Baseball uniform

A baseball uniform is a type of uniform worn by baseball players and, uniquely to baseball, coaches. Most baseball uniforms have the names and uniform numbers of players who wear them, usually on the backs of the uniforms to distinguish players from each other. Baseball shirts (jerseys), pants, shoes, socks, caps, and gloves are parts of baseball uniforms. Most uniforms have different logos and colors to aid players, officials, and spectators in distinguishing the two teams from each other and the officials. They are made out of polyester instead of cotton, because washing shrinks the cotton fabric.

Baseball uniforms were first worn by the New York Knickerbockers Baseball Club in 1849.[1] Today, sales of replica uniforms and derivative branded products generate large amounts of income for Major League teams through merchandising.

Baseball Uniform
A nineteenth-century baseball team in uniforms


Early developments

1874 Philadelphia Athletics baseball
The Philadelphia Athletics in 1874 wearing their baseball uniforms

The New York Knickerbockers were the first baseball team to wear uniforms, taking the field on April 4, 1849, in pants made of blue wool, white flannel shirts and straw hats.[1][2] The practice of wearing a uniform soon spread, and by 1900, all Major League Baseball teams had adopted them.[3] By 1882 most uniforms included stockings, which covered the leg from foot to knee, and were used to differentiate one club from another. The uniforms themselves had different colors and patterns that reflected the different baseball positions.[4] In the late 1880s, the Detroit Wolverines and Washington Nationals of the National League and the Brooklyn Bridegrooms of the American Association were the first to wear striped uniforms.[5]

Home and road uniforms

By the end of the 19th century, teams began the practice of wearing one of two different uniforms, one when they played in their own baseball stadium and a different one when they played on the road. It became common to wear white at home and one of gray, solid dark blue, or black on the road.[3] An early example of this is the Brooklyn Superbas, who started to use a blue pattern for their road uniforms in 1907.[3]

Jeff Tesreau, wearing a New York Giants pinstriped baseball uniform, c.1912–18

In 1916, on the New York Giants' road uniforms, purple lines gave their uniforms a tartan-like effect, and another kind of road uniform was a solid dark blue or black material with white around this time. The Kansas City Athletics' home and road uniforms were changed by Charles O. Finley in 1963, to the colors of gold and green.[6] Some teams used light blue for their road uniforms from the 1970s to the early 1990s.[3] Early striped patterns developed into long stripes along the length of the uniforms, called pinstriping. This was first worn on some major league baseball team's uniforms in 1907, and the pinstripes were then widened in 1912, so that the crowd could see them more clearly.[3]

The Brooklyn Bridegrooms used checked uniforms in 1889, and brought them back in 1907 (as the Superbas) and 1916–1917 (as the Robins).[7][8] Satin uniforms were developed by several teams including the Brooklyn Dodgers for night games, as the sheen of the fabric was more reflective and thus easier to see.[7] Pinstripes were commonly worn on the uniforms of the New York Yankees. Legend had it that the stripes were adopted to make Babe Ruth look slimmer,[9] but since the Yankees had already been wearing pinstripes a few years before Ruth played for them in 1920, the legend was found to be a myth. The Yankees' pinstripes on their home uniforms soon became a team symbol.

In 1916, the Cleveland Indians became the first team to add numbers on their uniforms, positioned on the left sleeve of the home uniforms only. (Okkonen, p. 36, p. 120)[3] In 1929, numbers were first added on the backs of uniforms by the New York Yankees and the Cleveland Indians. By 1932, all major league baseball teams had numbers on their players' uniforms.[3] The Brooklyn Dodgers, in 1952, became the first baseball team to add numbers to the fronts of their uniforms.[3][7] In 1960, the Chicago White Sox were the first team to place players' names on the back of their jerseys, doing so on their road jerseys; within a few years, this practice became almost universal in MLB, though to this day the Yankees only wear names on their uniforms for Players Weekend, a yearly event where alternate uniforms with nicknames are used.[10]

In most parts of the world, numbers are no more than two digits long; however, Japanese players who are on their team's developmental roster have three-digit numbers. Major league teams typically assign the highest numbers (#50 and above) in spring training to the players who are not expected to make the regular-season roster; hence the lower numbers are considered more prestigious, although there are many veterans who wear high numbers anyway. Two Hall of Famers who wore high numbers are Don Drysdale, who wore #53 for the Brooklyn and Los Angeles Dodgers, and Carlton Fisk, who wore #72 for the Chicago White Sox (reverse of the #27 he wore with the Boston Red Sox; Fisk also was the American League Rookie of the Year in 1972).

