Bathypterois is a genus of deepsea tripod fishes.
|Mediterranean Spiderfish (B. dubius)|
|Tripodfish (B. grallator)|
There are currently 19 recognized species in this genus:
An abyssal plain is an underwater plain on the deep ocean floor, usually found at depths between 3,000 metres (9,800 ft) and 6,000 metres (20,000 ft). Lying generally between the foot of a continental rise and a mid-ocean ridge, abyssal plains cover more than 50% of the Earth’s surface. They are among the flattest, smoothest, and least explored regions on Earth. Abyssal plains are key geologic elements of oceanic basins (the other elements being an elevated mid-ocean ridge and flanking abyssal hills).
The creation of the abyssal plain is the result of the spreading of the seafloor (plate tectonics) and the melting of the lower oceanic crust. Magma rises from above the asthenosphere (a layer of the upper mantle), and as this basaltic material reaches the surface at mid-ocean ridges, it forms new oceanic crust, which is constantly pulled sideways by spreading of the seafloor. Abyssal plains result from the blanketing of an originally uneven surface of oceanic crust by fine-grained sediments, mainly clay and silt. Much of this sediment is deposited by turbidity currents that have been channelled from the continental margins along submarine canyons into deeper water. The rest is composed chiefly of pelagic sediments. Metallic nodules are common in some areas of the plains, with varying concentrations of metals, including manganese, iron, nickel, cobalt, and copper.
Owing in part to their vast size, abyssal plains are believed to be major reservoirs of biodiversity. They also exert significant influence upon ocean carbon cycling, dissolution of calcium carbonate, and atmospheric CO2 concentrations over time scales of a hundred to a thousand years. The structure of abyssal ecosystems are strongly influenced by the rate of flux of food to the seafloor and the composition of the material that settles. Factors such as climate change, fishing practices, and ocean fertilization have a substantial effect on patterns of primary production in the euphotic zone.Abyssal plains were not recognized as distinct physiographic features of the sea floor until the late 1940s and, until very recently, none had been studied on a systematic basis. They are poorly preserved in the sedimentary record, because they tend to be consumed by the subduction process.Abyssal spiderfish
The abyssal spiderfish, Bathypterois longipes, is a species of deepsea tripod fish, a demersal fish living on the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean, even on the abyssal plain. It is one of the deepest-dwelling fish known.
This solitary fish grows about ten inches long, and has a "tripod" formation of fins both used to rest on the bottom, and to travel on the water column. It lives in extremely cold water, at temperatures of 32–48 °F (0–9 °C).Abyssal zone
The abyssal zone or abyssopelagic zone is a layer of the pelagic zone of the ocean. "Abyss" derives from the Greek word ἄβυσσος, meaning bottomless. At depths of 3,000 to 6,000 metres (9,800 to 19,700 ft), this zone remains in perpetual darkness. It alone makes up over 83% of the ocean and covers 60% of the Earth. The abyssal zone has temperatures around 2 to 3 °C (36 to 37 °F) through the large majority of its mass. Due to there being no light, there are no plants producing oxygen, which primarily comes from ice that had melted long ago from the polar regions. The water along the seafloor of this zone is actually devoid of oxygen, resulting in a death trap for organisms unable to quickly return to the oxygen-enriched water above. This region also contains a much higher concentration of nutrient salts, like nitrogen, phosphorus, and silica, due to the large amount of dead organic material that drifts down from the above ocean zones and decomposes.It is the deeper part of the midnight zone which starts in the bathypelagic waters above.The area below the abyssal zone is the sparsely inhabited hadal zone. The zone above is the bathyal zone.Ambush predator
Ambush predators or sit-and-wait predators are carnivorous animals that capture or trap prey by stealth or by strategy (typically not conscious), rather than by speed or by strength. Ambush predators sit and wait for prey, often from a concealed position, and then launch a rapid surprise attack.
The ambush may be set by hiding in a burrow, by camouflage, by aggressive mimicry, or by the use of a trap. The predator then uses a combination of senses to assess the prey and to time the strike. Nocturnal ambush predators such as cats and snakes have vertical slit pupils, helping them to judge the distance to prey in dim light. Different ambush predators use a variety of means to capture their prey, from the long sticky tongues of chameleons to the expanding mouths of frogfishes.
Ambush predation is widely distributed in the animal kingdom, spanning some members of numerous groups such as the starfish, cephalopods, crustaceans, spiders, insects such as mantises, and vertebrates such as many snakes and fishes.Anatoly Andriyashev
Anatoly Petrovich Andriyashev (also Andriashev) (19 August 1910 in Montpellier, France – 4 January 2009 in Saint Petersburg, Russia) was a Soviet Russian ichthyologist, marine biologist, and zoogeographist, notable for his studies of marine fauna of the Arctic and the Northern Pacific.Bathypterois dubius
The Mediterranean spiderfish, Bathypterois dubius, a lizardfish of the family Ipnopidae, is found in the Eastern Atlantic, as well as the Mediterranean and northwest Atlantic.
