Basket

A basket is a container that is traditionally constructed from stiff fibers, and can be made from a range of materials, including wood splints, runners, and cane. While most baskets are made from plant materials, other materials such as horsehair, baleen, or metal wire can be used. Baskets are generally woven by hand. Some baskets are fitted with a lid, while others are left open on top.

Edible fungi in basket 2012 G1
Edible mushrooms in a basket.
Dupuis, Pierre - Basket of Plums
Basket of Plums, painting by Pierre Dupuis.

Uses

Baskets in Haikou 03
On the left side are live fowl baskets. Directly to the right are flat baskets used for selling shrimp and small fish in Haikou City, Hainan Province, People's Republic of China

Baskets serve utilitarian as well as aesthetic purposes. Some baskets are ceremonial, that is religious, in nature.[1] While baskets are typically used for harvesting, storage and transport,[2] specialized baskets are used as sieves for a variety of purposes, including cooking, processing seeds or grains, tossing gambling pieces, rattles, fans, fish traps, and laundry.

History

Prior to the invention of woven baskets, people used tree bark to make simple containers. These containers could be used to transport gathered food and other items, but crumbled after only a few uses. Weaving strips of bark or other plant material to support the bark containers would be the next step, followed by entirely woven baskets. The last innovation appears to be baskets so tightly woven that they could hold water.

Depending on soil conditions, baskets may or may not be preserved in the archaeological record. Sites in the Middle East show that weaving techniques were used to make mats and possibly also baskets, circa 8000 BCE. Twined baskets date back to 7000 [1] in Oasisamerica. Baskets made with interwoven techniques were common at 3000 BCE.

Baskets were originally designed as multi-purpose vessels to carry and store materials and to keep stray items about the home. The plant life available in a region affects the choice of material, which in turn influences the weaving technique. Rattan and other members of the Arecaceae or palm tree family, the thin grasses of temperate regions, and broad-leaved tropical bromeliads each require a different method of twisting and braiding to be made into a basket. The practice of basket making has evolved into an art. Artistic freedom allows basket makers a wide choice of colors, materials, sizes, patterns, and details.

The carrying of a basket on the head, particularly by rural women, has long been practised. Representations of this in Ancient Greek art are called Canephorae.

Figurative and literary usage

The phrase "to hell in a handbasket" means to rapidly deteriorate. The origin of this use is unclear. "Basket" is sometimes used as an adjective towards a person who is born out of wedlock.[3] This occurs more commonly in British English. "Basket" also refers to a bulge in a man's crotch.[3]

Materials

Iranian baskets made of wicker and palm
Palm baskets (front) and wicker baskets (back)

Basket makers use a wide range of materials:

Image gallery

Baskets four styles

Four different styles of baskets

Baskets - Danforth Museum - Framingham, MA - DSC00267

Baskets - Danforth Museum - Framingham, MA

Nuu-chah-nulth baskets (UBC2010)

A set of traditional hand woven native Indian Nuu-chah-nulth peoples' baskets (Indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast of Canada)

Baskets for sale (2902069972)

Baskets for sale in the island of La Réunion, east of Madagascar

Straw hats and baskets

Straw hats and baskets for sale at the Luangwa turn-off on Great East road, Zambia.

Storage basket, Pomo people, Honolulu Museum of Art, 2013-16-01

Storage basket, Pomo people, (indigenous people of California), Honolulu Museum of Art

Trinket Basket, Makah people, Northwest Washington, late 19th to early 20th century, twined and plaited bear grass, sedge, cedar bark - Chazen Museum of Art - DSC01868

Trinket Basket, Makah people, Northwest Washington, late 19th to early 20th century, twined and plaited bear grass, sedge, cedar bark

Nootka Makah baskets - Pacific Grove Museum of Natural History - DSC06592

Nootka Makah baskets - Pacific Grove Museum of Natural History

Female coffee farmer in Ethiopia (5762538117)

Ethiopian woman gathering coffee beans in a basket

Seri olla basket 1

Seri Indian pot-shaped basket (Northern Mexico)

Bending vines for basket construction - Ponape

Bending vines for basket construction - Pohnpei

Inuitbasket

Inupiat basket of whale baleen with a walrus ivory finial, Barrow, Alaska

VM 5099 in a small hotel in Gaoqiao Town, Xingshan County, Hubei

Traditional western Hubei baskets (China)

Gullah basket

Sweetgrass basket made by the Gullah culture of coastal Georgia or South Carolina, USA

Tragekorb aus Birkenleder

Backpack made of birch bark.

