Bat-and-ball games

Bat-ballgames (or safe haven games to avoid being confused with club games such as golf and hockey) are field games played by two opposing teams.[1] The teams alternate between "batting" (offensive) roles, sometimes called "in at bat", and "out in the field" (defensive), or simply in and out. Only the batting team may score, but teams have equal opportunities in both roles. The game is counted rather than timed.

A player on the fielding (defensive) team puts the ball in play with a delivery whose restriction depends on the game. A player on the batting team attempts to strike the delivered ball, commonly with a "bat", which is a club governed by the rules of the game. After striking the ball, the batter may become a runner trying to reach a safe haven or "base". While in contact with a base, the runner is safe from the fielding team and in a position to score runs. Leaving a safe haven places the runner in danger of being put out. The teams switch roles when the fielding team puts the batting team out, which varies by game.

In modern baseball the fielders put three players out; in cricket they retire all players but one. Some games permit multiple runners and some have multiple bases to run in sequence. Batting may occur, and running begin, at one of the bases. The movement between those "safe havens" is governed by the rules of the particular sport.

Cantigas de Santa María - Xogo da pelota
Young men playing a bat-and-ball game in a 13th-century manuscript of the Galician Cantigas de Santa Maria.

List of bat-and-ball games

Mainstream sports

Other games

Hybrid bat-and-ball games

  • Composite rules Softball-Baseball – a hybrid bat-and-ball sports which combines the elements of Baseball and Softball, played on the large identical baseball diamond with the larger ball, ten rather than nine innings, and allowing pitching the ball either underarm, overarm, or sidearm.
  • Composite rules Baseball-Cricket – a hybrid bat-and-ball games combining elements of baseball and cricket, played by two teams of 12 players with the 9-inch diameter baseball on the oval-shaped field about 220 yards long by 176 yards wide, at the center of which is a baseball field about 92 feet apart with the rectangular 66 feet 6 inch by 12 feet pitching area roughly at a distance between the pitcher and 2 batters (consists of the striking batter and non-striking batter), equidistant between first and third base, and a few feet closer to home plate than to second base. The objective is one batter (striking batter) on and at the right batter's box is pitched to, other batter (non-striking batter) stands on the left batter's box, then the striking batter must hit it and batter must runs around the bases in the normal counterclockwise direction, while the non-striking batter runs around bases in a clockwise direction at the same time. The game could last 12 innings of 5 overs.

Non bat-and-ball games

Striking the ball with a "bat" or any type of stick is not crucial. These games use the foot or hand. Otherwise their rules may be similar or even identical to baseball. The first two use a large (35 cm) soft ball.

  • Kickball – four bases, sometimes called soccer baseball
    • Matball – kickball with gym mats for bases
  • Punchball – four bases, sometimes called volleyball-style baseball or slug


  1. ^ Usually. In some games for a small number of players, such as workup and the way old cat games, there are no teams and players rotate through the positions.

External links

Ball game

Ball games (or ballgames), also ball sports, are any form of game or sport which feature a ball as part of play. These include games such as football, cricket, baseball, basketball, and American football. Such games have diverse rules and histories and are of mostly unrelated origins. Ball games can be defined in several broad types:

Bat-and-ball games, such as cricket and baseball.

Racquet and ball games, such as tennis, squash and ball badminton.

Hand and ball-striking games, such as various handball codes, rebound handball and four square.

Goal sports, usually team sports such as basketball and all forms of football, lacrosse, and hockey (except ice hockey which is a goal sport but is played with a hockey puck).

Non-racquet net sports, such as volleyball and sepak takraw.

Target sports or precision sports, such as bowling, lawn bowls, croquet, and golf, as well as cue sports, including snooker, pool, and other forms of billiards (the sport of curling, which uses a stone rather than a ball, is classified with target or precision sports for some purposes).