Cap styles

Gorra MLB
Oakland Athletics unofficial baseball cap.

Caps, or other types of headgear with eye-shades, have been a part of baseball uniforms from the beginning.[11][12]

From the 1840s to the 1870s, baseball players wore various types of hats, or even no cap at all, since there was no official rule regarding headgear.[13] Examples included full-brimmed straw hats such as boating caps, jockey caps, cycling caps, and flat-topped caps.[11]

The Brooklyn Excelsiors was the first team to wear what would later become the modern baseball cap, with its distinctive rounded top and peak, in the 1860s.[11][14] By the early years of the twentieth century, this style of cap had become common, but some teams occasionally revived the flat-topped cap, such as the New York Giants in 1916 and the Pittsburgh Pirates as recently as during the 1979 World Series.[3] Over time, the peak has enlarged slightly to further protect the player's eyes from the sun.[15] More recently, players have worn hats with fold-down ear flaps in cold weather.


A baseball team and their uniforms in the 1870s

In the late 19th century, soft but durable leather shoes were the preferred choice of baseball players.

In the 1970s, as artificial turf became prominent on developed countries' baseball fields, modifications to footwear became necessary.[16] Detachable spikes became popular in the 20th century, as they helped players to avoid slipping, especially on turf, but they were banned in 1976.

In the 19th century and the first part of the 20th, baseball shoes were commonly black in color. In the 1960s, the Kansas City Athletics began wearing revolutionary white shoes, a tradition carried over when they moved to Oakland. Since then, some teams are wearing colored cleats corresponding to their team colors. For example, the Philadelphia Phillies and St. Louis Cardinals now wear red cleats, the Chicago Cubs and the Los Angeles Dodgers wear blue cleats, and some of the San Francisco Giants players wear orange cleats.

Stockings and pants

See footnote[17] and Baseball stirrups

Inspired by the Cincinnati Red Stockings, the stocking colors of teams in the 1860s onward were a principal device in distinguishing one team from another (hence team names such as the Chicago White Stockings, St. Louis Brown Stockings (or Browns), etc.). Except for a few "candy-cane" varieties (particularly by the New York Giants, St. Louis Cardinals and Washington Senators), striping was quite minimal during the 1920s and, in contrast, a revival of other sorts in the early 1930s.[18]

Alfonso Soriano 4
Alfonso Soriano wearing traditional knee-breeches

By the 1990s, new styles of close-trimmed pants legs made it possible for players to wear pants that ran clear to the shoetops, in lieu of the traditional knee-breeches style that had prevailed for generations. This led to a violation of the literal concept of a "uniform", in that different players on a given team might wear knee-length and full-length pants on the field at the same time. Players such as Manny Ramirez have taken this fashion trend to an extreme, wearing loose-fitting pants whose legs nearly lap under the heels of the shoes. Some, such as Gary Sheffield, have even developed straps that hook under the cleats. Meanwhile, players such as Alfonso Soriano continue to wear the traditional knee-breeches, though most of these players still lack the traditional stirrups.

By the end of the first decade of the 21st century, nearly all players wore either traditional knee-high socks or pants that covered the shoetops and contained no elastic in the bottom. Such loose-fitting pants are called "pro-flare", as they are worn by most major league players. However, a few older players, like Derek Jeter, wear pants that stop right at the shoes, like the style of the late 1990s/early 2000s.

In recent years teams that wear throwback uniforms usually outfit themselves with stirrups or knee-breeches, to simulate the look of a particular era. In addition, some teams began to wear stockings with stripes. Examples include the Tampa Bay Rays sporting Columbia blue and white striping on their navy stockings, the St. Louis Cardinals with navy and white stripes on their red stockings, and the San Francisco Giants in black stockings with orange stripes.

Graphics and logos

Jim Creighton Excelsior
Jim Creighton sporting an Old English "E" for his team, Excelsior, ca.1860–1862

From the beginning, graphic designs were used to identify teams. Often an Old English letter was worn on the chest. This style survives with the Detroit Tigers and their gothic style "D" on their home jerseys and caps and the Oakland Athletics, who currently have an Old English "A" on their caps and their alternative jerseys.