BMVB Cistell 1388

Egyptian basket preserved in the Biblioteca Museu Víctor Balaguer, Vilanova i la Geltrú

India Victor Grigas 2011-8

A woman carrying a basket full of vegetables on her head in K R Market, Bangalore, India

Contemporary bamboo baskets of Bangladesh (01)

Contemporary bamboo baskets of Bangladesh.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Hopi Basketry". Northern Arizona Native American Culture Trail. Retrieved Nov 13, 2011.
  2. ^ "About Baskets". Retrieved April 2, 2019.
  3. ^ a b "basket, n." oed.com. Retrieved 18 March 2015.

Sources

External links

ASVEL Basket

ASVEL Basket, commonly known as ASVEL or sometimes as ASVEL Lyon-Villeurbanne, and also known as LDLC ASVEL for sponsorship reasons, is a French professional basketball team that is located in the city of Villeurbanne, which is a suburb of Lyon, France. The club, which is the basketball section of the ASVEL multi-sports club, competes in the top-tier level French Pro A League. The club's home games are played at L'Astroballe, which seats 5,556 people.In 2014, Tony Parker became the president of the club. In 2017, Nicolas Batum became the club's director of basketball operations.

Basket-hilted sword

The basket-hilted sword is a sword type of the early modern era characterised by a basket-shaped guard that protects the hand. The basket hilt is a development of the quillons added to swords' crossguards since the Late Middle Ages.

In modern times, this variety of sword is also sometimes referred to as the broadsword.The basket-hilted sword was generally in use as a military sword, in contrast with the rapier, the slim duelling sword worn with civilian dress during the same period, although each did find some use in both military and civilian contexts. A further distinction applied by arms historians and collectors is that a true broadsword possesses a double-edged blade, while similar wide-bladed swords with a single sharpened edge and a thickened back are called backswords. Various forms of basket-hilt were mounted on both broadsword and backsword blades.One of the weapon types in the modern German dueling sport of Mensur ("academic fencing") is the basket-hilted Korbschläger.

Basket weaving

Basket weaving (also basketry or basket making) is the process of weaving or sewing pliable materials into two- or three dimensional artifacts, such as mats or containers. Craftspeople and artists specialized in making baskets are usually referred to as basket makers and basket weavers.

Basketry is made from a variety of fibrous or pliable materials—anything that will bend and form a shape. Examples include pine straw, willow, oak, wisteria, forsythia, vines, stems, animal hair, hide, grasses, thread, and fine wooden splints.

Indigenous peoples are particularly renowned for their basket-weaving techniques. These baskets may then be traded for goods but may also be used for religious ceremonies.

Classified into four types, according to Catherine Erdly:

"Coiled" basketry

using grasses, rushes and pine needles

"Plaiting" basketry

using materials that are wide and braidlike: palms, yucca or New Zealand flax

"Twining" basketry

using materials from roots and tree bark. Twining actually refers to a weaving technique where two or more flexible weaving elements ("weavers") cross each other as they weave through the stiffer radial spokes.

"Wicker" and "Splint" basketry

using reed, cane, willow, oak, and ash

Basketball

Basketball is a team sport in which two teams, most commonly of five players each, opposing one another on a rectangular court, compete with the primary objective of shooting a basketball (approximately 9.4 inches (24 cm) in diameter) through the defender's hoop (a basket 18 inches (46 cm) in diameter mounted 10 feet (3.048 m) high to a backboard at each end of the court) while preventing the opposing team from shooting through their own hoop. A field goal is worth two points, unless made from behind the three-point line, when it is worth three. After a foul, timed play stops and the player fouled or designated to shoot a technical foul is given one or more one-point free throws. The team with the most points at the end of the game wins, but if regulation play expires with the score tied, an additional period of play (overtime) is mandated.