Baseball Before We Knew It

Baseball Before We Knew It: A Search for the Roots of the Game is a 2005 book by David Block about the history of baseball. Block looks into the early history of baseball, the debates about baseballs beginnings, and presents new evidence. The book received the 2006 Seymour Medal from the Society for American Baseball Research (SABR).The account, first published in 1905, that Abner Doubleday invented baseball in 1839 was once widely promoted and widely believed. However, this belief was discredited almost immediately. Although the Doubleday myth was never taken seriously by historians, Block showed that the gospel that supplanted it was also deeply flawed. In this accounting, baseball was understood as the derivation of an English children's game, rounders, but America was allowed to retain patrimony over its national pastime through the assertion that it had been reinvented as a modern sport by the members of the New York Knickerbockers, who codified its rules for the first time in 1845. This idea, according to Block is wrong in almost every aspect. In the book, Block argues that baseball was not a product of rounders, and its essential form had already been established by the late 18th century.Block's new evidence in the matter includes the first known record of the term base-ball in the United States. It came in a 1791 ordinance in Pittsfield, Massachusetts, that banned ballplaying near the town's new meetinghouse. However, that was not the first appearance of "base-ball" in print. That distinction belongs to an English book, A Little Pretty Pocket-Book (1744). By 1796 the rules of this English game were well enough established to earn a mention in German scholar Johann Gutsmuths book on popular pastimes, that described "Englische Base-ball" involved a contest between two teams, in which "the batter has three attempts to hit the ball while at the home plate"; only one out was required to retire a side. The book also predates the rules laid out by the New York Knickerbockers by nearly fifty years. In the book, Block suggests that it was the English game of baseball that had arrived in the U.S. as part of "a sweeping tide of cultural migration" during the colonial period. Once on American soil, the game developed popular regional variations that included "town-ball", "round-ball" and the "New York game".English baseball was itself the product of a prolonged, nonlinear evolution. "Tut-ball" may have been its immediate predecessor. "Stool-ball", an earlier sport, may have been even more influential in the evolution of baseball, and is also a likely parent of cricket, which developed independently. Medieval texts also suggest that baseball's English antecedents may themselves have descended from Continental bat-and-ball games. An illustration in the French manuscript "The Romance of Alexander" (1344) depicts a group of monks and nuns engaged in a game, thought to be "la soule", that looks much like co-ed softball. Two other French games, théque and la balle empoisonée ("poisoned ball"), also bear similarities to early baseball. They could have migrated to England. In Block's words, the field is clear for the French to claim "parental rights over America's National Game."Block also notes in the book that American researchers during the past half-century "have made only minimal effort to document baseball's early history and for the most part have not been inclined to go looking to European sources for clues."


Bat-and-ball may refer to:

Bat-and-ball games

Bat & Ball railway station

Batting glove

Batting gloves are a component in Bat-and-ball games sportswear. Typically consisting of a leather palm and back made of nylon or another synthetic fabric, the glove covers one or both hands of a batter, providing comfort, prevention of blisters, warmth, improved grip, and shock absorption when hitting the ball. The use of gloves is not obligatory in any level of the game, but they are considered an essential part of Cricket clothing and equipment.

British Baseball Federation

The British Baseball Federation (BBF) is the national governing body of baseball within the United Kingdom. Organised modern baseball has been played in the United Kingdom since the first baseball league began in 1890, with a succession of different governing bodies in place over that time. The BBF was founded in 1987.

BBF is a federated member of both the Confederation of European Baseball and the International Baseball Federation. BBF is the joint owner (with the British Softball Federation) of BaseballSoftballUK (BSUK), a sports development agency.

The voting members of BBF are the affiliated baseball clubs, life members and the umpires, scorers and coaches associations. The BBF holds an annual general meeting each spring at which the voting members elect an executive board of 11 officials to oversee the body and the sport. All participants (players, coaches, managers, umpires, scorers, etc.) with affiliated clubs and the associations are members of the BBF.

There are organised youth leagues at 10 to 13 (Bronco) and 14 to 16 (Pony) age ranges. Additionally, British Baseball supports the Play Ball programme run by BaseballSoftballUK which introduces children from 8 to 12 to bat and ball games, usually through school or a local Play Ball scheme. There are also GB national teams for youth players (Cadets under 16s, and Juniors under 19s), as well as an off-season British Baseball Academy for youth players and coaches. For adults, there are a number of leagues and divisions, split by ability and geographical location. These range from the highly competitive to the recreational.In 2008 there were 38 clubs, with 67 league teams, as members of the BBF. There are also a number of non-league clubs and teams affiliated to British Baseball. British Baseball also oversees the national team of Great Britain.

British baseball

British baseball, or Welsh baseball (Welsh: Pêl Fas Gymreig), is a bat-and-ball game played primarily in Wales, but also with a strong history in Merseyside, England. It is closely related to the game of rounders.

In the tradition of bat-and-ball games, Baseball has roots going back centuries, and there are references to "baseball" and "rounders" from the beginning of the eighteenth century. Baseball emerged as a distinct sport in 1892 when associations in Wales and England renamed the sport in favour of the more traditional rounders.

