Baryte

Baryte or barite (UK: /ˈbærʌɪt/[6][7], /ˈbɛəraɪt/) is a mineral consisting of barium sulfate (BaSO4).[2] Baryte is generally white or colorless, and is the main source of barium. The baryte group consists of baryte, celestine (strontium sulfate), anglesite (lead sulfate), and anhydrite (calcium sulfate). Baryte and celestine form a solid solution (Ba,Sr)SO4.[1]

Barytes (barite)
6158M-barite2
Baryte crystals (almost colorless) from Cerro Huarihuyn, Miraflores, Huamalíes, Huánuco, Peru
(size 56 x 53 mm, 74 g)
General
CategorySulfate mineral, barite group
Formula
(repeating unit)
BaSO4
Strunz classification7.AD.35
Dana classification28.03.01.01
Crystal systemOrthorhombic
Crystal classDipyramidal (mmm)
H-M symbol: (2/m 2/m 2/m)
Space groupPnma
Unit cella = 8.884(2) Å,
b = 5.457(3) Å,
c = 7.157(2) Å; Z = 4
Identification
ColorColorless, white, light shades of blue, yellow, grey, brown
Crystal habitTabular parallel to base, fibrous, nodular to massive
CleavagePerfect cleavage parallel to base and prism faces: {001} Perfect, {210} Perfect, {010} Imperfect
FractureIrregular/uneven
TenacityBrittle
Mohs scale hardness3-3.5
LusterVitreous, Pearly
StreakWhite
Diaphaneitytransparent to opaque
Specific gravity4.3–5
Density4.48 g/cm3[1]
Optical propertiesbiaxial positive
Refractive indexnα = 1.634–1.637
nβ = 1.636–1.638
nγ = 1.646–1.648
Birefringence0.012
Fusibility4, yellowish green barium flame
Diagnostic featureswhite color, high specific gravity, characteristic cleavage and crystals
Solubilitylow
References[2][3][4][5]

Names and history

Barite-unit-cell-3D-balls
The unit cell of baryte

The radiating form, sometimes referred to as Bologna Stone, attained some notoriety among alchemists for the phosphorescent specimens found in the 17th century near Bologna by Vincenzo Casciarolo.[8]

The American Petroleum Institute specification API 13/ISO 13500, which governs baryte for drilling purposes, does not refer to any specific mineral, but rather a material that meets that specification. In practice, however, this is usually the mineral baryte.

The term "primary barytes" refers to the first marketable product, which includes crude baryte (run of mine) and the products of simple beneficiation methods, such as washing, jigging, heavy media separation, tabling, flotation. Most crude baryte requires some upgrading to minimum purity or density. Baryte that is used as an aggregate in a "heavy" cement is crushed and screened to a uniform size. Most baryte is ground to a small, uniform size before it is used as a filler or extender, an addition to industrial products, in the production of barium chemicals or a weighting agent in petroleum well drilling mud.

Name

The name baryte is derived from the Ancient Greek: βαρύς, romanizedbarús, 'heavy'. The American spelling is barite.[2][9] The International Mineralogical Association initially adopted "barite" as the official spelling, but recommended adopting the older "baryte" spelling later. This move was controversial and was notably ignored by American mineralogists.[10]

Other names have been used for baryte, including barytine,[11] barytite,[11] barytes,[12] heavy spar,[2] tiff,[3] and blanc fixe.[13]

Mineral associations and locations

Baryte Poland
Baryte with galena and hematite from Poland
Barite FRIZINGTON
Baryte (top) and dolomite from Cumbria, England
Abandoned baryte mine shaft at Ben Eagach near Aberfeldy, Perthshire, Scotland
Abandoned baryte mine shaft near Aberfeldy, Perthshire, Scotland

Baryte occurs in a large number of depositional environments, and is deposited through a large number of processes including biogenic, hydrothermal, and evaporation, among others.[1] Baryte commonly occurs in lead-zinc veins in limestones, in hot spring deposits, and with hematite ore. It is often associated with the minerals anglesite and celestine. It has also been identified in meteorites.[14]