Players advance the ball by bouncing it while walking or running (dribbling) or by passing it to a teammate, both of which require considerable skill. On offense, players may use a variety of shots—the lay-up, the jump shot, or a dunk; on defense, they may steal the ball from a dribbler, intercept passes, or block shots; either offense or defense may collect a rebound, that is, a missed shot that bounces from rim or backboard. It is a violation to lift or drag one's pivot foot without dribbling the ball, to carry it, or to hold the ball with both hands then resume dribbling.

The five players on each side at a time fall into five playing positions: the tallest player is usually the center, the tallest and strongest is the power forward, a slightly shorter but more agile big man is the small forward, and the shortest players or the best ball handlers are the shooting guard and the point guard, who implements the coach's game plan by managing the execution of offensive and defensive plays (player positioning). Informally, players may play three-on-three, two-on-two, and one-on-one.

Invented in 1891 by Canadian-American gym teacher James Naismith in Springfield, Massachusetts, United States, basketball has evolved to become one of the world's most popular and widely viewed sports. The National Basketball Association (NBA) is the most significant professional basketball league in the world in terms of popularity, salaries, talent, and level of competition. Outside North America, the top clubs from national leagues qualify to continental championships such as the Euroleague and FIBA Americas League. The FIBA Basketball World Cup and Men's Olympic Basketball Tournament are the major international events of the sport and attract top national teams from around the world. Each continent hosts regional competitions for national teams, like EuroBasket and FIBA AmeriCup.

The FIBA Women's Basketball World Cup and Women's Olympic Basketball Tournament feature top national teams from continental championships. The main North American league is the WNBA (NCAA Women's Division I Basketball Championship is also popular), whereas strongest European clubs participate in the EuroLeague Women.

Basketball positions

The five basketball positions normally employed by organized basketball teams are the point guard (PG), the shooting guard

(SG), the small forward (SF), the power forward (PF), and the center (C).

Typically the point guard is the leader of the team on the court. This position requires substantial ball handling skills and the ability to facilitate the team during a play. The shooting guard, as the name implies, is often the best shooter. As well as being capable of shooting accurately from longer distances, this position tends to also be the best defender on the team. The small forward often has an aggressive approach to the basket when handling the ball. The small forward is also known to make cuts to the basket in efforts to get open for shots. The power forward and the center are usually called the "frontcourt", often acting as their team's primary rebounders or shot blockers, or receiving passes to take inside shots. The center is typically the larger of the two.

Historically, only three positions were recognized (two guards, two forwards, and one center) based on where they played on the court: Guards generally played outside and away from the hoop and forwards played outside and near the baseline, with the center usually positioned in the key. During the 1980s, team strategy evolved after the three-point shot was added to the game. More specialized roles developed, resulting in the five position designations used today. However, individual team strategy and availability of personnel can alter the positions used by a particular team. For example, the dribble-drive motion offense and the Princeton offense use four interchangeable guards and one center. This set is also known as a "four-in and one-out" play scheme. Other combinations are also prevalent.

Besides the five basic positions, some teams use non-standard or hybrid positions, such as the point forward, a hybrid small forward/point guard; the swingman, a hybrid small forward/shooting guard; the big, a hybrid power forward/center; and the stretch four, a power forward with the shooting range of typical shooting guards.

Clinical study design

Clinical study design is the formulation of trials and experiments, as well as observational studies in medical, clinical and other types of research (e.g., epidemiological) involving human beings. The goal of a clinical study is to assess the safety, efficacy, and / or the mechanism of action of an investigational medicinal product or procedure, or new drug or device that is in development, but potentially not yet approved by a health authority (e.g. Food and Drug Administration). It can also be to investigate a drug, device or procedure that has already been approved but is still in need of further investigation, typically with respect to long-term effects or cost-effectiveness.

Some of the considerations here are shared under the more general topic of design of experiments but there can be others, in particular related to patient confidentiality and ethics.