As official nicknames gained prominence in the early 1900s (in contrast to media-generated and unofficial nicknames of prior generations), pictorial logos began emerging as part of the team's marketing. Some early examples include a small red tiger on the black cap of the 1901 Detroit Tigers, as they were officially the Tigers from the beginning; and a bear cub logo on the Chicago Cubs shirts by 1907, as that unofficial nickname was then adopted officially by the club.

In another famous example, the Boston Americans (an unofficial designation that merely distinguished them from their across-the-tracks rivals) adopted the Nationals' abandoned red stockings in 1908, and have been the Boston Red Sox officially ever since then.[19]

By the 1930s, nearly every team had distinctive logos, letters or the team nickname on their home shirts, as part of the team's marketing. The trend of the city name on the road jerseys continued. In recent years, with team nicknames being so strongly associated with the clubs, logos that were once only used at home also turned up on road jerseys, in place of city names.

See also


  • Okkonen, Marc (1991). Baseball Uniforms of the 20th Century: The Official Major League Baseball Guide.


  1. ^ a b "Evolution of Baseball Equipment: The Uniform". 19th Century Baseball. Retrieved March 23, 2012.
  2. ^ "National Baseball Hall of Fame – A History of the Baseball Uniform – Introduction". National Baseball Hall of Fame. Archived from the original on July 24, 2008. Retrieved June 14, 2008.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Baseball Uniforms of the 20th Century by Baseball Almanac". Baseball Almanac. Archived from the original on May 9, 2008. Retrieved May 2, 2008.
  4. ^ "National Baseball Hall of Fame – Dressed to the Nines – Timeline". National Baseball Hall of Fame. Archived from the original on April 5, 2008. Retrieved May 11, 2008.
  5. ^ "National Baseball Hall of Fame – Dressed to the Nines – Uniform Database". National Baseball Hall of Fame. Archived from the original on April 11, 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-02.
  6. ^ "Charlie Finley: Baseball's Barnum". Time. August 18, 1975. Retrieved June 28, 2008.
  7. ^ a b c "National Baseball Hall of Fame – Dressed to the Nines – Parts of the Uniform". National Baseball Hall of Fame. Retrieved May 2, 2008.
  8. ^ "National Baseball Hall of Fame – Dressed to the Nines – Timeline". National Baseball Hall of Fame. Archived from the original on October 3, 2011. Retrieved 2012-03-23.
  9. ^ Trebay, Guy (October 24, 2000). "New York Yankees using pinstripes to make Babe Ruth look slimmer". New York Times. Retrieved July 14, 2008.
  10. ^ Lukas, Paul (February 22, 2018). "The colorful history of the uniform name game". Retrieved February 22, 2018.
  11. ^ a b c Atkin, Ross. "A short history of the baseball cap". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved March 23, 2012.
  12. ^ "Happy 50th, baseball caps". BBC News. April 27, 2004. Retrieved May 2, 2008.
  13. ^ "Celebrating the rich history of baseball caps". Retrieved June 29, 2008.
  14. ^ DiMeglio, Steve (July 27, 2006). "Baseball cap has endured generations as the all-American hat". USA TODAY. Retrieved March 23, 2012.
  15. ^ "History of baseball caps and how it is made". Archived from the original on May 17, 2008. Retrieved June 29, 2008.
  16. ^ "Baseball Shoes". Baseball information. Archived from the original on April 11, 2008. Retrieved May 3, 2008.
  17. ^ At Baseball and socks appeal, go to page 2 and scroll down to "Create a sensation" (for history of high socks in MLB). Vitez, Michael (August 29, 2011). The Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved 2011-09-02. "This led to the invention of the two-in-one, a white sock with a colored stripe down the side, an innovation that all but ensured the demise of the stirrup."
  18. ^ "Hosiery History". Village Voice. Archived from the original on May 15, 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-03.
  19. ^ "History of the Boston Americans and their uniforms". Archived from the original on May 16, 2008. Retrieved May 27, 2008.

External links

1992 Cincinnati Reds season

The 1992 Cincinnati Reds season saw the Reds finish in second place in the National League West with a record of 92 wins and 70 losses.

This was the final season in which the Reds donned the pullover jersey and beltless pants uniform style (the Reds being the last MLB team still wearing them). Following this season they switched back to a traditional baseball uniform.

2003 Pan American Games

The 14th Pan American Games were held in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, from August 1 until August 17, 2003. The successful bid for the games was made in the mid-1990s, when Dominican Republic had one of the highest growth rates in Latin America.All 42 PASO countries and over 5,223 athletes pre-registered for the participation in the XIV Pan American Games. An additional 2,425 trainers and delegates attended. The United States pre-registered the most athletes (713) and Saint Lucia entered the least (6). The host country entered 562 athletes.

