Basra Governorate

Basra Governorate (Arabic: محافظة البصرة‎‎ Muḥāfaẓa al-Baṣra) (or Basra Province) is a governorate in southern Iraq, bordering Kuwait to the south and Iran to the east. The capital is the city of Basra, located in the Basrah district. Other districts of Basra include Al-Qurna, Al-Zubair, Al-Midaina, Shatt Al-Arab, Abu Al-Khaseeb and Al-Faw located on the Persian Gulf.

Basra Governorate

محافظة البصرة

Basra Province
Flag of Basra Governorate

Flag
Official seal of Basra Governorate

Seal
Location of Basra Governorate
Coordinates: 30°22′N 47°22′E / 30.367°N 47.367°ECoordinates: 30°22′N 47°22′E / 30.367°N 47.367°E
Country Iraq
CapitalBasra
Government
 • GovernorAsaad Al Eidani
Area
 • Total19,070 km2 (7,360 sq mi)
Population
 (2016 Estimate)
 • Total4,700,000
HDI (2017)0.687[1]
medium
Websitebasrahgov.com

History

Basra Province 1897
Basra (Bassorah) Vilayet in 1897

In 1920, after the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in World War I, the United Kingdom took over the former Ottoman vilayets of Basra, Baghdad and Mosul which had together formed the historical region of Irak Arabi or Irak Babeli, and called it the British Mandate of Mesopotamia. The mandate was succeeded by the Kingdom of Iraq in 1932.[2]

The Shiite population suffered long and hard under Saddam's rule. The city of Basra had suffered considerably during the eight-year war with Iran and Allied bombardment and in 1991 during the Gulf War, the governorate ventured into an uprising after the United States promised them aid. It was started in Basra by angry soldiers, according to popular legend after they fired at a giant public portrait of Saddam Hussein.[3] Mass support on the streets followed, shouting slogans, executing Ba'ath party members, leaders and secret police, and destroying pictures and monuments of Saddam Hussein. The participants had expected support from American troops. but the Allied army at the time was occupied despite the 24th Infantry Division stationed only several miles from the city. The city of Basra didn't completely succumb to the rebels; a counterattack by some 6,000 loyalists from the Republican Guard held out against 5,000 defectors of the Iraqi army.[3] After about three days, the Republican Guard began to gain control, destroying "everything in front of them", killing many of the rebels in the streets and conducting mass executions on the public squares.[3]

From 2003 the governorate was one of the centres of warfare during the invasion of the British and Americans during the Iraq War. The Battle of Basra took place between March 23 and April 7 between the British 1st Armoured Division forces under Major General Robin Brims, and Iraqi forces under General Ali Hassan al-Majid (Chemical Ali).[4] Much of the heaviest combat in the war took place in the province in subsequent weeks. Several outbreaks of violence between secular Iraqis and Shiite Muslims broke out in summer 2006, and in September 2007, British troops were withdrawn to Basra Airport, and withdrew entirely from the city in December 2007.[4] Following the example of the Kurdistan Autonomous Region in northern Iraq, Basra has proposed uniting with the other provinces of Dhi Qar and Maysan as an autonomous region. On October 15, 2005, 691,024 people, some 96.02%, voted for the new constitution.

Government

Basra
Districts of Basra Governorate
  • Governor: Asaad Al Eidani
  • Deputy Governor: Mohammed Tahir
  • Provincial Council Chairman (PCC): Sabah Al Bazooni

Districts

See also

References

  1. ^ "Sub-national HDI - Area Database - Global Data Lab". hdi.globaldatalab.org. Retrieved 2018-09-13.
  2. ^ Sassoon, Joseph (12 December 2011). Saddam Hussein's Ba'th Party: Inside an Authoritarian Regime. Cambridge University Press. p. 17. ISBN 978-1-139-50392-1.
  3. ^ a b c Goldstein, Eric (1 January 1992). Endless Torment: The 1991 Uprising in Iraq and Its Aftermath. Human Rights Watch. p. 45. ISBN 978-1-56432-069-8.
  4. ^ a b Mockaitis, Thomas R. (15 August 2013). The Iraq War Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 50. ISBN 978-0-313-38063-1.
2009 Basra governorate election

The Basra governorate election of 2009 was held on 31 January 2009 alongside elections for all other governorates outside Iraqi Kurdistan and Kirkuk.

2013 Basra governorate election

The Basra governorate election of 2013 was held on 20 April 2013 alongside elections for all other governorates outside Iraqi Kurdistan, Kirkuk, Anbar, and Nineveh.

Abu Al-Khaseeb

Abu Al-Khaseeb (sometimes spelled Abu Al-Khasib) is a town in Abu Al-Khaseeb District, Basra Governorate, southern Iraq. Its name means "The rich area - agricultural", referring to the fertile Shatt Al-Arab river. It is an agricultural town, well known for its date palm farms on the river. It is predominantly Shia. Abu Al-Khaseeb has long been a traditional center for boat-building of the mashoof canoes that are widely used by the Marsh Arabs.

Abu Al-Khaseeb District

Abu Al-Khaseeb District is a district of the Basra Governorate, Iraq. Its seat is the town of Abu Al-Khaseeb.

Al-Chibayish District

Al-Chibayish District is a district of the Dhi Qar Governorate, Iraq, located to the east of Nasiriyah and northwest of Basra Governorate. The district capital is Al-Chibayish. The district's geography is dominated by the Hammar Marshes, a subset of the Mesopotamian Marshes, and by the Euphrates River that feeds the marshes.

