Batman Province

Batman Province (Turkish: Batman ili, Kurdish: Parêzgeha Batmanê‎) is a Turkish province southeast of Anatolia. The province's population exceeded 500,000 in 2010. The province is important because of its reserves and production of oil which was started in the 1940s. There is a 494-km long oil pipeline from Batman to the Turkish port of İskenderun. Cotton is the main agricultural product. A railway line connects Batman with the nearby provinces of Diyarbakır and Elâzığ and with the capital Ankara. The Batman River flows through the area. Batman (Kurdish: Êlih‎) with 246,700 inhabitants, is the provincial capital. The province is also of interest from an archaeological point of view. Sights include the Imam Abdullah Dervish monastery, the bridge of Camiü‘r Rızk and Hasankeyf. The majority of the province's population is Kurdish.[2]

Batman Province

Batman ili
Location of Batman Province in Turkey
Location of Batman Province in Turkey
CountryTurkey
RegionSoutheast Anatolia
SubregionMardin
Provincial seatBatman
Government
 • Electoral districtBatman
Area
 • Total4,649 km2 (1,795 sq mi)
Population
 (2018)[1]
 • Total599,103
 • Density130/km2 (330/sq mi)
 • Urban
335.400
Area code(s)0488
Vehicle registration72

History

The Batman Province contains the strategic Tigris river with fertile lands by its sides, as well as rocky hills with numerous caves providing a natural shelter. Therefore, it was inhabited from prehistoric times, likely from the Neolithic (Paleolithic) period, according to archeological evidence. First documented evidence of settlements in the province dates back to 7th century BC. An artificial "island" was created in this marshy area. It was named Elekhan, and had an independent status for 194 years from 546 BC till the invasion of Alexander the Great in 352 BC. The Batman Province was a religious center in the 4th–6th centuries AD and a part of the Byzantine Empire. In the 11th–12th centuries it was ruled by the Great Seljuq Empire and Artuqids, a part of which was based in the province, in the city of Hasankeyf. The city is a cultural center of the Batman Province and as such was declared as a natural conservation area in 1981.[3]

Around 4th–6th centuries AD the province became an outpost of the Silk Road. It was populated by Assyrian (Syriac) Christians and also had a significant presence of Pontic Greeks, Baghdadi Jews and Armenians, who lived in the region from the 3rd millennium BC to the late 19th century. Tigranakert, the ancient capital of the ancient Kingdom of Armenia founded in the 1st century BC, was possibly located at Silvan in the Batman Province.[4] It was built by King Tigran the Great around 95–55 BC and named in his honor.[5]

Significant changes in the language and management of the province were brought in 1515 by Mahmoud Pasha Elekhani. It is believed that a variant of his name, Elah, was transformed into Iluh and gave the old name to Batman city.[6][7][8]

Development of oil fields resulted in relocation of Turkish people into a mostly Kurd-populated Batman Province. This brought ethnic conflicts which escalated in 1990s. More than 180 civilians were killed in the Batman city area by unidentified gunmen between 1992 and 1993.[9] The province became a stronghold of Turkish Hezbollah and hosted its camp where the militants received political and military training.[10][11]

Recent individual incidents include the following: 1 Turkish soldier was killed and 2 wounded during clashes in the province on 15 April 2010.[12] In the Siirt Province 2 PKK militants were killed and 3 soldiers wounded.[13] One Turkish soldier was killed and 2 injured after a PKK attack on a Turkish military outpost on 7 July 2010.[14] Four Kurdish civilians were killed on 1 August 2010 after their vehicle struck a roadside bomb.[15] Later on 9 August 2010 5 PKK militants were killed in clashes with the Turkish military.[16]

A panoramic photo of Hasankeyf with the Tigris river in the background.
A panoramic photo of Hasankeyf with the Tigris river in the background.
Batman districts
Districts of Batman

Basic information

BATDEMO

The province occupies an area of 4,649 km2 (4,659 according to other source[17]) and is divided into six districts: Batman (capital, population 324,402 in 2008), Beşiri (32,282), Gercüş (26,111), Hasankeyf (7,412), Kozluk (62,114) and Sason (33,295).[6][18] There are 270 villages in the province.[19]

