the south chapel of St Mary's Church.

General Sir Alfred Dudley Ward, GCB, KBE, DSO, DL, British Army officer who saw distinguished active service during the Second World War and later became Governor of Gibraltar, is buried in the churchyard of St Mary's.

Flag of Surrey

The flag of Surrey is the blue and gold chequered flag of the traditional county of Surrey and is derived from the coat of arms of William de Warenne, 1st Earl of Surrey (heraldic blazon: Chequy Or and Azur).

The Surrey flag was officially registered as a "traditional design" by the Flag Institute on 11 September 2014 following research by Philip Tibbetts on behalf of the Association of British Counties, which showed that the county was linked to an emblem of antiquity. Prior to this date, the county had no official flag but the banner of the coat of arms of Surrey County Council was frequently used instead.

The Surrey flag is a representation of the arms originally used as a personal heraldic device by William de Warenne, first Earl of Surrey, in 1088 and has since enjoyed a long association with the county itself, as attested in a 17th-century poem about the Battle of Agincourt.

An early reference of the arms is found in the 13th-century Glover’s Roll of Arms, where an account of the siege of Caerlaverock Castle (from 1300) describes the actions of John de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey and includes a reference to his banner of blue and gold cheques: "his banner with gold and azure, was nobly chequered”. The de Warenne family became extinct in the male line in 1347 but, importantly, there is evidence the design continued to be used by the men of the county, as found in a poem about the Battle of Agincourt in 1415 by Michael Drayton (written in 1627) which records the men of Surrey carrying a banner of gold and blue checks into battle in honour of their late earl,

"The men of Surrey, Checky Blew and gold, (Which for brave Warren their first Earle they wore".

The 'De Warenne Cheques' are also remembered in a map by John Speed of the county of Surrey dating from 1610 and they were then adopted in various civic heraldic devices during the 19th and 20th centuries, including an heraldic badge in 1981 for the Surrey Herald Extraordinary.

Gwladys ferch Dafydd Gam

For other women named Gwladys, see Gwladys (disambiguation).

Gwladys ferch Dafydd Gam (died 1454) was a Welsh noblewoman. She was the daughter of Dafydd ap Llewelyn ap Hywel, otherwise known as Dafydd Gam, who was killed at the Battle of Agincourt in 1415.Gwladys was named "the star of Abergavenny" (Welsh: Seren-y-fenni) —"Gwladys the happy and the faultless" by Welsh poet Lewys Glyn Cothi. He describes the lady of Raglan Castle, which she became upon her second marriage, as a brilliant being, "like the sun—the pavilion of light." She has been compared to the legendary Queen Marcia for her discretion and influence.

Henry V of England

Henry V (16 September 1386 – 31 August 1422), also called Henry of Monmouth, was King of England from 1413 until his early death in 1422. He was the second English monarch of the House of Lancaster. Despite his relatively short reign, Henry's outstanding military successes in the Hundred Years' War against France, most notably in his famous victory at the Battle of Agincourt in 1415, made England one of the strongest military powers in Europe. Immortalised in the plays of Shakespeare, Henry is known and celebrated as one of the great warrior kings of medieval England.

In his youth, during the reign of his father Henry IV, Henry gained military experience fighting the Welsh during the revolt of Owain Glyndŵr and against the powerful aristocratic Percy family of Northumberland at the Battle of Shrewsbury. Henry acquired an increasing share in England's government due to the king's declining health, but disagreements between father and son led to political conflict between the two. After his father's death in 1413, Henry assumed control of the country and asserted the pending English claim to the French throne.

In 1415, Henry embarked on war with France in the ongoing Hundred Years' War (1337–1453) between the two nations. His military successes culminated in his famous victory at the Battle of Agincourt (1415) and saw him come close to conquering France. Taking advantage of political divisions within France, he conquered large portions of the kingdom and Normandy was occupied by the English for the first time since 1345–1360. After months of negotiation with Charles VI of France, the Treaty of Troyes (1420) recognised Henry V as regent and heir apparent to the French throne and he was subsequently married to Charles's daughter, Catherine of Valois.