Al-Faw

Al-Fāw (Arabic: ٱلْفَاو‎; sometimes transliterated as Fao) is a port town on Al-Faw Peninsula in Iraq near the Shatt al-Arab and the Persian Gulf. The Al Faw Peninsula is part of the Basra Governorate.

Al-Faw District, Basra Governorate

Al-Faw District is a district of the Basra Governorate, Iraq. Bordering the Persian Gulf and the country of Kuwait. No oil fields are in the Faw district but the Iraq strategic pipeline does run through the area.

Al-Midaina District

Al-Midaina District is a district of the Basra Governorate, Iraq. Its seat is the city of Al-Midaina,

Al-Zubair District

Al-Zubair District is a district in Basra Governorate, Iraq. It seat is the city of Al-Zubair. In the 1880s some Najd tribes immigrated to al-Zubair due to the fact that Najd had nothing to offer, but around 1945s they returned to their home (Saudi Arabia) after it has changed notably. In the early 1990s, Saddam Hussein hoped to make al-Zubair province number 19 and annex it to Kuwait after invading. The failure of the Invasion of Kuwait put rest to this idea. The district is majority Sunni of Maliki .

Az Zubayr

Az Zubayr (Arabic: الزبير‎) is a city in and the capital of Al-Zubair District, part of the Basra Governorate of Iraq. The city is just south of Basra. The name can also refer to the old Emirate of Zubair.

The name is also sometimes written Al Zubayr, Al Zubair, Az Zubair, Zubair, Zoubair, El Zubair, or Zobier.

Basrah District

Basrah District is a district of the Basra Governorate, Iraq.

List of power stations in Iraq

Below is a list of power stations in Iraq.

Operation Dawn 5

As 1984 began, Iran launched the largest offensive up to that date Operation Dawn V, also known as Operation Dawn 5 or Operation Valfajr-5 (Persian). The goal of the offensive was to split the Iraqi 3rd Army Corps and 4th Army Corps near Basra. It was fought between the Pasdaran, Basij and the Iraqi Army. In the early phase, a force of an estimated 500,000 Pasdaran and Basij, using small boats and then on foot, moved to within a few kilometers of the strategic Basra–Baghdad waterway. The Iranians lacked artillery, air support and armored protection, while the Iraqis were well equipped. The armies inflicted severe casualties on each other and the Iranians failed to achieve their objective. This operation was the biggest of the Dawn operations.

Shatt Al-Arab District

Shatt Al-Arab District (Arabic: شط العرب‎) is a district of Basra Governorate, Iraq. Its seat is the village of Al-Harita (Arabic: الهارثة‎).

Shatt al-Arab

Shatt al-Arab (Arabic: شط العرب‎, River of the Arabs) or Arvand Rud (Persian: اَروَندرود‎, Swift River) is a river of some 200 km (120 mi) in length, formed by the confluence of the Euphrates and the Tigris in the town of al-Qurnah in the Basra Governorate of southern Iraq. The southern end of the river constitutes the border between Iraq and Iran down to the mouth of the river as it discharges into the Persian Gulf. It varies in width from about 232 metres (761 ft) at Basra to 800 metres (2,600 ft) at its mouth. It is thought that the waterway formed relatively recently in geologic time, with the Tigris and Euphrates originally emptying into the Persian Gulf via a channel further to the west.

The Karun River, a tributary which joins the waterway from the Iranian side, deposits large amounts of silt into the river; this necessitates continuous dredging to keep it navigable.The area is judged to hold the largest date palm forest in the world. In the mid-1970s, the region included 17 to 18 million date palms, an estimated one-fifth of the world's 90 million palm trees. But by 2002, war, salt, and pests had wiped out more than 14 million of the palms, including around 9 million in Iraq and 5 million in Iran. Many of the remaining 3 to 4 million trees are in poor condition.In Middle Persian literature and the Shahnameh (written between c. 977 and 1010 AD), the name اروند Arvand is used for the Tigris, the confluent of the Shatt al-Arab. Iranians also used this name specifically to designate the Shatt al-Arab during the later Pahlavi period, and continue to do so after the Iranian Revolution of 1979.

Umm Qasr Port

Umm Qasr Port is Iraq's only deep water port, part of the city of Umm Qasr.

Iraq's second port in scale of size and goods shipped to the port of Basra, it is strategically important, located on the western edge of the al-Faw peninsula, where the mouth of the Shatt al Arab waterway enters the Persian Gulf. It is separated from the border of Kuwait by a small inlet. Prior to the Persian Gulf War, traffic between Kuwait and Iraq flowed over a bridge.

Wael Abdul Latif

Wael Abdul Latif (born c. 1950) is an Iraqi politician from the secular Iraqi National List coalition. He was the Minister of Provincial Affairs in the Iraqi Interim Government created following the coalition 2003 invasion of Iraq.

A Shia Muslim, he trained as a lawyer in Baghdad and served as a judge since the 1980s, including as head judge in Nasiriyah and deputy head judge in Basra. He was imprisoned for a year under Saddam Hussein's regime.In July 2003, he was appointed governor of Basra and was a member of the Iraqi Governing Council from July 2003 until June 2004. He was a member of the committee that drafted the Constitution of Iraq.

He was elected to the Council of Representatives of Iraq in the Iraqi legislative election of December 2005 as part of the Iraqi National List coalition.

Places adjacent to Basra Governorate

Languages

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