Baseball cap

A baseball cap is a type of soft cap with a rounded crown and a stiff peak projecting in front.

The front of the cap typically contains a design or a logo of sports team (namely a baseball team, or names of relevant companies, when used as a commercial marketing technique). The back of the cap may be "fitted" to the wearer's head size or it may be elastic, have a plastic prong-in-a-hole, Velcro, zipper, or a tri-glide slide so that it can be quickly adjusted to fit different wearers. The baseball cap is a part of the traditional baseball uniform worn by players, with the brim pointing forward to shield the eyes from the sun. Since the 1980s varieties of the cap have become a common fashion accessory, particularly in the United States.

Baseball stirrups

Stirrups were uniform socks commonly worn by baseball players up until the mid-1990s, when major-league players began wearing their pants down to the ankles, setting a trend soon picked up by players in minor and amateur leagues. Until then, stirrup socks had been an integral part of the traditional baseball uniform, giving them a distinctive look. A high sock was needed because baseball players wore knickerbockers ("knickers"), worn by many boys in the late 19th century and into the 20th century. The stirrup socks served to display team colors, stripes or team logos. For example, for several years the Minnesota Twins wore navy-blue stirrups with "TC" on the side, for "Twin Cities", and in 1987 an "m" was placed on side. The Houston Astros wore navy blue stirrup socks with an orange star on the side. The stirrup sock colors were also the basis of team names, including the Cincinnati Red Stockings, Boston Red Sox, and Chicago White Sox. For these reasons, traditionalists lament the recent "sockless" look in baseball uniforms.

Stirrup socks are worn on top of long socks called "sanitaries," usually white in color. This is because early color dyes in the outer stirrup sock were thought to pose health issues, as well as the fact that the inner, less expensive white sock could be changed more frequently. The stirrup sock lacked a foot, instead having a loop ("stirrup") which fits within the arch of the foot. Over the years, the stirrup loop tended to get longer, exposing more of the white undersock, thus creating a look unique to baseball.

However, by the 1980s many players were pulling the loop so high that only the white undersock and the loop itself showed - the rest of the game sock being hidden by their pants. Eventually, this reached a point where some players only wore vertical lines for stirrups. For many years teams had enforced rules so that uniforms were worn "uniformly", including team socks. For example, Leo Durocher, longtime manager of the Chicago Cubs, had a measuring stick in the clubhouse. Players were required to match the length of their stirrup loops to this stick at about 4 inches, exposing only a small part of the white sanitary. Increasingly lax regulation of uniform codes by Major League Baseball eventually contributed to players ignoring the traditional look.

The Official Baseball Rules are silent on stirrups, but the fact that some players on a team wear them while others do not seems to be in violation of Rule 1.11(a)(1) which states that “all players on a team shall wear uniforms identical in color, trim and style,” as well as Rule 1.11(a)(3) that states “no player whose uniform does not conform to that of his teammates shall be permitted to participate in a game.”The freedom to wear high stirrups or not is remarkable considering how nowadays uniformity is otherwise enforced by MLB. For example, during a 2007 game against the Yankees, with the Yankees threatening to score, Red Sox manager Terry Francona was suddenly called away from the game and questioned by a league executive as to whether he was wearing the required uniform jersey beneath his blue pullover. He wasn’t pleased.Although some teams — particularly college teams — continue to wear traditional baseball stirrup socks, another option has been to replace the stirrup/undersock with a "2 in 1" combination sock that mimics the real thing, or simply to wear a single solid knee-high sock with knickers. The trend back to knickers and high socks is particularly evident among youth and high-school teams. A few pro players, such as Taijuan Walker of the Arizona Diamondbacks, Derek Holland of the Texas Rangers, Melvin Upton, Jr. of the San Diego Padres, Bryce Harper of the Philadelphia Phillies, Casey Janssen of the Washington Nationals, Daniel Descalso of the St. Louis Cardinals, Josh Outman of the Cleveland Indians and Steve Cishek & Juan Pierre of the Miami Marlins, Chris Archer of the Tampa Bay Rays, J.R. Graham of the Minnesota Twins, Chris Taylor of the Los Angeles Dodgers, and Francisco Lindor of the Cleveland Indians have been spotted wearing genuine stirrups recently to much fanfare. Several players on the Philadelphia Phillies will either wear stirrups over white sanitary socks, or over red socks, as the Phillies stirrups sport their Liberty Bell logo. The minor-league Springfield Cardinals wear a 2-in-1 version of the traditional St. Louis Cardinals' game sock that looks very much like the real thing.