Following this arrangement, everything seemed to point to the formation of a union between the kingdoms of France and England, in the person of King Henry. His sudden and unexpected death in France two years later condemned England to the long and difficult minority of his infant son and successor, who reigned as Henry VI in England and Henry II in France.

Jean I, Duke of Alençon

John I of Alençon, called the Sage (1385 – 25 October 1415), was a French nobleman, killed at the Battle of Agincourt.

John was born in Château d'Essay, the son of Peter II of Alençon and Marie de Chamaillard. In 1404, he succeeded his father as Count of Alençon and Perche. He was made Duke of Alençon in 1414.

He commanded the second division of the French army at the Battle of Agincourt. When the English broke through the first division, he led a countercharge. He is sometimes credited with killing Edward, Duke of York, wounding Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, and cutting an ornament from the crown of Henry V of England; but he was then overpowered by the King's bodyguard, and slain by the Welsh nobleman Dafydd Gam before he could yield himself.

John I, Duke of Bourbon

Jean de Bourbon (1381–1434) was Duke of Bourbon, from 1410 to his death and Duke of Auvergne since 1416. He was the eldest son of Louis II and Anne of Auvergne. Through his mother, John inherited the County of Forez.

During the Armagnac–Burgundian Civil War he took sides against the Burgundians. John was captured at the Battle of Agincourt and died a prisoner in London, in spite of the payment of several ransoms, and promises to support the king of England as king of France.In 1400 in Paris, he married Marie, Duchess of Auvergne, daughter of John, Duke of Berry, who inherited the Auvergne title from her father. They had three sons:

Charles de Bourbon (1401–1456), Duke of Bourbon

Louis of Bourbon (1403–1412, Paris), Count of Forez

Louis de Bourbon (1405–1486), Count of MontpensierIn addition, he had an illegitimate daughter:

Margaret, married to Rodrigo de Villandrando.

Kimberley, Norfolk

Kimberley is a village and civil parish in the South Norfolk district, in the county of Norfolk, England, situated about 3 miles (4.8 km) north-west of Wymondham, around the crossroads of the B1108 and B1135. The parish has an area of 9.33 km2 (3.60 sq mi) and had a total population of 121 in 52 households as of the 2001 census. The parish absorbed the parish of Carleton Forehoe on the 1 April 1935.Kimberley is served by rail, as the Kimberley Park railway station is on the Mid-Norfolk Railway, which goes between Dereham and Wymondham.

The River Tiffey flows through the village.

Kimberley is home to Kimberley Hall, a house whose grounds were designed by Capability Brown.

The Wodehouse family had owned land in Kimberley since the 1370s, and in c. 1400 John Wodehouse built Wodehouse Tower at the site of the later Kimberley Hall. John's son John Wodehouse Esq. distinguished himself in the Battle of Agincourt and was granted large estates by Henry V as a reward.

Earl of Kimberley is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, created for John Wodehouse, 3rd Baron Wodehouse in 1866. The present holder of the title is John Wodehouse, 5th Earl of Kimberley.

King Henry Fifth's Conquest of France

King Henry Fifth's Conquest of France (Child 164; Roud 251) is a British ballad which recounts a highly fictionalized version of the Battle of Agincourt and the events surrounding it.

Lai (poetic form)

A lai (or lay lyrique, "lyric lay", to distinguish it from a lai breton) is a lyrical, narrative poem written in octosyllabic couplets that often deals with tales of adventure and romance. Lais were mainly composed in France and Germany, during the 13th and 14th centuries. The English term

lay is a 13th-century loan from Old French lai. The origin of the French term itself is unclear; perhaps it is itself a loan from German Leich (reflected in archaic or dialectal English lake, "sport, play").The terms note, nota and notula (as used by Johannes de Grocheio) appear to have been synonyms for lai.

