Baselines of the Chinese territorial sea

China declared its baselines for its maritime territory on 15 May 1996.[1] The baselines were for the Chinese mainland and also for the Paracel (Xisha) Islands.

The baselines for the mainland consist of a series of straight lines linking 49 basepoints situated on the outer edge along and outer islands off the coast of China. For the Paracel Islands, the baselines consist of a series of straight lines linking 28 basepoints located on the outer islands of the group.

Baselines legislation and principles

The 1996 declaration of China's baselines is based on its law on its territorial sea and the contiguous zone which was adopted on 25 February 1992. Wuqiuyu and Dongdingdao etc. are under the control of the Republic of China (Taiwan) as part of Kinmen County.



Point Location Latitude Longitude Remarks
1. Shandonggaojiao (1) 37° 24.0' N 122° 42.3' E
2. Shandonggaojiao (2) 37° 23.7' N 122° 42.3' E
3. Moyedao (1) 36° 57.8' N 122° 34.2' E
4. Moyedao (2) 36° 55.1' N 122° 32.7' E
5. Moyedao (3) 36° 53.7' N 122° 31.1' E
6. Sushandao 36° 44.8' N 122° 15.8' E
7. Chaoliandao 35° 53.6' N 120° 53.1' E
8. Dashandao 35° 00.2' N 119° 54.2' E
9. Macaiheng 33° 21.8' N 121° 20.8' E
10. Waikejiao 33° 00.9' N 121° 38.4' E
11. Sheshandao 31° 25.3' N 122° 14.6' E
12. Haijiao 30° 44.1' N 123° 09.4' E
13. Dongnanjiao 30° 43.5' N 123° 09.7' E
14. Liangxiongdiyu 30° 10.1' N 122° 56.7' E
15. Yushanliedao 28° 53.3' N 122° 16.5' E
16. Taizhouliedao (1) 28° 23.9' N 121° 55.0' E
17. Taizhouliedao (2) 28° 23.5' N 121° 54.7' E
18. Daotiaoshan 27° 27.9' N 121° 07.8' E
19. Dongyindao 26° 22.6' N 120° 30.4' E
20. Dongshadao 26° 09.4' N 120° 24.3' E
21. Niushandao 25° 25.8' N 119° 56.3' E
22. Wuqiuyu 24° 58.6' N 119° 28.7' E
23. Dongdingdao 24° 09.7' N 118° 14.2' E
24. Daganshan 23° 31.9' N 117° 41.3' E
25. Nanpengliedao (1) 23° 12.9' N 117° 14.9' E
26. Nanpengliedao (2) 23° 12.3' N 117° 13.9' E
27. Shibeishanjiao 22° 56.1' N 116° 29.7' E
28. Zhentouyan 22° 18.9' N 115° 07.5' E
29. Jiapengliedao 21° 48.5' N 113° 58.0' E
30. Weijiadao 21° 34.1' N 112° 47.9' E
31. Dafanshi 21° 27.7' N 112° 21.5' E
32. Qizhouliedao 19° 58.5' N 111° 16.4' E
33. Shuangfan 19° 53.0' N 111° 12.8' E
34. Dazhoudao (1) 18° 39.7' N 110° 29.6' E
35. Dazhoudao (2) 18° 39.4' N 110° 29.1' E
36. Shuangfanshi 18° 26.1' N 110° 08.4' E
37. Lingshuijiao 18° 23.0' N 110° 03.0' E
38. Dongzhou (1) 18° 11.0' N 109° 42.1' E
39. Dongzhou (2) 18° 11.0' N 109° 41.8' E
40. Jinmujiao 18° 09.5' N 109° 34.4' E
41. Shenshijiao 18° 14.6' N 109° 07.6' E
42. Xigudao 18° 19.3' N 108° 57.1' E
43. Yinggezui (1) 18° 30.2' N 108° 41.3' E
44. Yinggezui (2) 18° 30.4' N 108° 41.1' E
45. Yinggezui (3) 18° 31.0' N 108° 40.6' E
46. Yinggezui (4) 18° 31.1' N 108° 40.5' E
47. Gan'enjiao 18° 50.5' N 108° 37.3' E
48. Sigengshajiao 19° 11.6' N 108° 36.0' E
49. Junbijiao 19° 21.1' N 108° 38.6' E