The population of the province is rapidly growing as a result of the inflow of workforce to the capital. Between 1990 and 2000, its population was rising at a rate of 5% per year. The population was stable in Beşiri and Gercüş, increasing by 1% per year in Kozluk and Sason and decreasing by 3% per year in Hasankeyf.[20] The total population was 510,200 in 2010 with 373,388 people living in the urban areas, mostly in the capital. It was 49.8% female.[21] The province lies in the mountainous area with the average elevation of 550 meters which contains several thousands of caves. The tallest mountains are Sason Dağları (2500 m), Meleto (2967 m), Kuşaklı Dağı (1947 m), Avcı Dağı (2121 m), Meydanok Tepesi (2042 m), Kortepe (2082 m) and Raman Dağı (1288 m). Several rivers (Turkish: Çayı) flow through the province, including Tigris, Batman, Sason and Garzan. The 115 km long Batman River flowing approximately from north to south forms a natural border between the Batman Province and Diyarbakır Province lying to the west. The historic Malabadi Bridge (built in 1146–1147) crosses the river near the town of Silvan. The Tigris flows from west to east, merges with the Batman River and exits the province. The Garzan River flowing from north to south enters the Tigris and separates Batman from the Siirt Province lying to the east.[22]

Oil industry

Search for oil in the Batman Province was started in 1935. On 20 April 1940, oil was found at a depth of 1048 meters at the Raman oil field, south-east of Batman, nearby the city. The first experimental well started producing 10 tonnes (about 62 barrels) per day from 6 June 1940. The field was expanded for commercial production by 1945, but the production was delayed to 1947 by the lack of storage. A small refinery was built at the site with a capacity of 9 tonnes/day by 1947 and by November 1948 a bigger refinery capable of processing up to 200 tonnes/day was built in Batman. Even bigger refinery (330 tonnes/d) was built in Batman by 1955.[23] Several other oil fields were later discovered in the province with the Batı Raman oil field, which produces about 7,000 barrels daily, being the largest oil field in Turkey.[24][25] A 511 km long oil pipeline was brought in 1967 from Batman to the port city of Dörtyol near the easternmost point of the Mediterranean coast to transport the Batman crude oil. The pipeline has an annual capacity of 3.5 million tonnes and was transporting about 20 million barrels (about 2.7 million tonnes) in the 1990s and about twice less between 2003 and 2007. Another, short (41 km) pipeline connected Batman with Şelmo – the location of the second largest oil field in Turkey.[26] It was transferring between 1.5 and 0.5 million barrels per year in the period 1990–2007. Both pipelines are operated by BOTAŞ.[27][28]

Oil fields of the Batman Province[24][23]
Name Discovered Production
started in
Reserves
(million bbl)
Production
(bbl/day, 2007)
Batı Kozluca 1978 1980 138 1500
Batı Raman 1961 1962 1850 7000
Dinçer 1988 1990 55 400
Garzan 1951 1956 163 1700
İkiztepe 1988 1990 53 400
Raman 1940 1947 400 4000

Batman dam

The dam construction was started in 1986 and completed in 1999. It has a height of 85 meters and annual power generation capacity of 483 GWh (peak power 198 MW). The associated reservoir has a surface area of 49 km2 and a volume of 1.175 km3. The dam supplies water for the area of 37744 ha.[29]

Famous personalities

  • Cigerxwîn (1903–1984) – Kurdish poet, writer, journalist, historian, lexicographer, and nationalist.
  • Mehmet Şimşek (born 1967) – politician, former Minister of Finance of Turkey