Baryte has been found at locations in Brazil, Nigeria, Canada, Chile, China, India, Pakistan, Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Iran, Ireland (where it was mined on Benbulben[15]), Liberia, Mexico, Morocco, Peru, Romania (Baia Sprie), Turkey, South Africa (Barberton Mountain Land),[16] Thailand, United Kingdom (Cornwall, Cumbria, Dartmoor/Devon, Derbyshire, Durham,[17] Perthshire, Argyllshire, and Surrey[2]) and in the US from Cheshire, Connecticut, De Kalb, New York, and Fort Wallace, New Mexico. It is mined in Arkansas, Connecticut, Virginia, North Carolina, Georgia, Tennessee, Kentucky, Nevada, and Missouri.[2]

World baryte production for 2017 was 8.65 million tonnes. The major barytes producers (in thousand tonnes, data for 2017) are as follows: China (3,600), India (1,600), Morocco (1,000), Mexico (400), United States (330), Iran (280), Turkey (250), Russia (210), Kazakhstan (160), Thailand (130) and Laos (120).[18]

The main users of barytes in 2017 were (in million tonnes) US (2.35), China (1.60), (Middle East (1.55), the European Union and Norway (0.60), Russia and CIS (0.5), South America (0.35), Africa (0.25), and Canada (0.20). 70% of barytes was destined for oil and gas well drilling muds. 15% for barium chemicals, 14% for filler applications in automotive, construction, and paint industries, and 1% other applications. [18]

Uses

In oil and gas drilling

Worldwide, 69–77% of baryte is used as a weighting agent for drilling fluids in oil and gas exploration to suppress high formation pressures and prevent blowouts. As a well is drilled, the bit passes through various formations, each with different characteristics. The deeper the hole, the more baryte is needed as a percentage of the total mud mix. An additional benefit of baryte is that it is non-magnetic and thus does not interfere with magnetic measurements taken in the borehole, either during logging-while-drilling or in separate drill hole logging. Baryte used for drilling petroleum wells can be black, blue, brown or gray depending on the ore body. The baryte is finely ground so that at least 97% of the material, by weight, can pass through a 200-mesh (75 μm) screen, and no more than 30%, by weight, can be less than 6 μm diameter. The ground baryte also must be dense enough so that its specific gravity is 4.2 or greater, soft enough to not damage the bearings of a tricone drill bit, chemically inert, and containing no more than 250 milligrams per kilogram of soluble alkaline salts.[9] In August 2010, the American Petroleum Institute published specifications to modify the 4.2 drilling grade standards for baryte to include 4.1 SG materials.

In oxygen and sulfur isotopic analysis

Baryte Morocco
Baryte (salmon-colored) with cerussite from Morocco

In the deep ocean, away from continental sources of sediment, pelagic baryte precipitates and forms a significant amount of the sediments. Since baryte has oxygen, systematics in the δ18O of these sediments have been used to help constrain paleotemperatures for oceanic crust.

The variations in sulfur isotopes (34S/32S) are being examined in evaporite minerals containing sulfur (e.g. baryte) and carbonate associated sulfates (CAS) to determine past seawater sulfur concentrations which can help identify specific depositonal periods such as anoxic or oxic conditions. The use of sulfur isotope reconstruction is often paired with oxygen when a molecule contains both elements.[19]

Other uses

Baryte is used in added-value applications which include filler in paint and plastics, sound reduction in engine compartments, coat of automobile finishes for smoothness and corrosion resistance, friction products for automobiles and trucks, radiation-shielding cement, glass ceramics, and medical applications (for example, a barium meal before a contrast CT scan). Baryte is supplied in a variety of forms and the price depends on the amount of processing; filler applications commanding higher prices following intense physical processing by grinding and micronising, and there are further premiums for whiteness and brightness and color.[9] It is also used to produce other barium chemicals, notably barium carbonate which is used for the manufacture of LED glass for television and computer screens (historically in cathode ray tubes); and for dielectrics.

Historically, baryte was used for the production of barium hydroxide for sugar refining, and as a white pigment for textiles, paper, and paint.[2]

Although baryte contains the toxic heavy metal barium, it is not toxic because barium sulfate is extremely insoluble in water.