Paracel Islands

Point Location Latitude Longitude Remarks
1. Dongdao (1) 16° 40.5' N 112° 44.2' E
2. Dongdao (2) 16° 40.1' N 112° 44.5' E
3. Dongdao (3) 16° 39.8' N 112° 44.7' E
4. Langhuajiao (1) 16° 04.4' N 112° 35.8' E
5. Langhuajiao (2) 16° 01.9' N 112° 32.7' E
6. Langhuajiao (3) 16° 01.5' N 112° 31.8' E
7. Langhuajiao (4) 16° 01.0' N 112° 29.8' E
8. Zhongjiandao (1) 15° 46.5' N 111° 12.6' E
9. Zhongjiandao (2) 15° 46.4' N 111° 12.1' E
10. Zhongjiandao (3) 15° 46.4' N 111° 11.8' E
11. Zhongjiandao (4) 15° 46.5' N 111° 11.6' E
12. Zhongjiandao (5) 15° 46.7' N 111° 11.4' E
13. Zhongjiandao (6) 15° 46.9' N 111° 11.3' E
14. Zhongjiandao (7) 15° 47.2' N 111° 11.4' E
15. Beijiao (1) 17° 04.9' N 111° 26.9' E
16. Beijiao (2) 17° 05.4' N 111° 26.9' E
17. Beijiao (3) 17° 05.7' N 111° 27.2' E
18. Beijiao (4) 17° 06.0' N 111° 27.8' E
19. Beijiao (5) 17° 06.5' N 111° 29.2' E
20. Beijiao (6) 17° 07.0' N 111° 31.0' E
21. Beijiao (7) 17° 07.1' N 111° 31.6' E
22. Beijiao (8) 17° 06.9' N 111° 32.0' E
23. Zhaoshudao (1) 16° 59.9' N 112° 14.7' E
24. Zhaoshudao (2) 16° 59.7' N 112° 15.6' E
25. Zhaoshudao (3) 16° 59.4' N 112° 16.6' E
26. Beidao 16° 58.4' N 112° 18.3' E
27. Zhongdao 16° 57.6' N 112° 19.6' E
28. Nandao 16° 56.9' N 112° 20.5' E

See also


  1. ^ "Declaration of the Government of the People's Republic of China on the baselines of the territorial sea" (pdf). Legislation and Treaties. Law of the Sea (LOS). UN. 15 May 1996.

A baseline is a line that is a base for measurement or for construction.

The word baseline may refer to:

baseline (configuration management), the process of managing change

baseline (sea), the starting point for delimiting a coastal state's maritime zones

Baselines of the Chinese territorial sea

Baselines of Indonesia

baseline (surveying), a line between two points of the earth's surface and the direction and distance between them

baseline (typography), the line upon which most letters "sit" and below which descenders extend

baseline (budgeting), an estimate of budget expected during a fiscal year

baseline (medicine), information found at the beginning of a study

baseline (pharmacology), a person's state of mind or being, in the absence of drugs

the isoelectric line of an electrocardiogram

baseline (interferometry), the length of an astronomical interferometerThe name Baseline may refer to:

Baseline (magazine), a magazine devoted to typography, book arts, graphic design

Baseline (database), a TV and movie industry database

Baselines (album), the 1983 debut album of composer Bill Laswell

Baseline Road (Colorado), a major east–west artery in Boulder, Colorado

Baseline Road (Ottawa), a major east–west artery in Ottawa, Ontario

Baseline Road (Arizona), a major east–west artery in Phoenix, Arizona

Baseline Station (OC Transpo), a transitway station in Ottawa

Base Line, Arkansas

Baseline Nunataks

Baseline RockIt may also refer to:

the base line in baseball

the back line on a tennis court, and also a style of play in tennis; see tennis strategy

the end line on a basketball court

a bassline in music

a shifting baseline in statistics

Baseline Killer, one of the two simultaneously occurring serial killer cases which terrorized the Phoenix metro area, between August 2005 and June 2006

Bombay Reef

Bombay Reef (Chinese: 浪花礁; pinyin: Lànghuājiāo, Vietnamese: đá Bông Bay) is an atoll of the Paracel Islands. In Chinese, the reef is alternatively known as "Pengbojiao" (Chinese: 蓬勃礁), or "Qilianyu" (literally "7 key lago") along with six other islands close by.