Confederação Brasileira de Beisebol e Softbol

The Confederação Brasileira de Beisebol e Softbol is the confederation responsible for baseball and softball in Brazil. Founded in 1990, the CBBS is headquartered in São Paulo and has a mission to both organize the bat-and-ball games and popularize the sports in the country, as baseball is mostly restricted to the Japanese Brazilians. CBBS supports the Brazil national baseball team, and has 120 affiliated teams and 30,000 players.[1]


Corkball is a "mini-baseball" game featuring a 1.6-ounce (45 g) ball, which is stitched and resembles a miniature baseball. The bat has a barrel that measures 1.5 inches (3.8 cm) in diameter. Originally played on the streets and alleys of St. Louis, Missouri as early as 1890, today the game has leagues formed around the country as a result of St. Louis servicemen introducing the game to their buddies and comrades during World War II and the Korean War. It has many of the features of baseball, yet can be played in a very small area because there is no base-running.

List of ball games

This is a list of ball games which are popular games or sports involving some type of ball or similar object. Ball sports are not sports in the true sense, but are instead considered to be games. These ball games can be grouped by the general objective of the game, sometimes indicating a common origin either of a game itself or of its basic idea:

Bat-and-ball games, such as cricket and baseball.

Racquet and ball games, such as tennis, squash, racquetball and ball badminton.

Hand and ball-striking games, such as various handball codes, rebound handball and 4 square.

Goal games, such as forms of hockey (except ice hockey which uses a hockey puck), basketball and all forms of football or lacrosse.

Net games, such as volleyball and sepak.

Possession (sports)

In sports, possession is control of the ball or other implement of play by one team, which typically gives that team the opportunity to score. Generally, the team with possession is said to be on offense, while the other team is on defense. Sports have different rules governing how possession is kept or lost ("turned over"), which affect the strategy of gameplay. The number of possessions or total time of possession are often useful statistics of team or individual performance.In goal-based sports, including basketball, all forms of football, hockey, and lacrosse, the team with possession has the opportunity to score. In bat-and-ball games including baseball and cricket, the ball is controlled by the fielding team, which are on defense.

Pub games

Pub games are games which are traditionally played in or outside pubs and bars. Most date back many years and are rooted in village culture.

Sri Lanka Fed Cup team

The Sri Lanka Fed Cup team represents Sri Lanka in Fed Cup tennis competition and are governed by the Sri Lanka Tennis Association. They have not competed since 2001 with the exception of the 2008 tournament.

Sri Lanka at the Lusophony Games

Sri Lanka has competed in the first 3 editions of the Lusophony Games.

Overall performance of Sri Lanka in the Lusophony Games.

Sri Lanka at the Paralympics

Sri Lanka made its Paralympic Games début at the 1996 Summer Paralympics in Atlanta, with a single athlete (Kalika Pathirana) in track and field. The country has participated in every subsequent edition of the Summer Paralympics, but has never entered the Winter Paralympics.At the 2012 Summer Paralympics in London, Sri Lanka won their first ever Paralympic medal through Pradeep Sanjaya, who won the Bronze medal in the Men's 400 metres T46.At the 2016 Summer Paralympics in Rio, Sri Lanka won a bronze. Dinesh Priyantha Herath was placed 3rd in the men’s javelin throw F46 final.Both Pradeep Sanjaya and Dinesh Priyantha Herath are Sri Lanka Army personnel.

Sri Lanka national 3x3 team

The Sri Lanka national 3x3 team is a national basketball team of Sri Lanka, administered by the Sri Lanka Basketball Federation.It represents the country in international 3x3 (3 against 3) basketball competitions.

Sri Lanka national kabaddi team

Sri Lanka national Kabaddi team represents Sri Lanka in International Kabaddi.

Sri Lanka women's national 3x3 team

The Sri Lanka women's national 3x3 team is a national basketball team of Sri Lanka, administered by the Sri Lanka Basketball Federation.It represents the country in international 3x3 (3 against 3) women's basketball competitions.

Sri Lanka women's national basketball team

The Sri Lankan women's national basketball team is the basketball team representing Sri Lanka in international competitions.

It is administered by the Sri Lanka Basketball Federation (SLBF).

Sri Lanka women's national volleyball team

The Sri Lanka women's national volleyball team represents Sri Lanka in international women's volleyball competitions and friendly matches.

It appeared at the Women's Asian Volleyball Championship 9 times, its best position was 10th place at the 2007 event.

Basket sports
Football codes
Bat-and-ball games
Stick and ball sports
Net sports
Other sports

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