Other sports also use, or have used, stirrup socks, but traditionally wore a white sweat sock over, instead of under, the colored stirrup game sock (e.g. basketball, football, hockey). For many years American football officials commonly wore black baseball-style stirrups as part of their uniform, although this was done away with in the 2010s as full-length pants replaced the traditional knickers. There are still some sock companies manufacturing stirrup socks for baseball and other sports, including Twin City Knitting Company in Conover, North Carolina.

Cambridge Dodgers

The Cambridge Dodgers were a "Class D" Minor League Baseball team, based in Cambridge, Maryland that played in the Eastern Shore League from 1946–1949 as an affiliate of the Brooklyn Dodgers. Before World War II, they were an affiliate of the St. Louis Cardinals from 1937–1941 as the Cambridge Cardinals. A previous version of the team, the Cambridge Canners, played from 1922–1928.

Don Zimmer's first pro team were the 1949 Cambridge Dodgers; he remained in a baseball uniform until his death in 2014, most recently as a senior advisor to the Tampa Bay Rays. (Zimmer's teammate in Cambridge, Joe Pignatano, also played in the major leagues and was a coach for many years thereafter.)

Casey Stengel (Sherbell)

Casey Stengel a public sculpture by American artist, Rhoda Sherbell, is located on the Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis campus, which is near downtown Indianapolis, Indiana. The sculpture can be found in the courtyard of the University Place Hotel. Installed in 2000, the sculpture was cast in bronze with a height of 43 inches.

Charlie Brown's All Stars!

Charlie Brown's All Stars! is the second prime-time animated TV special based upon the popular comic strip Peanuts, by Charles M. Schulz. It was the second such TV special (following A Charlie Brown Christmas) to be produced by Lee Mendelson and Bill Melendez (who also directed), and originally aired on CBS on June 8, 1966. It ceased to be aired annually by 1971, and was last shown on CBS on April 3, 1982 (although Disney Channel and Nickelodeon aired reruns of the special in the 1990s). ABC returned the special to television on April 7, 2009, as a companion to It's the Easter Beagle, Charlie Brown.

On March 2, 2004, it was released to DVD as a bonus special, along with It's Spring Training, Charlie Brown! and Lucy Must Be Traded, Charlie Brown. On July 7, 2009, it was released in remastered form as part of the DVD box set, Peanuts 1960's Collection.

Cherry Pie (Warrant song)

"Cherry Pie" is a song by the American rock band Warrant. It was released in September 1990 as the lead single from the album of the same name. The song became a Top Ten hit on the Billboard Hot 100, reaching number 10 and also reached number 19 on the Mainstream Rock Tracks. The song has been cited by many as a "rock anthem". In 2009, it was named the 56th best hard rock song of all time by VH1.Despite its success, a daylong MTV special on the best and worst music videos of all time, MTV's Triumphs and Tragedies, listed the song's video as one of the worst.

Frank B. Anderson

Frank Butner Anderson (June 16, 1882 – November 8, 1966) was an American college football, and baseball coach as well as athletic director. He was the first football and baseball coach in the history of Oglethorpe University and the namesake of its baseball field. The field was dedicated as such on May 11, 1963. Anderson was inducted into the Oglethorpe Athletic Hall of Fame, a member of its inaugural class of 1962. He always wore his baseball uniform to practice and to games. He is known by some as the "Dean of Southern Baseball Coaches." Frank is the father of Alf Anderson.

Major League Baseball

Major League Baseball (MLB) is a professional baseball organization, and the oldest of the four major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada. A total of 30 teams play in the National League (NL) and American League (AL), with 15 teams in each league. The NL and AL were formed as separate legal entities in 1876 and 1901 respectively. After cooperating but remaining legally separate entities beginning in 1903, the leagues merged into a single organization led by the Commissioner of Baseball in 2000. The organization also oversees Minor League Baseball, which comprises 256 teams affiliated with the Major League clubs. With the World Baseball Softball Confederation, MLB manages the international World Baseball Classic tournament.

Baseball's first openly all-professional team was founded in Cincinnati in 1869. (There had been teams in the past that paid some players, and some that had paid all players but under the table.) The first few decades of professional baseball were characterized by rivalries between leagues and by players who often jumped from one team or league to another.