Dashan Island

Dashan Island (Chinese: 达山岛 or Chinese: 达念山岛 or Chinese: 泰簿礁; pinyin: tàibùjiāo) is an island of Shandong province, China.

Dashan Island is located 28-nautical-mile (52 km) from Lianyungang, and it belongs to the Qiansandao Town of Lianyungang city, Jiangsu province, China. The island has an area of 0.115 km², and is one of the islands in the Qiansan Islands.

Dashan Island is one of the baselines of the Chinese territorial sea.In 2006, PLA erected the Territorial sea steles on Dashan Island.

Dongding Island

Dongding Island or Dongding (Chinese: 東碇島, 東椗島; pinyin: Dōngdìng Dǎo; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Tang-tiāⁿ), also known as Tangtia, Tungting Tao, Tungting Hsu, Chapel Island, Tung Ting Island, Dong Ding, Tung-Ting, Tung-ting-seu, Tungting Island, Dongding Islet, Dongdingdao and Tung-ting Tao, is an 0.0160 square kilometer island in the Taiwan Strait in Jinhu Township, Kinmen County, Fujian Province, Republic of China (Taiwan). The island is the southernmost point of Kinmen County. The island is near Longhai City, Zhangzhou, Fujian, China.


Dongnanjiao Island("东南礁") is located in the northeast corner of Zhoushanqundao (Zhoushan Islands),76 km from Shengsi County, and is part of the Shengsi County of Zhoushan city. Dongnanjiao is the baseline point of the Chinese territorial sea.


Haijiao (海礁), also known as Tong Island (童岛), Taibujiao (泰簿礁) or Taijiao (泰礁), is located at 30°44'6"N, 123°9'24"E in the northeast corner of the Zhoushan Islands and belongs to Shengsi County of Zhoushan city. The name Haijiao literally means 'the ocean reef', and its generally accepted cartographic name of Taijiao literally means 'the extreme reef', a reference to its isolated position on the edge of China's maritime territory. It is a baseline point of China's territorial seas.


Liangxiongdiyu Island ("两兄弟屿") is located 67 km northeast of Shenjiamen . It belongs to the Dongji Town of Zhoushan city. Liangxiongdiyu is the baseline point of the Chinese territorial sea.

2006, The stele of "Chinese territorial sea baseline point" erected.


Macaiheng (Chinese: 麻菜珩; pinyin: Mácàihéng),(33°21'48"N, 121°20'48"E), is a small sand island in the East China Sea, adjacent to Jiangsu. Waikejiao is close by.

Macaiheng is one of the baseline point of the Chinese territorial sea.

Nanpeng Islands

Nanpeng Islands (simplified Chinese: 南澎列岛; traditional Chinese: 南澎列島; pinyin: Nánpēng Lièdǎo) are a chain of islands located in the north of South China Sea, administered by Nan'ao County, Shantou, Guangdong, the People's Republic of China. Nanpeng Islands consist of six islands: Nanpeng Island, Zhongpeng Island, Dingpeng Island (also known as Dongpeng Island or Yazaiyu Island), Qinpeng Island, Chizaiyu Island and Qiweiyu Island. Nanpeng Islands have two baseline points of the Chinese territorial sea.No resident lives in the Nanpeng Islands except garrison of the People's Liberation Army. It became a National Marine Ecological Nature Reserve in 2012, as well as a Ramsar site in 2015.