The poetic form of the lai usually has several stanzas, none of which have the same form. As a result, the accompanying music consists of sections which do not repeat. This distinguishes the lai from other common types of musically important verse of the period (for example, the rondeau and the ballade). Towards the end of its development in the 14th century, some lais repeat stanzas, but usually only in the longer examples. There is one very late example of a lai, written to mourn the defeat of the French at the Battle of Agincourt (1415), (Lay de la guerre, by Pierre de Nesson) but no music for it survives.

There are four lais in the Roman de Fauvel, all of them anonymous. The lai reached its highest level of development as a musical and poetic form in the work of Guillaume de Machaut; 19 separate lais by this 14th-century ars nova composer survive, and they are among his most sophisticated and highly developed secular compositions.

Roger Vaughan of Bredwardine

Sir Roger Vaughan of Bredwardine (died 25 October 1415), also known as Roger Fychan the younger, was a Welsh gentleman, described as having possessed wealth, rank, and high respectability. Roger's seat, Bredwardine Castle, is estimated to have been a strong and formidable fortress, located on the banks of the Wye river in Herefordshire, two miles north of Moccas Court. Bredwardine Castle is thought to have furnished much of the material for the building of Moccas Court.

Saint Crispin's Day

Saint Crispin's Day falls on 25 October and is the feast day of the Christian saints Crispin and Crispinian (also known as Crispinus and Crispianus, though this spelling has fallen out of favour), twins who were martyred c. 286.It is a day most famous for the battles that occurred on it, most notably the Battle of Agincourt in 1415. Because of the St. Crispin's Day Speech in Shakespeare's play Henry V, calling the soldiers who would fight on the day a "band of brothers", other battles fought on Crispin's day have been associated with Shakespeare's words. Other notable battles include the Battle of Balaclava (Charge of the Light Brigade) during the Crimean War in 1854 and the Battle of Leyte Gulf in the Pacific theatre in 1944.

Thomas Erpingham

Sir Thomas Erpingham (c.  1355 – 27 June 1428) was an English knight who became famous as the commander of King Henry V's longbow wielding archers at the Battle of Agincourt. He was immortalised as a character in the play Henry V by William Shakespeare. It is, however, his lengthy and loyal service to John of Gaunt, Henry IV and Henry V, which contributed significantly to the establishment of the House of Lancaster upon the English throne, that is his true legacy.

Thomas de Strickland

Sir Thomas de Strickland (also Stryckeland; 1367 – 30 July 1455) was an English soldier. He is best known for carrying the banner of St. George at the battle of Agincourt.

Worshipful Company of Bowyers

The Worshipful Company of Bowyers is one of the Livery Companies of the City of London.

Originally, bowyers (longbow-makers) and fletchers (arrow-makers) comprised one organisation. However, in 1371, the fletchers petitioned the Lord Mayor to divide into their own company, the Worshipful Company of Fletchers. Demarcation disputes arose between the two over supervision until 1429, when a City ordinance defined their respective spheres. It was not until the late 1480s that the bowyers acquired a coat of arms and a set of coherent written ordinances.

The actual trade of the bowyers still survives. Although originally made for use in war and hunting, there is now some demand for longbows used in target archery. There are several practising bowyers in the membership of the Company and it maintains a great interest in the craft. The bowyers are also involved in the sport of archery and give awards and medals each year at the Royal Toxophilite Society and school competitions.

The Bowyers' Company mostly exists as a charitable institution, as do a majority of the 110 Livery Companies, with a focus on the disabled. HMS Northumberland is affiliated to it. The bowyers rank 38th in the order of precedence of the Companies, immediately above the fletchers. Uniquely, among all the City's Livery Companies, Companies without Livery and Guilds, it is the only one that does not admit women.The Company motto is Crecy, Poitiers, Agincourt, a reference to the Battle of Crécy, the Battle of Poitiers, and the Battle of Agincourt, all battles between medieval England and France in the Hundred Years' War in which longbows and English longbows were used to great effect by English and Welsh archers, before artillery took over towards the end of the war.

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