Field goal (basketball)

In basketball, a field goal is a basket scored on any shot or tap other than a free throw, worth two or three points depending on the distance of the attempt from the basket. Uncommonly, a field goal can be worth other values such as one point in FIBA 3x3 basketball competitions or four points in the BIG3 basketball league. "Field goal" is the official terminology used by the National Basketball Association (NBA) in their rule book, in their box scores and statistics, and in referees' rulings. The same term is also the official wording used by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) and high school basketball.

Kareem Abdul-Jabbar holds the NBA record for field goals made in a career with 15,837. Wilt Chamberlain, one of the most prolific scorers of all time, holds the top four spots for most field goals made in a season and has the two top field goal percentages for a season. One of the greatest field-goal shooters of all time is Michael Jordan, who led the NBA in field goals made ten times. Shaquille O'Neal has the record for most seasons (10) with the best field goal percentage, and Artis Gilmore has the record for highest career field goal percentage (59.9%). Steve Nash was one of the greatest all-around shooters in the history of the NBA, holding the record for 50–40–90 seasons, a mark of all-around shooting for two-point field goals, three-point field goals, and free throws. Nash recorded four of the eleven 50–40–90 seasons in NBA history.One type of field goal is called a slam dunk. This occurs when a player jumps near the basket with possession of the ball, throwing the ball down through the basket while airborne. The word "slam" is derived onomatopoeically from the sound of the player's hands hitting, grabbing, then releasing the hoop.

Fruits Basket

Fruits Basket (Japanese: フルーツバスケット, Hepburn: Furūtsu Basuketto), sometimes abbreviated Furuba, or Furuba (フルバ), is a Japanese shōjo manga series written and illustrated by Natsuki Takaya. It was serialized in the semi-monthly Japanese magazine Hana to Yume, published by Hakusensha, from 1998 to 2006. The series' title comes from the name of a popular game played in Japanese elementary schools, which is alluded to in the series.

Fruits Basket tells the story of Tohru Honda, an orphan girl who, after meeting Yuki, Kyo, and Shigure Soma, learns that twelve members of the Soma family are possessed by the animals of the Chinese zodiac (十二支, Jūnishi) and are cursed to turn into their animal forms when they are weak, stressed, or when they are embraced by anyone of the opposite sex that is not possessed by a zodiacal spirit. As the series progresses, Tohru learns of the hardships and pain faced by the afflicted Somas, and through her own generous and loving nature, helps heal their emotional wounds. As she learns more about Yuki, Kyo, and the rest of the mysterious Soma family, Tohru also learns more about herself and how much others care for her.

The series was also adapted into a 26-episode anime series, directed by Akitaro Daichi. A new anime television series adaptation produced by TMS Entertainment and directed by Yoshihide Ibata premiered on April 2019. The anime series is licensed in North America under the Crunchyroll-Funimation partnership.

Greek Basket League

The Greek Basket League (GBL), often also referred to as the Greek Basketball League, Greek A1 Basketball League, or Greek Basketball Championship (originally called Panhellenic Basketball Championship), and known as the betshop.gr Basket League for sponsorship reasons, is the first tier professional basketball league in Greece. It is run by HEBA (Greek: ΕΣΑΚΕ), under the legal authority of the Hellenic Basketball Federation (E.O.K.). The league is also known as the Betshop.gr Basket League for sponsorship reasons.It consists of 14 teams and runs from October to June, with teams playing 26 games each during the regular season, and the top 8 teams then competing in the playoffs. The first official Greek Basketball Championship was held in the 1927–28 season. The league first held a playoff round in the 1986–87 season.

The league has always been ranked as one of the top 3-5 level national domestic leagues in European basketball, since league rankings began. For further information, see historical European national basketball league rankings, and European national basketball league rankings.

Greek basketball clubs in international competitions

KK FMP

Košarkaški klub FMP (Serbian Cyrillic: Кошаркашки клуб ФMП), commonly referred to as KK FMP, is a men's professional basketball club based in Belgrade, Serbia. The club was founded in Novi Sad in 1970 as KK Radnički, and was later relocated to Belgrade. They are currently competing in the ABA League and the Basketball League of Serbia.The club is legal successor of the original FMP, who merged with KK Crvena zvezda in 2011 and was registered as KK ILR in 2015.