Nine-Dash Line

The Nine-Dash Line—at various times also referred to as the "10-dash line" and the "11-dash line"—refers to the undefined, vaguely located, demarcation line used initially by the Republic of China (1912–1949) and subsequently the governments of the Republic of China (ROC / Taiwan) and the People's Republic of China (PRC), for their claims of the major part of the South China Sea. The contested area in the South China Sea includes the Paracel Islands, the Spratly Islands, and various other areas including the Pratas Islands, the Macclesfield Bank and the Scarborough Shoal. The claim encompasses the area of Chinese land reclamation known as the "Great Wall of Sand".An early map showing a U-shaped eleven-dash line was published in the then-Republic of China on 1 November 1947. Two of the dashes in the Gulf of Tonkin were later removed at the behest of Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai, reducing the total to nine. Subsequent editions added a dash to the other end of the line, extending it into the East China Sea.Despite having made the vague claim public in 1947, China has not (as of 2018) filed a formal and specifically defined claim to the area within the dashes. China added a tenth-dash line to the east of Taiwan island in 2013 as a part of its official sovereignty claim to the disputed territories in the South China Sea.On 12 July 2016, an arbitral tribunal constituted under Annex VII to the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea ruled that China has no legal basis to claim "historic rights" within its nine-dash line in a case brought by the Philippines. The tribunal judged that there was no evidence that China had historically exercised exclusive control over the waters or resources within the Nine-Dash Line. The ruling was rejected by both Taiwan and China.

Philippines v. China

Philippines v. China (PCA case number 2013–19), also known as the South China Sea Arbitration, was an arbitration case brought by the Republic of the Philippines against the People's Republic of China under Annex VII to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) concerning certain issues in the South China Sea including the legality of China's Nine-dash line.On 19 February 2013, China declared that it would not participate in the arbitration.

On 7 December 2014, a white paper was published by China to elaborate its position. On 29 October 2015, the arbitral tribunal ruled that it has jurisdiction over the case, taking up seven of the 15 submissions made by the Philippines.On 12 July 2016, the Permanent Court of Arbitration ruled in favor of the Philippines. It clarified that it would not "...rule on any question of sovereignty over land territory and would not delimit any maritime boundary between the Parties". The tribunal also ruled that China has "no historical rights" based on the "nine-dash line" map. China has rejected the ruling, as has Taiwan.

Sheshan Island

Sheshan Island (simplified Chinese: 佘山岛; traditional Chinese: 佘山島; pinyin: Shéshān Dǎo) is located 35 km (22 mi) east of Chongming Island, in the estuary of the Yangtze River. The area is 0.037 km2 (0.014 sq mi).

The island is under the jurisdiction of the Shanghai Municipal Region and is guarded by the People's Liberation Army Navy. A 130-year-old lighthouse is located on the island. On November 1, 2005, the stele of "Chinese territorial sea baseline point" was erected.

Tree Island, South China Sea

For the "Tree Island" in Tuen Mun District, New Territories, Hong Kong, see Pak Chau.

Tree Island, also known as Zhaoshu Island, (Chinese: 赵述岛; Chinese: 趙述島; pinyin: Zhaoshu Dao;Vietnamese: Đảo Cây) is one of the main islands of the Paracel Islands group in the South China Sea. In 1947, the Chinese named the island Zhaoshu Dao to commemorate Zhao Shu (Chinese: 赵述) who accompanied Zheng He's expeditions in high seas (1405-1433). The area of the island is 22 hectares (54 acres) (0.22 km²). It is under the administration of Hainan Province of China through the Zhaoshudao Village Committee. The island is also claimed by the Republic of China (Taiwan) and Vietnam.

Triton Island

Triton Island (Chinese: 中建岛; pinyin: Zhōngjiàn Dǎo; Vietnamese: đảo Tri Tôn) is the westernmost and southernmost of the Paracel Islands in the South China Sea. It is located on the southwest corner of Triton Reef and has an area of 7 hectares (17 acres) above sea-level. The reef including the island measures about 120 hectares (300 acres) in area. The island is administered by the People's Republic of China, and is also claimed by the Republic of China (Taiwan) and Vietnam.

The island was historically known by the Chinese as Bànlù Zhì (Chinese: 半路峙; literally: 'halfway tower'), and as Luó Dǎo (Chinese: 螺岛; literally: 'snail island') to Chinese fishermen. Other Chinese sources have it named as 南建岛, as it was the southernmost point claimed by China until after 1933. The current Chinese name commemorates the Republic of China Navy warship ROCS Chung-chien (中建號) sent in 1946 to claim the Paracel Islands.


Waikejiao Island(simplified Chinese: 外磕脚; traditional Chinese: 外磕腳; pinyin: Wàikējiǎo),(33°0'54"N, 121°38'24"E) is a small sand island located in the East China Sea, adjacent to Jiangsu. Macaiheng is close by.

Waikejiao is one of the baseline points of the Chinese territorial sea.


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