It is also sometimes used as gemstone.[20]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Hanor, J. (2000). "Barite-celestine geochemistry and environments of formation". Reviews in Mineralogy. Washington, DC: Mineralogical Society of America. 40: 193–275. ISBN 0-939950-52-9.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Dana, James Dwight; Ford, William Ebenezer (1915). Dana's Manual of Mineralogy for the Student of Elementary Mineralogy, the Mining Engineer, the Geologist, the Prospector, the Collector, Etc (13 ed.). John Wiley & Sons, Inc. pp. 299–300.
  3. ^ a b Barite at Mindat
  4. ^ Webmineral data for barite
  5. ^ Baryte, Handbook of Mineralogy
  6. ^ "Definition of baryte". British and World English dictionary. Oxford Dictionaries. Retrieved 19 October 2018.
  7. ^ "Key to pronunciations (British and World English dictionary)". British and World English dictionary. Oxford Dictionaries. Retrieved 19 October 2018.
  8. ^ History of the Bologna stone Archived 2006-12-02 at the Wayback Machine
  9. ^ a b c M. Michael Miller Barite, 2009 Minerals Yearbook
  10. ^ "Barite: The mineral Barite information and pictures". www.minerals.net. Retrieved 2017-12-14.
  11. ^ a b "International Mineralogical Association: Commission on New Minerals and Mineral Names". Mineralogical Magazine. 38 (293): 102–5. March 1971. Bibcode:1971MinM...38..102.. doi:10.1180/minmag.1971.038.293.14.
  12. ^ "Monograph on Barytes". Indian Bureau of Mines. 1995. Retrieved 14 July 2017.
  13. ^ "Definition of blanc fixe". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 14 July 2017.
  14. ^ Rubin, Alan E. (March 1997). "Mineralogy of meteorite groups". Meteoritics & Planetary Science. 32 (2): 231–247. Bibcode:1997M&PS...32..231R. doi:10.1111/j.1945-5100.1997.tb01262.x.
  15. ^ Ben Bulben. Mhti.com. Retrieved on 2011-05-05.
  16. ^ Duchač, K. C; Hanor, J. S. (September 1987). "Origin and timing of the metasomatic silicification of an early Archaean komatiite sequence, Barberton Mountain Land, South Africa". Precambrian Research. 37 (2): 125–146. Bibcode:1987PreR...37..125D. doi:10.1016/0301-9268(87)90075-1. ISSN 0301-9268.
  17. ^ Muirshiel Mine
  18. ^ a b "The Barytes Association, Barytes Statistics". Archived from the original on 2015-05-18. Retrieved 2015-05-11.
  19. ^ Kastner, Miriam (30 March 1999). "Oceanic minerals: Their origin, nature of their environment, and significance". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96 (7): 3380–7. Bibcode:1999PNAS...96.3380K. doi:10.1073/pnas.96.7.3380. PMC 34278. PMID 10097047.
  20. ^ Gemstones: Properties, Identification and Use By Arthur Thomas p.138

 This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Geological Survey document: "Barite" (PDF).

Aberfeldy, Perth and Kinross

Aberfeldy (Scottish Gaelic: Obar Pheallaidh) is a burgh in Perth and Kinross, Scotland, on the River Tay. A small market town, Aberfeldy is located in Highland Perthshire and at the 2001 census had a population of about 1,895. It is also mentioned in a well-known poem by Robert Burns.

Beyond its association with Burns, who mentioned Aberfeldy in his poem The Birks of Aberfeldy, the town is known for Wade's Bridge, built in 1733 and designed by architect William Adam, father of the more famous Robert Adam. General George Wade considered this bridge to be his greatest accomplishment. Aberfeldy is also mentioned in the traditional "Loch Tay Boat Song".

The town also includes a memorial to the Black Watch, an 18-hole golf course, a children's park, and a town square that features stores, restaurants and art galleries. In 2002, Aberfeldy was granted Fairtrade Town status, which was renewed by the Fairtrade Foundation on 15 December 2003.

The Aberfeldy Footbridge over the River Tay is constructed entirely of composite materials. It connects two holes of the town's golf course on either side of the River Tay.