See also

References

  1. ^ "Population of provinces by years - 2000-2018". Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  2. ^ Watts, Nicole F. (2010). Activists in Office: Kurdish Politics and Protest in Turkey (Studies in Modernity and National Identity). Seattle: University of Washington Press. p. 167. ISBN 978-0-295-99050-7.
  3. ^ Hasankeyf, kultur.gov.tr
  4. ^ Avdoyan, Levon. "Tiganocerta: The City 'Built by Tigranes'" in Armenian Tigranakert/Diarbekir and Edessa/Urfa. Richard G. Hovannisian (ed.) UCLA Armenian History and Culture Series: Historic Armenian Cities and Provinces, 6. Costa Mesa, California: Mazda Publishers, 2006, pp. 94–95.
  5. ^ (in Armenian) Hakobyan, Tadevos Kh. «Տիգրանակերտ» (Tigranakert). Armenian Soviet Encyclopedia. vol. xi. Yerevan: Armenian Academy of Sciences, 1986, pp. 699–700.
  6. ^ a b Batman Archived March 10, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, gap.gov.tr
  7. ^ Batman. Genel Bilgiler, kultur.gov.tr, 18 June 2008 (in Turkish)
  8. ^ Batman. Tarihçe, kultur.gov.tr, 21 February 2007 (in Turkish)
  9. ^ Jonathan Rugman; Roger Hutchings (13 March 2001). Ataturk's Children. Continuum International Publishing Group. pp. 55–. ISBN 978-0-8264-5490-4.
  10. ^ Akkoç v. Turkey, Application Nos. 22947/93, 22948/93, Judgement of 10 October 2000 Archived 2 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine, European Court of Human Rights judgment concerning Akkoç v. Turkey case, section II, C
  11. ^ Human Rights Watch: What is Turkey's Hizbullah?
  12. ^ Turkish troop killed in PKK clash [ WORLD BULLETIN- TURKEY NEWS, WORLD NEWS ] Archived 2010-04-19 at the Wayback Machine. Worldbulletin.net (2010-04-16). Retrieved 2010-08-20.
  13. ^ "Two Kurdish PKK rebels killed in southeast Turkey". KurdishGlobe. 2010-04-17. Archived from the original on 2010-06-12. Retrieved 2010-09-24.
  14. ^ "No Operation". Press TV, Iran. Archived from the original on 2012-10-07. Retrieved 2010-09-24.
  15. ^ BDP'lilere mayın tepkisi. Samanyoluhaber.com. Retrieved 2010-08-20.
  16. ^ "No Operation". Press TV, Iran. Archived from the original on 2012-10-07. Retrieved 2010-09-24.
  17. ^ Türkei, Europa auf einen Blick
  18. ^ Population Statistics, Turkish Statistical Institute
  19. ^ Balaban, Meltem Şenol Risk society and planning: the case of flood disaster management in Turkish cities. PhD Thesis. Graduate School of Natural and Applied sciences, Middle East Technical University 2009, p. 21
  20. ^ The Characteristics Of The Population By Provinces, 2000 Population Census. City and Village Population, Annual Growth Rate of Population, Surface Area and Population Density By Districts. turkstat.gov.tr
  21. ^ Population Statistics, Turkish Statistical Institute
  22. ^ Batman. Coğrafya, kultur.gov.tr, 21 February 2007 (in Turkish)
  23. ^ a b History of petroleum Archived 2011-12-23 at the Wayback Machine, tpao.gov.tr
  24. ^ a b Gengiz Keskin and Cengiz Can. "Upper cretaceous carbonate reservoirs of the Raman Field, Southeast Turkey". Carbonates and Evaporites. 1 (1): 25. doi:10.1007/BF03174401.
  25. ^ Sacaeddin Sahin; et al. (2008). "Bati Raman Field Immiscible CO2 Application: Status Quo and Future Plans" (PDF). SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering. 11 (4): 778–791. doi:10.2118/106575-PA. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-16. Retrieved 2011-02-12.
  26. ^ Selmo Oil Field Archived March 2, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, TransAtlantic Petroleum
  27. ^ "Batman-Dörtyol Petrol Boru Hattı (Turkish)". BOTAŞ.
  28. ^ International Transport Forum; Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (30 April 2009). Intermodal transport: National peer review: Turkey. International Transport Forum. pp. 87, 94. ISBN 978-92-821-0222-0. Retrieved 9 February 2011.
  29. ^ Batman Dam Archived July 2, 2014, at the Wayback Machine, General Directorate of State Hydraulic Works

External links

Coordinates: 38°04′55″N 41°24′26″E / 38.08194°N 41.40722°E

Batman, Turkey

Batman (IPA: /batˈman/; Kurdish: Êlih‎) is a city in the Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey and the capital of Batman Province. It lies on a plateau, 540 meters (1,772 feet) above sea level, near the confluence of the Batman River and the Tigris. The Batı Raman oil field, which is the largest oil field in Turkey, is located just outside the city. Batman has a local airport and a military airbase, which was used for transit of aircraft and helicopters in some search and rescue operations of the Gulf War.