KK Mega Basket

Košarkaški klub Mega Basket (Serbian Cyrillic: Кошаркашки клуб Мега Баскет), currently known as Mega Bemax due to sponsorship reasons, is a men's professional basketball team based in Belgrade though playing its home games in Sremska Mitrovica, Serbia ever since the start of the 2014–15 season.

In addition to Belgrade and Sremska Mitrovica, the club also played its home games in Kruševac (2012–13 season) and Smederevo (2013–14 season). The club participates in the KLS and ABA League. Since 2004, it has been controlled by Serbian sports agent Miško Ražnatović and his BeoBasket sports agency.

Lega Basket Serie A

The Lega Basket Serie A, officially abbreviated as LBA, (English: Serie A Basketball League) and known for sponsorship reasons as the Serie A PosteMobile, is a professional men's club basketball league that has been organised in Italy since 1920. It constitutes the first and highest-tier level of the Italian league pyramid. The LBA, which is played under FIBA rules, currently consists of 16 teams, with the lowest-placed team relegated to the Serie A2 and replaced by the winner of the play-offs of that division.

A total of 99 teams have competed in the LBA since its inception. Seventeen teams have been crowned champions, with Olimpia Milano winning the title a record 28 times, and Virtus Bologna 15 times. According to FIBA Europe's and Euroleague Basketball's national league coefficients, the LBA was the overall historically top ranked national domestic league in Europe, for the period 1958 to 2007. Today, the LBA is considered to be one of the top European national basketball leagues. Its clubs have won the most EuroLeague championships (13), the most FIBA Saporta Cups (15), and the most FIBA Korać Cups (10).

The league is run by the Lega Basket, which is itself regulated by the FIP, the Italian Basketball Federation.

List of Fruits Basket characters

The characters of Fruits Basket were created by Natsuki Takaya in the manga written and illustrated by her. The manga was serialized in 136 chapters in the monthly manga magazine Hana to Yume between January 1999 and November 2006, and collected in 23 tankōbon volumes by Hakusensha. The series was adapted as a drama CD distributed as a promotional item with an issue of Hana to Yume and as a 26-episode anime television series produced by Studio DEEN initially broadcast on TV Tokyo between July 5 and December 27, 2001. The manga is licensed in English by Chuang Yi in Singapore, Madman Entertainment in Australia and New Zealand, and Tokyopop in North America. The anime is licensed in English by FUNimation Entertainment, which distributes it in North America itself, in the United Kingdom through Revelation Films, and in Australia and New Zealand through Madman Entertainment.

The series tells the story of Tohru Honda, an orphan girl who, after meeting Yuki, Kyo, and Shigure Soma, learns that thirteen members of the Soma family are possessed by the animals of the Chinese zodiac and cursed to turn into their animal forms when they embrace someone of the opposite sex or their bodies come under a great deal of stress. As the series progresses, Tohru meets the rest of the zodiac and the family's mysterious head, Akito Soma, and eventually resolves to break the curse that burdens them.

The spellings used here are those given in the official Region 1 DVD and English manga releases. Names are given in Western order, with the family name last.

Polish Basketball League

Polska Liga Koszykówki (PLK) (English: Polish Basketball League) is a professional men's club basketball league in Poland. It constitutes the first and highest-tier level of the Polish league pyramid. The winning team of the final round are crowned the Polish Champions of that season. It began in 1947–48, with the name of I Liga, and was originally organized by the Polish Basketball Association. The league changed to its current form, beginning with the 1997–98 season, after the Polska Liga Koszykówki SA, PLK SA (the Polish Basketball League Joint-stock company) took control over the league (the PLK SA was created in 1995). In 2000–01 season the league turned professional.

The PLK, which is played under FIBA rules, currently consists of 17 teams (professional basketball's clubs). A PLK season is split into a league stage and a playoffs stage (since 1984–85 season). At the end of the league stage, the top eight teams qualify for the playoff stage.