Breadalbane Cricket Club, founded in 1869, play home matches at Victoria Park in Aberfeldy. The team are the Perthshire Cup Winners for 2007 and 2008, and Strathmore Cricket Union Division One Champions in 2006 & 2007, and Division Two Champions in 2014 & 2018.

Anandite

Anandite is a rare phyllosilicate with formula (Ba,K)(Fe2+,Mg)3(Si,Al,Fe)4O10(S,OH)2. It crystallizes in the monoclinic crystal system. It is black in color with a glassy luster and a near perfect cleavage.It was first described in 1967 for an occurrence in the Wilagedera Prospect of the North Western Province of Sri Lanka in bands of iron ore. It has also been found in Big Creek in Fresno County and in Trumball Peak in Mariposa County, California as well as the Sterling Mine in New Jersey. It was named for Ananda Kentish Coomaraswamy (1877–1947), who was the director of the Mineral Survey of Ceylon, Sri Lanka at that time.Anandite is a member of the mica group of minerals. Other minerals that anandite is associated with include: magnetite, chalcopyrite, pyrite, pyrrhotite and baryte.

Andorite

Andorite is a sulfosalt mineral with the chemical formula PbAgSb3S6.

It was first described in 1892 for an occurrence in the Baia Sprie mine, Baia Sprie, Maramures County, Romania, and named for Hungarian amateur mineralogist Andor von Semsey (1833–1923). Andorite occurs in low-temperature polymetallic hydrothermal veins. It occurs associated with stibnite, sphalerite, baryte, fluorite, siderite, cassiterite, arsenopyrite, stannite, zinkenite, tetrahedrite, pyrite, alunite, quartz, pyrargyrite, stephanite and rhodochrosite.

Anhydrite

Anhydrite, or anhydrous calcium sulfate, is a mineral with the chemical formula CaSO4. It is in the orthorhombic crystal system, with three directions of perfect cleavage parallel to the three planes of symmetry. It is not isomorphous with the orthorhombic barium (baryte) and strontium (celestine) sulfates, as might be expected from the chemical formulas. Distinctly developed crystals are somewhat rare, the mineral usually presenting the form of cleavage masses. The Mohs hardness is 3.5, and the specific gravity is 2.9. The color is white, sometimes greyish, bluish, or purple. On the best developed of the three cleavages, the lustre is pearly; on other surfaces it is glassy. When exposed to water, anhydrite readily transforms to the more commonly occurring gypsum, (CaSO4·2H2O) by the absorption of water. This transformation is reversible, with gypsum or calcium sulfate hemihydrate forming anhydrite by heating to around 200 °C (400 °F) under normal atmospheric conditions. Anhydrite is commonly associated with calcite, halite, and sulfides such as galena, chalcopyrite, molybdenite, and pyrite in vein deposits.

Ashoverite

Ashoverite is one of three polymorphs of zinc hydroxide, Zn(OH)2. It is a rare mineral first found in a limestone quarry near Ashover, Derbyshire, England, in 1988. It has also been found in the Harz mountain range in Germany, and in Namibia.

The mineral was discovered after samples of the polymorph sweetite were sent to labs by S. A. Rust. Some specimens contained what appeared to be baryte but, which on further examination, were found to be a previously undescribed mineral.

Barium

Barium is a chemical element with the symbol Ba and atomic number 56. It is the fifth element in group 2 and is a soft, silvery alkaline earth metal. Because of its high chemical reactivity, barium is never found in nature as a free element. Its hydroxide, known in pre-modern times as baryta, does not occur as a mineral, but can be prepared by heating barium carbonate.

The most common naturally occurring minerals of barium are barite (now called baryte) (barium sulfate, BaSO4) and witherite (barium carbonate, BaCO3), both insoluble in water. The name barium originates from the alchemical derivative "baryta", from Greek βαρύς (barys), meaning "heavy." Baric is the adjectival form of barium. Barium was identified as a new element in 1774, but not reduced to a metal until 1808 with the advent of electrolysis.