Until the 1950s, Batman was a village, called Iluh, with a population of about 3,000. However, oil fields were discovered around it in the 1940s that resulted in a rapid development of the area and in the inflow of workforce from other parts of Turkey. In 1957, the village was renamed Batman, after the river namesake, received a city status, and became a district center. Over the next 50 years, a significant amount of Batman's one-story buildings were rebuilt as multi-story buildings. As a result, its population grew to many, many times its previous size. A 511 km (318 mi) km long oil pipeline was built in 1967 from Batman to the port city of Dörtyol near the easternmost point of the Mediterranean coast in order to transport the crude oil from the Batman refinery. In 1990, the city became the capital of Batman Province.

Apart from oil, which is by far the dominant commodity of the region, Batman produces beverages, processed food, chemicals, furniture, footwear, machinery and transport equipment. A university was established in 2007, Batman University, and is part of the Erasmus foreign student exchange program.

Batman (electoral district)

Batman is an electoral district of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey. It elects four members of parliament (deputies) to represent the province of the same name for a four-year term by the D'Hondt method, a party-list proportional representation system.

Batman Airport

Batman Airport is an airport in Batman, Turkey (IATA: BAL, ICAO: LTCJ).

Batman Dam

Batman Dam is one of the 22 dams of the Southeastern Anatolia Project of Turkey, built on the Batman River, north of Batman, in southeastern of Turkey. It was constructed between 1986 and 1999. There is a hydroelectric power plant, established in 1998, at the dam, with a power output of 191.7 MW. The dam is designed to service an irrigation area of 37,744 ha (93,270 acres). The Silvan Dam is located upstream.

Batı Kozluca oil field

The Batı Kozluca oil field is an oil field located in Batman, Batman Province, Southeastern Anatolia Region. It was discovered in 1978 and developed by Türkiye Petrolleri Anonim Ortaklığı. It began production in 1980 and produces oil. The total proven reserves of the Batı Kozluca oil field are around 138 million barrels (18.8×106tonnes), and production is centered on 1,500 barrels per day (240 m3/d).

Beşiri

Beşiri (Kurdish: Qubîn‎) is a district of Batman Province, Turkey. The mayor is Mustafa Öztürt (BDP).

Population: ADNKS(Adrese Dayalı Nüfus Kayıt Sistemi) 31.649 - 2008 year

Dinçer oil field

The Dinçer oil field is an oil field located in Batman, Batman Province, Southeastern Anatolia Region. It was discovered in 1988 and developed by Türkiye Petrolleri Anonim Ortaklığı. It began production in 1990 and produces oil. The total proven reserves of the Dinçer oil field are around 55 million barrels (7.5×106tonnes), and production is centered on 400 barrels per day (64 m3/d).

Diyarbekir Vilayet

The Vilayet of Diyâr-ı Bekr (Ottoman Turkish: ولايت ديار بكر‎, Vilâyet-i Diyarbakır) was a first-level administrative division (vilayet) of the Ottoman Empire, wholly located within what is now modern Turkey. The vilayet extended south from Palu on the Euphrates to Mardin and Nusaybin on the edge of the Mesopotamian plain. After the establishment of Republic of Turkey in 1923, the region was incorporated into the newly created state.

At the beginning of the 20th century, it reportedly had an area of 18,074 square miles (46,810 km2), while the preliminary results of the first Ottoman census of 1885 (published in 1908) gave the population as 471,462. The accuracy of the population figures ranges from "approximate" to "merely conjectural" depending on the region from which they were gathered.

Garzan Dam

Garzan Dam is an embankment dam on the Garzan River 9 km (5.6 mi) northeast of Kozluk in Batman Province, Turkey. It is part of the Southeastern Anatolia Project and has a primary purpose of hydroelectric power generation and irrigation. Surveys for the dam were completed in 2008, construction began in 2009 and the dam began to impound its reservoir in October 2012. The power plant has an installed capacity of 49 MW. The irrigation works remain under construction and are expected to irrigate an area of 40,000 ha (99,000 acres) when complete. The dam was awarded to FERNAS Energy Electricity Generation Co. Inc. in 2011 under a build–operate–transfer basis.

Garzan oil field

The Garzan oil field is an oil field located in Batman, Batman Province, Southeastern Anatolia Region. It was discovered in 1947–1951 and developed by Türkiye Petrolleri Anonim Ortaklığı. It began production in 1956. The total proven reserves of the Garzan oil field are around 163 million barrels (22.2×106 tonnes), and production is about 1,700 barrels per day (270 m3/d). The structure is a double plunging anticline bordered by a major reverse fault extending along the southern flank. The age of the Garzan formation is cretaceous, consisting of carbonates of a rudist build-up complex. Oil field contains 24 degree API (0.91 g/cm3) oil with a reservoir viscosity of 6.75 cp. Reservoir was initially highly undersaturated lists basic reservoirdata for Garzan.