The competition Polish basketball men's championships has existed since the year 1928. Śląsk Wrocław is the record holder for most titles, with 17.

Power forward (basketball)

The power forward (PF), also known as the four, is one of the five positions in a regulation basketball game. It has also been referred to as the "post" position. Power forwards play a role similar to that of center. They typically play offensively with their backs towards the basket and position themselves defensively under the basket in a zone defense or against the opposing power forward in man-to-man defense. The power forward position entails a variety of responsibilities, one of which is rebounding. Many power forwards are noted for their mid-range jump-shot, and several players have become very accurate from 12 to 18 feet (3.7 to 5.5 m). Earlier, these skills were more typically exhibited in the European style of play. Some power forwards, known as stretch fours, have since extended their shooting range to three-point field goals.

In the NBA, power forwards usually range from 6′ 8″ (2.03 m) to 7′ 0″ (2.13 m) while in the WNBA, power forwards are usually between 6′ 1″ (1.85 m) and 6′ 4″ (1.93 m). Despite the averages, a variety of players fit "tweener" roles which finds them in the small forward or center position depending on matchups and coaching decisions. Some power forwards often play the center position and have the skills, but lack the height that is usually associated with that position.

Serie A2 Basket

Serie A2 Basket, known for sponsorship reasons as Serie A2 Citroën, is a professional men's basketball league in Italy. It constitutes the second-tier of the Italian league pyramid, below the first division LBA and above the third division Serie B, with promotion/relegation occurring between these leagues.

It is run by the Lega Nazionale Pallacanestro (LNP), itself regulated by the FIP, the Italian federation.

Three-point field goal

A three-point field goal (also 3-pointer or informally, trey) is a field goal in a basketball game made from beyond the three-point line, a designated arc surrounding the basket. A successful attempt is worth three points, in contrast to the two points awarded for field goals made within the three-point line and the one point for each made free throw.

The distance from the basket to the three-point line varies by competition level: in the National Basketball Association (NBA) the arc is 23 feet 9 inches (7.24 m) from the center of the basket; in FIBA and the WNBA the arc is 6.75 metres or 22 feet 1 3⁄4 inches; and in the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) the arc is 20 feet 9 inches (6.32 m). In the NBA and FIBA/WNBA, the three-point line becomes parallel to each sideline at the points where the arc is 3 feet (0.91 m) from each sideline; as a result the distance from the basket gradually decreases to a minimum of 22 feet (6.71 m). In the NCAA the arc is continuous for 180° around the basket. There are more variations (see main article).

In 3x3, a FIBA-sanctioned variant of the half-court 3-on-3 game, the same line exists, but shots from behind it are only worth 2 points with all other shots worth 1 point.

Virgil

Publius Vergilius Maro (Classical Latin: [ˈpuː.blɪ.ʊs wɛrˈɡɪ.lɪ.ʊs ˈma.roː]; traditional dates October 15, 70 BC – September 21, 19 BC), usually called Virgil or Vergil () in English, was an ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period. He wrote three of the most famous poems in Latin literature: the Eclogues (or Bucolics), the Georgics, and the epic Aeneid. A number of minor poems, collected in the Appendix Vergiliana, are sometimes attributed to him.Virgil is traditionally ranked as one of Rome's greatest poets. His Aeneid has been considered the national epic of ancient Rome since the time of its composition. Modeled after Homer's Iliad and Odyssey, the Aeneid follows the Trojan refugee Aeneas as he struggles to fulfill his destiny and reach Italy, where his descendants Romulus and Remus were to found the city of Rome. Virgil's work has had wide and deep influence on Western literature, most notably Dante's Divine Comedy, in which Virgil appears as Dante's guide through Hell and Purgatory.

Waste container

A waste container is a container for temporarily storing waste, and is usually made out of metal or plastic. Some common terms are dustbin, garbage can, and trash can. The words "rubbish", "basket" and "bin" are more common in British English usage; "trash" and "can" are more common in American English usage. "Garbage" may refer to food waste specifically (when distinguished from "trash") or to municipal solid waste in general. In 1875, the first household rubbish bins were introduced in Britain to create a regulated system of collection.

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