The period before 1920 in baseball was known as the dead-ball era; players rarely hit home runs during this time. Baseball survived a conspiracy to fix the 1919 World Series, which came to be known as the Black Sox Scandal. The sport rose in popularity in the 1920s, and survived potential downturns during the Great Depression and World War II. Shortly after the war, Jackie Robinson broke baseball's color barrier.

The 1950s and 1960s were a time of expansion for the AL and NL, then new stadiums and artificial turf surfaces began to change the game in the 1970s and 1980s. Home runs dominated the game during the 1990s, and media reports began to discuss the use of anabolic steroids among Major League players in the mid-2000s. In 2006, an investigation produced the Mitchell Report, which implicated many players in the use of performance-enhancing substances, including at least one player from each team.

Today, MLB is composed of 30 teams: 29 in the United States and 1 in Canada. Teams play 162 games each season and five teams in each league advance to a four-round postseason tournament that culminates in the World Series, a best-of-seven championship series between the two league champions that dates to 1903. Baseball broadcasts are aired on television, radio, and the Internet throughout North America and in several other countries throughout the world. MLB has the highest season attendance of any sports league in the world with more than 73 million spectators in 2015.

Major League Baseball uniforms

The uniforms worn by Major League Baseball teams have changed significantly since professional baseball was first played in the 19th century. Over time they have adapted from improvised, wool uniforms to mass-produced team brands made from polyester. The official supplier for Major League Baseball uniforms is Majestic Athletic, who has held the contract since 2005.

Mary Rountree

Mary Rountree (July 23, 1922 – August 7, 2007) was a catcher who played from 1946 through 1952 in the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League (AAGPBL). Listed at 5 ft 5 in (1.65 m) and 125 pounds (57 kg), she batted and threw right-handed.Nicknamed "Square Bush", Mary Rountree was one of the top five defensive catchers in the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League during its twelve years of history. Rountree was magnificent at all the intangible things that a catcher does, like calling the game, working the pitch counts and blocking home plate, which combined with a fine defense and a strong and secure throwing arm. She led the league in fielding average two times, while her .959 career fielding average ranks her third in the all-time list behind Ruth Lessing (.973) and Ruth Richard (.961) and over Mary Baker (.953) and Dorothy Maguire (.928). After baseball, she went on to become a specialist in internal medicine, a distinction held by few players.Born in Miami, Florida, she was the youngest child in the family of Samuel and Mary Rountree. She wore his first baseball uniform at age five, emulating her older brother who was a catcher. As a teenager, Rountree played on two Florida championship teams in 1938 and 1940 that went to play in national tournaments both years.After graduating from Miami Edison High School, Rountree attended Florida State University for two years, and worked for the United States Department of State in Washington, D.C. In 1943 she received a call from AAGPBL executive Arthur Meyerhoff to join the new league, but she declined the offer because she had three brothers serving in the military during World War II. At the end of the war, she attended a AAGPBL tryout in Miami for Max Carey and was a signed to a contract.Rountree entered the league in 1946 with the Peoria Redwings, playing for them one year before joining the Fort Wayne Daisies (1947–1952) and the Grand Rapids Chicks (1952). During the off-season, she pursued a medical degree and did not show up until a month into the regular season.In 1949, Rountree led all catchers with a .976 fielding average after committing just eight errors in 336 total chances. Then, in 1952 she committed only four errors in 280 chances for a league-best .986 average. Her most productive season came in 1946, where she posted career numbers in hits (63), runs (22), stolen bases (27) and RBI (41), while hitting a .216 batting average. She also made four postseason appearances, but her teams never won a championship.Her baseball career helped finance her studies at the Bowman Gray School of Medicine in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, where she received her Doctor of Medicine degree in 1956. Rountree finished her undergraduate degree at the University of Miami, with a degree in chemistry, and finished her residence at Jackson Memorial Hospital and Veterans Administration Hospital in 1960. From 1966 to 1968, she completed her residency in anesthesiology.Rountree enjoyed a 32-year career in medicine, including 17 years of teaching. She loved being a doctor and even after retirement continued to care for her many friends and family members.In 1988 she became part of Women in Baseball, a permanent display based at the Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum in Cooperstown, New York, which was unveiled to honor the entire All-American Girls Professional Baseball League rather than any individual personality.