Barium has few industrial applications. Historically, it was used as a getter for vacuum tubes and in oxide form as the emissive coating on indirectly heated cathodes. It is a component of YBCO (high-temperature superconductors) and electroceramics, and is added to steel and cast iron to reduce the size of carbon grains within the microstructure. Barium compounds are added to fireworks to impart a green color. Barium sulfate is used as an insoluble additive to oil well drilling fluid, as well as in a purer form, as X-ray radiocontrast agents for imaging the human gastrointestinal tract. The soluble barium ion and soluble compounds are poisonous, and have been used as rodenticides.

Barytocalcite

Barytocalcite is an anhydrous barium calcium carbonate mineral with the chemical formula BaCa(CO3)2. It is trimorphous with alstonite and paralstonite, that is to say the three minerals have the same formula but different structures. Baryte and quartz pseudomorphs after barytocalcite have been observed.Barytocalcite crystallizes in the monoclinic crystal system, typically as massive to druzy accumulations of transparent white to yellow to grey aggregates of slender prismatic crystals. It has a Mohs hardness of 4 and a specific gravity of 3.64 to 3.71.It was first described in 1824 for an occurrence in the Blagill Mine in North Pennines, Cumbria (Cumberland), England, and named for its composition.

Cahnite

Cahnite (Cahnit in German, Cahnita in Spanish, Канит in Russian) is a brittle white or colorless mineral that has perfect cleavage and is usually transparent. It usually forms tetragonal-shaped crystals and it has a hardness of 3 mohs. Cahnite was discovered in the year 1921. It was named Cahnite to honor Lazard Cahn (1865–1940), who was a mineral collector and dealer. It is usually found in the Franklin Mine, in Franklin, New Jersey. Until the year 2002, when a sample of cahnite was found in Japan, that was the only known place that cahnite was located. The geological environment that it occurs in is in pegmatites cutting a changed zinc orebody.

The chemical formula for cahnite is Ca2B[AsO4](OH)4. It is made up of 26.91% calcium, 3.63% boron, 25.15% arsenic, 1.35% hydrogen, and 42.96% oxygen. It has a molecular weight of 297.91 grams. Cahnite is not radioactive. Cahnite is associated with these other minerals: willemite, rhodonite, pyrochroite, hedyphane, datolite, and baryte.

Clara Pit

The Clara Pit (German: Grube Clara) or Clara Mine is a working mine in Oberwolfach in the Black Forest in Germany in which the industrial minerals, baryte and fluorspar are mined.

Clevedon Shore

Clevedon Shore (grid reference ST402719) is a 0.38 hectare geological Site of Special Scientific Interest adjacent to the Severn Estuary at Clevedon, North Somerset, notified in 1991.

It is the side of a mineralised fault, which runs east-west adjacent to the pier, and forms a small cliff feature in dolomitic conglomerate on the north side of Clevedon Beach, containing cream to pink baryte together with sulphides. The minerals identified at the site include: haematite, chalcopyrite, tennantite, galena, tetrahedrite, bornite, pyrite, marcasite, enargite and sphalerite. Secondary alteration of this assemblage has produced idaite, Covellite and other Copper sulphides.The site is listed as a Geological Conservation Review site as several of the minerals found here are rare, in particular the beudantite. The presence of copper and arsenic is unusual for the Mendip district.

Colemans Quarry

Colemans Quarry, grid reference ST726452 is a limestone quarry at Holwell, near Nunney on the Mendip Hills, Somerset, England.

The Colemans Quarry complex comprises four pits separated by three roads (including the A361)

The quarry exhibits pale to dark grey Black Rock, Vallis and Clifton Down Groups of Carboniferous Limestone with overlying buff-coloured Jurassic oolitic limestone forming an angular unconformity. The ancient Jurassic erosion surface at the unconformity contains oyster shells and abundant marine borings in the top of the Carboniferous Limestone. There are near-vertical fissures and joints in the limestone with varying amounts of calcite mineralization. A few of these have been found to contain rare Upper Triassic and Jurassic vertebrate remains. There are abundant shelly fossils and corals.

It came to fame in 1858 when a geologist named Moore purchased three tons of fissure filling, and then spent 3 years sifting and sorting and separated more than one million fossils including 27 small mammal teeth.Minerals found at the site include Calcite, Goethite, Purple Fluorite, Baryte, Galena, Rhodochrosite and Manganese minerals.