Like other species in its family, the Mediterranean spiderfish is hermaphroditic. It is solitary in nature and feeds on mysids and copepods. It reaches a length of 20.5 centimetres (8.1 in) SL.Bathypterois grallator
The tripodfish or tripod spiderfish, Bathypterois grallator, is a deep-sea benthic fish in the Ipnopidae family found at lower latitudes. It is now relatively well known from photographs and submersible observations, and seems to prefer to perch on the ooze using much elongated fin rays in the tail and two pelvic fins to stand, facing upstream with the pectoral fins turned forward so the outthrust projecting fin rays resemble multiple antennae, and are indeed used as tactile organs. B. grallator is hermaphroditic. At least 18 species are placed in the genus Bathypterois, several of which have similar appearance and behavior to B. grallator. B. grallator is the largest member of its genus, commonly exceeding a standard length of 30 cm (12 in) and reaching up to 43.4 cm (17.1 in).Demersal fish
Demersal fish live and feed on or near the bottom of seas or lakes (the demersal zone). They occupy the sea floors and lake beds, which usually consist of mud, sand, gravel or rocks. In coastal waters they are found on or near the continental shelf, and in deep waters they are found on or near the continental slope or along the continental rise. They are not generally found in the deepest waters, such as abyssal depths or on the abyssal plain, but they can be found around seamounts and islands. The word demersal comes from the Latin demergere, which means to sink.
Demersal fish are bottom feeders. They can be contrasted with pelagic fish which live and feed away from the bottom in the open water column.
Demersal fish fillets contain little fish oil (one to four percent), whereas pelagic fish can contain up to 30 percent.Feeler fish
The feeler fish, Bathypterois longifilis, a grinner of the family Ipnopidae, is found around Australia and New Zealand.Ipnopidae
The Ipnopidae (deepsea tripod fishes) are a family of fishes in the order Aulopiformes. They are small, slender fishes, with maximum length ranging from about 10 to 40 cm (3.9 to 15.7 in). They are found in temperate and tropical deep waters of the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans.
A number of species, especially in the genus Bathypterois, have elongated pectoral and pelvic fins. In the case of the tripodfish, Bathypterois grallator, these fins are three times as long as the body — up to a meter in length — and are used for standing on the sea floor. Ipnopids either have tiny eyes, or very large eyes that lack any lens; in either case they have very poor vision and are unable to form an image.Ipnops
Ipnops is a genus of deep-sea fish in the family Ipnopidae, which also includes the better-known tripodfish (Bathypterois grallator). Ipnops are small, slender fish that live close to the ocean floor in the bathyal and abyssal zones. The genus is notable for its unusual eyes.List of fish of the Mediterranean Sea
List of fish of the Mediterranean Sea consists of 712 species of fish.List of least concern fishes
As of September 2016, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) lists 9131 least concern fish species. 60% of all evaluated fish species are listed as least concern.
The IUCN also lists 37 fish subspecies as least concern.
Of the subpopulations of fishes evaluated by the IUCN, 44 species subpopulations have been assessed as least concern.
This is a complete list of least concern fish species and subspecies evaluated by the IUCN. Species and subspecies which have least concern subpopulations (or stocks) are indicated.Noroit Seamount
Noroit Seamount is a seamount in the Caribbean Sea, in the Anegada Passage. It is also spelled Noroît Seamount after the French survey and research vessel RV Le Noroît (IMO number: 7035717) which was operated by IFREMER. It is also known as Noroit Knoll. Several research projects are conducted in vicinity of Noroit Seamount.Pelagic fish
Pelagic fish live in the pelagic zone of ocean or lake waters – being neither close to the bottom nor near the shore – in contrast with demersal fish, which do live on or near the bottom, and reef fish, which are associated with coral reefs.The marine pelagic environment is the largest aquatic habitat on Earth, occupying 1,370 million cubic kilometres (330 million cubic miles), and is the habitat for 11% of known fish species. The oceans have a mean depth of 4000 metres. About 98% of the total water volume is below 100 metres (330 ft), and 75% is below 1,000 metres (3,300 ft).Marine pelagic fish can be divided into pelagic coastal fish and oceanic pelagic fish. Coastal fish inhabit the relatively shallow and sunlit waters above the continental shelf, while oceanic fish (which may well also swim inshore) inhabit the vast and deep waters beyond the continental shelf.Pelagic fish range in size from small coastal forage fish, such as herrings and sardines, to large apex predator oceanic fishes, such as bluefin tuna and oceanic sharks. They are usually agile swimmers with streamlined bodies, capable of sustained cruising on long-distance migrations. Many pelagic fish swim in schools weighing hundreds of tonnes. Others are solitary, like the large ocean sunfish weighing over 500 kilograms, which sometimes drift passively with ocean currents, eating jellyfish.Tripod fish
Tripod fish is a common name for different species of fish:
Ipnopidae, a family found worldwide in deep seas, including:
Bathypterois grallator, the most famous species in the family
Triacanthidae, a family from the Indo-PacificTripod stance
A tripod stance is a behaviour in which quadruped animals rear up on their hind legs and use their tail to support this position. Several animals use this behaviour to improve observation or surveillance, and during feeding, grooming, thermoregulation, or fighting.Walking fish
A walking fish, or ambulatory fish, is a fish that is able to travel over land for extended periods of time. Some other modes of non-standard fish locomotion include "walking" along the sea floor, for example, in handfish or frogfish.