During an interview, Rountree talked about her experience in the AAGPBL helped her become a better doctor:

My ballplaying was absolutely magnificent for me. You had to meet a lot of people so you learned to get over your stage fright, your bashfulness. Because you had to do personal appearances, you overcame your inability to talk the people in a very quick amount of time. I think that it allowed me to be totally at home with patients. It gave you a chance to develop your personality, she explained.

Mary Rountree died in 2007 in Highland Beach, Florida, where she lived, at the age of 85.

Mr. Red

Mr. Red is the first mascot of the Cincinnati Reds baseball team. He is a humanoid figure dressed in a Reds uniform, with an oversized baseball for a head. Sometimes, Mr. Red is referred to by the team as "The Running Man" for the way he has posed on the logo c. 1968.

Mr. Red was created by Henry "Hank" Zureick, the Reds Publicity Director. The character first appeared on the cover of the 1953 Cincinnati Red Stockings yearbook, which was also produced by Mr. Zureick, along with many yearbooks and programs during his career.

Mr. Red made his first appearance on a Reds uniform as a sleeve patch in 1955. The patch featured Mr. Red's head, clad in an old-fashioned white pillbox baseball cap with red stripes. The following season, 1956, saw the Reds adopt sleeveless jerseys, and Mr. Red was eliminated from the home uniform. He was moved to the left breast of the road uniform, and remained there for one season before being eliminated entirely.

In 1999, the Reds re-designed their uniform and "Mr. Red" was reintroduced as a sleeve patch on the undershirt.

A human version of the mascot had appeared in 1972 and went full time in 1973 season. By the end of 1973 Tom Kindig replaced his older brother Chuck as the day to day Mr. Red mascot for remainder of the 70's. Many viewed Mr. Red nationally in Game 5 of 1975 World Series, when he appeared on screen during the NBC broadcast (see the DVD version available on A&E Video). The mascot disappeared in the late 1980s for unknown reasons. The costumed mascot was reintroduced in 1997.

Mr. Red was joined by Gapper, a new furry mascot created by David Raymond (the original Phillie Phanatic), as the franchise moved to Great American Ballpark in 2003. In 2007, the current Mr. Red has been supplemented by a retro 1950s version known as "Mr. Redlegs", complete with handlebar mustache and old fashioned baseball uniform. Throughout the 1970s and 1980s, Mr. Red wore uniform number 27.

The humanoid Mr. Red retired in 2007 leaving "Gapper" and a mascoted "Mr. Redlegs" to take his place. In August 2008, a female companion named "Rosie Red" named in honor of the group that supports the team, the Rosie Reds, was introduced. A new Mr. Red Mascot was unveiled at Redsfest for the 2012 season, the mascot is now on the field with "Gapper" and "Rosie Red" and "Mr. Redlegs."

Pin stripes

Pinstripes are a pattern of very thin stripes of any color running in parallel often found in cloth. The pinstriped suit has become associated with conservative business attire, although many designers now produce the fashionable pinstripe patterns for fashion-conscious consumers.References to pinstripes can be found in Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, where the Sergeant at the Law is described as wearing "a homely parti-coloured coat girt with a silken belt of pin-stripe stuff". Pinstripes have been found on suits since the early 19th century. They were used by banks in London to identify their employees. Pinstripes were originally worn only on suit pants but upon being adopted in America during the 20th century they were also used on suit jackets.The pinstripe is often compared to the similar chalk stripe. Pinstripes are very thin, often 1/30th of an inch in width, and are created with one single warp yarn.

Although found mostly in men's suits, any type of fabric can be pinstriped. The Chicago Cubs' baseball uniforms have had pinstripes since 1907 and they are recognized as the first Major League Baseball team to incorporate pinstriping into a baseball uniform Many other former and current Major League Baseball teams—including the Florida Marlins,

Minnesota Twins, Montreal Expos, Colorado Rockies, New York Mets, New York Yankees, Chicago White Sox, and Philadelphia Phillies—later adopted pinstripes on their own uniforms. The Yankees, in particular, are associated with the pattern. This was later carried over into the NBA, with teams like the Chicago Bulls, Charlotte Hornets and Orlando Magic incorporating pinstripes into their uniforms.

Stan Wasiak

Stanley Wasiak (April 8, 1920 – November 20, 1992) was an American manager in minor league baseball who, by the time of his retirement, held the record for most games managed (4,844), most victories (2,530) and most defeats (2,314) as a skipper in the minor leagues.