Gercüş

Gercüş (Kurdish: Kercos‎, Syriac: ܟܦܪܓܘ̈ܙܐ "Kfar Guowze") is a district of Batman Province, Turkey. The mayor is Abdulkerim Kaya (BDP).

Governor of Batman

The Governor of Batman (Turkish: Batman Valiliği) is the bureaucratic state official responsible for both national government and state affairs in the Province of Batman. Similar to the Governors of the 80 other Provinces of Turkey, the Governor of Batman is appointed by the Government of Turkey and is responsible for the implementation of government legislation within Batman. The Governor is also the most senior commander of both the Batman provincial police force and the Batman Gendarmerie.

Kozluk

Kozluk, formerly Hazzo or Hazo (Kurdish: Hezo‎), is a district of Batman Province, Turkey. The mayor is Mehmet Veysi Işık (AKP).

List of populated places in Batman Province

Below is the list of populated places in Batman Province, Turkey by the districts. In the following lists first place in each list is the administrative center of the district

Raman oil field

The Raman oil field is an oil field located in Batman, Batman Province, Southeastern Anatolia Region, Turkey. It was discovered in 1940 and later developed by Türkiye Petrolleri Anonim Ortaklığı. It began production in 1948 and produces oil. The total proven reserves of the Raman oil field are around 400 million barrels (55×106tonnes), and production is centered on 4,000 barrels per day (640 m3/d).

Sason

Sason (Armenian: Սասուն Sasun; Kurdish: Qabilcewz‎ from Arabic: قبل جوز‎; formerly known as Sasun or Sassoun) is a district in the Batman Province of Turkey. It was formerly part of the sanjak of Siirt, which was in Diyarbakır vilayet until 1880 and in Bitlis Vilayet in 1892. Later it became part of Muş sanjak in Bitlis vilayet, and remained part of Muş until 1927. It was one of the districts of Siirt province until 1993. The boundaries of the district varied considerably in time. The current borders are not the same as in the 19th century, when the district of Sasun was situated more to the north (mostly territory now included in the central district of Muş) Sasun, as it is called by Armenians, holds a prominent role in Armenian culture and history. It is the setting of Daredevils of Sassoun, Armenia's national epic. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries it was a major location of Armenian fedayi activities, who staged two uprisings against the Ottoman authorities and Kurdish tribes in 1894 and 1904. Sasun's Aramaic exonym "Arme" is also the origin of the exonym "Armenia".

Tigris

The Tigris (; Sumerian: 𒁇𒄘𒃼 Idigna or Idigina; Akkadian: 𒁇𒄘𒃼 Idiqlat; Arabic: دجلة‎ Dijlah [didʒlah]; Syriac: ܕܹܩܠܵܬ‎ Deqlaṯ; Armenian: Տիգրիս Tigris; Դգլաթ Dglatʿ; Hebrew: חידקל Ḥîddeqel; Turkish: Dicle; Kurdish: Dîcle, Dîjla دیجلە‎) is the eastern of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia, the other being the Euphrates. The river flows south from the mountains of southeastern Turkey through Iraq and empties into the Persian Gulf.

Zilek Bridge

The Zilek Bridge is a 508 m (1,667 ft) long Bowstring-arch bridge that crosses the Batman River in southeastern Turkey. Located between the cities Diyarbakır and Batman, the bridge carries the Fevzipaşa-Kurtalan railway.

The bridge was constructed between 1939-44 as part of the extension of the railway from Diyarbakır to Kurtalan. When first completed, it was the second longest railway bridge in the country after the Karkamış Bridge. The bridge will be replaced by a new 1,430 m (4,690 ft) long viaduct that is expected to completed by the end of 2017. When the new bridge opens, the Zilek bridge will be flooded by the Ilısu Dam.

İkiztepe oil field

The İkiztepe oil field is an oil field located in Batman, Batman Province, Southeastern Anatolia Region. It was discovered in 1988 and developed by Türkiye Petrolleri Anonim Ortaklığı. It began production in 1990 and produces oil. The total proven reserves of the İkiztepe oil field are around 53 million barrels (7.2×106tonnes), and production is centered on 400 barrels per day (64 m3/d).

Batman Province of Turkey
Districts

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