Desert rose (crystal)

Desert rose is the colloquial name given to rose-like formations of crystal clusters of gypsum or baryte which include abundant sand grains. The 'petals' are crystals flattened on the c crystallographic axis, fanning open in radiating flattened crystal clusters.

The rosette crystal habit tends to occur when the crystals form in arid sandy conditions, such as the evaporation of a shallow salt basin. The crystals form a circular array of flat plates, giving the rock a shape similar to a rose blossom. Gypsum roses usually have better defined, sharper edges than baryte roses. Celestine and other bladed evaporite minerals may also form rosette clusters. They can appear either as a single rose-like bloom or as clusters of blooms, with most sizes ranging from pea sized to 4 inches (10 cm) in diameter.

The ambient sand that is incorporated into the crystal structure, or otherwise encrusts the crystals, varies with the local environment. If iron oxides are present, the rosettes take on a rusty tone.

The desert rose may also be known by the names: sand rose, rose rock, selenite rose, gypsum rose and baryte (barite) rose.

Hashemite (mineral)

Hashemite is a very rare barium chromate mineral with the formula Ba(Cr,S)O4. It is a representative of natural chromates - a relatively small and rare group of minerals. Hashemite is the barium-analogue of tarapacáite. It is also the chromium-analogue of baryte, and belongs to the baryte group of minerals. Hashemite is stoichiometrically similar to crocoite and chromatite. Hashemite is orthorhombic, with space group Pnma. I was found together with chromium-bearing ettringite and an apatite group mineral in the Hatrurim Formation, known for the occurrence of rocks formed due to natural pyrometamorphism. Hashemite is named after the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.

Lautite

Lautite is a rare mineral belonging to the class of sulfides and sulfosalts with the general formula CuAsS. It is orthorhombic and is known to form up to 2.3 cm long prismatic or flat crystals. It is also found as grains or masses.

First identified by Friedrich August Frenzel in 1880 in the Rudolphschacht mine near Lauta in Saxony, it was named after its type locality.Lautite is formed in veins under hydrothermal conditions at medium temperatures. Depending on the locality it is found accompanied by arsenic, tennantite, proustite, chalcopyrite, galenite, and baryte (in the type locality); by kutinaite and paxite (in Nieder-Beerbach); or by asenic, bismut, tennantite, loellingite, rammelsbergite, proustite, and quartz (in Sainte-Marie-aux-Mines).

Aside from the type locality, the mineral is found in other places in the Ore Mountains, in Sankt Andreasberg in the Harz mountains, Nieder-Beerbach in the Odenwald, Hausach, Schenkenzell, and Titisee-Neustadt in the Black Forest, Flatschach in Austria, Isérables in Switzerland, Cochrane in Canada, Luqu and Zoigê in China, Sirohi in India, Takab in Iran, Kombat in Namibia and Coconino County in Arizona, US.

Machilipatnam Port

Machilipatnam Port is a proposed deep sea port on the coast of Bay of Bengal. It is Located at Machilipatnam, the District Headquarters of Krishna district in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. Although Dr. YS Rajasekhara Reddy laid the foundation for the port in 2008, no significant efforts made to construction and land acquisition from farmers. After the Telugu Desam Party came into power, farmers were compensated from 10 lakhs to 40 lakhs per acre which allows government to acquire land peacefully.

Andhra Pradesh Chief Minister Nara Chandrababu Naidu started the construction of port and pylon was inaugurated on 7 February 2019 and the port is expected to begin operations by 2021. Navayuga Engineering Company Limited bagged the project to develop port on Build-Own-Operate-Transfer basis on a 50-year basis. The concession agreement was signed on 7 June 2010 and the port is proposed to be developed in the land to an extent of Ac.4,800.Port Conservancy powers vested with M/s Machilipatnam Port Ltd.

This port is well connected by road and rail. Airport is available at Gannavaram, which is about 60 km from Machilipatnam and 20 km from Vijayawada and has a good potential for handling coal requirements of Vijayawada Thermal Power Plant 10 mtspa and also requirements of other Cement Plants spread over in the Krishna belt and iron ore at Bayyavaram and Baryte deposits in Khammam District.