A native of Chicago, Wasiak was a second baseman and catcher in his playing days (1940–41; 1946–59); his career was interrupted by four years of service in the United States Army during World War II. In 1950, he was named playing manager of the Valdosta, Georgia, Dodgers of the Class D Georgia–Florida League. He led the team to a second-place, 81–56 record – one half game behind the Albany, Georgia, Cardinals. Wasiak's Valdosta team came back in 1951 to win the league pennant by five games.

Wasiak spent the vast majority of his managing career in the Brooklyn/Los Angeles Dodgers' farm system, although he briefly worked for the Detroit Tigers and Chicago White Sox. He managed in the Triple-A Pacific Coast League from 1973–76 as skipper of the Albuquerque Dukes, the Dodgers' top minor league affiliate, winning a division title in 1974. But most of his assignments came below the Double-A level.

Officially, Wasiak managed for 37 consecutive seasons (1950–86) in the minors. However, in 1982, in the middle of a seven-year term as skipper of the Vero Beach Dodgers of the Class A Florida State League, he was sidelined for almost the entire season after undergoing heart surgery the previous winter. But Wasiak was able to manage one game on August 24, keeping his skein alive. When he retired after the 1986 campaign, he had compiled a career winning percentage of .522. Although his minor-league accomplishments were well known throughout the game, Wasiak never officially appeared in a Major League Baseball uniform as a coach or manager. In 1985 he was presented with the King of Baseball award given by Minor League Baseball.

He died at age 72 in Mobile, Alabama.

Terry Mulholland

Terence John Mulholland (born March 9, 1963) is an American former professional baseball pitcher. His Major League Baseball (MLB) career spanned 20 seasons, 1986 and 1988 to 2006. He threw left-handed and batted right-handed.

Tony Balsamo

Anthony Alred Balsamo is a former Major League Baseball player. He was born November 21, 1937 in Brooklyn, New York. He went to Fordham University, where he pitched on the baseball team.

In 1959 he got his big break; the Chicago Cubs signed him as a free agent. He was called up by the Cubs on April 14, 1962. He pitched in 29.1 innings and recorded a 0-1 record with a 6.44 ERA. He only played in one big league season.

One of his mentors that season was Buck O'Neil, a long time player and coach in the Negro Leagues who was a rookie of his own sorts, breaking the color barrier as a coach in the Major Leagues.

In a 2010 interview with sportswriter Marino Amoruso, he spoke about the one game he played in the Polo grounds against the NY Mets.

“We had come into New York to play the Mets. The Mets played at the old Polo Grounds that season. I hated the place. That’s where the Giants used to play, and being I was a diehard Dodger fan as a kid, the Polo Grounds was enemy territory.

Most of my family came to the ballpark that night, and alotta friends, hoping I’d get into the game. Sure enough, I got called in from the bullpen in the late innings. At that time Gil Hodges was playing for the Mets. He was far passed his prime back then, and the Dodgers had sold him to the Mets so he could finish out his career in New York.

When I walked to the mound I suddenly realized that the second batter I was going to face in the inning was Gil Hodges. I couldn’t believe it. To this day I can’t remember what the first batter did. I think I struck him out or he grounded out. The reason I don’t remember is that the entire time I was pitching to the first guy, I kept glancing over at Gil Hodges in the on-deck circle.

Then Gil walked to the plate

Here I was pitching in the big leagues, in my hometown, my family is there watching, and my boyhood hero is at the plate.

I walked him on four pitches.I kept looking at the man and instead of seeing a batter, I was seeing this player who I had idolized my entire youth. One thing I always had as a pitcher was pretty good control, but on that day, at that moment, pitching to Gil, I couldn’t get the ball anywhere near the plate. I had no idea where I was throwing it. In all the years I played ball, in the minors and eventually in the big leagues, that was the only time I was ever nervous in a baseball uniform.” - Balsamo 2010

Uniform number (Major League Baseball)

In baseball, the uniform number is a number worn on the uniform of each player and coach. Numbers are used for the purpose of easily identifying each person on the field as no two people from the same team can wear the same number. Although designed for identification purposes only, numbers have become the source of superstition, emotional attachment, and honor (in the form of a number retirement). The number is always on the back of the jersey, often on the front, and occasionally seen on the left leg of the pants.

Velvet Knights Drum and Bugle Corps (2005)

Velvet Knights Drum and Bugle Corps (2005) is an inactive Open Class (formerly Divisions I & II) competitive junior drum and bugle corps. Based in Pasadena, California, the corps competes in Drum Corps International (DCI) sanctioned shows

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