Along with there is a proposal to develop a mega thermal Power Plant near Machilipatnam during 11th Five Year Plan. Proposed to construct of 2 Nos. General cargo berth and 1 OSV Berths In Phase-1 Depth of the Channel: 12.80 Mt with ship handled capacity is 65000 DWT and port anticipated handling capacity is 17 million tons.

Papagoite

Papagoite is a rare cyclosilicate mineral. Chemically, it is a calcium copper aluminium silicate hydroxide, found as a secondary mineral on slip surfaces and in altered granodiorite veins, either in massive form or as microscopic crystals that may form spherical aggregates. Its chemical formula is CaCuAlSi2O6(OH)3.

It was discovered in 1960 in Ajo, Arizona, US, and was named after the Sand Papago peoples (now named Hia C-ed O'odham) that inhabit the area. This location is the only papagoite source within the United States, while worldwide it is also found in South Africa and Namibia. It is associated with aurichalcite, shattuckite, ajoite and baryte in Arizona, and with quartz, native copper and ajoite in South Africa. Its bright blue color is the mineral's most notable characteristic.

It is used as a gemstone.

Silvermines

Silvermines, historically known as Bellagowan (Irish: Béal Átha Gabhann), is a village in County Tipperary in Ireland. It lies immediately north of the Silvermine mountain range and takes its name from the extensive mines of lead, zinc, copper, baryte and silver nearby. Towards the very south of the Silvermine Mountains is the highest peak in the mountains, Keeper Hill or in Irish Sliabh Cimeálta, which rises to 695m, dominating the area. Silvermines is located near the town of Nenagh on the R499 regional road. It is a parish in the Roman Catholic Diocese of Killaloe and is also in the historical barony of Ormond Upper.

Spar (mineralogy)

Spar is an old mining or mineralogy term used to refer to crystals that have readily discernible faces. A spar will easily break or cleave into rhomboidal, cubical, or laminated fragments with smooth shiny surfaces.

The various spar minerals were a historical term among miners and alchemists for any nonmetallic mineral akin to gypsum, known in Old English as spærstān, spear stone, referring to its crystalline projections. Thus, the word spar in mineralogy has the same root as "spear,".

Amongst miners the term "spar" today is frequently used alone to express any bright crystalline substance. Most frequently, spar describes easily cleaved, lightly colored nonmetallic minerals such as feldspar, calcite or baryte. Baryte (BaSO4), the main source of barium, is also called "heavy spar" (Greek "barys" means "heavy").

Calcite often forms the dogtooth spar crystals found in vugs and caves.

Traité Élémentaire de Chimie

Traité élémentaire de chimie (Elementary Treatise of Chemistry) is a textbook written by Antoine Lavoisier published in 1789 and translated into English by Robert Kerr in 1790 under the title Elements of Chemistry in a New Systematic Order containing All the Modern Discoveries. It is considered to be the first modern chemical textbook.The book defines an element as a single substance that can't be broken down by chemical analysis and from which all chemical compounds are formed, publishing his discovery that fermentation produces carbon dioxide (carbonic gas) and spirit of wine, saying that it is "more appropriately called by the Arabic word alcohol since it is formed from cider or fermented sugar as well as wine", and publishing the first chemical equation "grape must = carbonic acid + alcohol", calling this reaction "one of the most extraordinary in chemistry", noting "In these experiments, we have to assume that there is a true balance or equation between the elements of the compounds with which we start and those obtained at the end of the reaction."The book contains a list of 33 elements, only 23 of which are elements in the modern sense. The elements given by Lavoisier are: light, caloric, oxygen, azote (nitrogen), hydrogen, sulphur, phosphorous (phosphorus), charcoal, muriatic radical (chloride), fluoric radical (fluoride), boracic radical, antimony, arsenic, bismuth, cobalt, copper, gold, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, molybdena (molybdenite), nickel, platina (platinum), silver, tin, tungstein (tungsten), zinc, lime, magnesia (magnesium), barytes (baryte), argill (clay or earth of alum), and silex.The law of conservation of mass, which in France is taught as Lavoisier's Law, in is paraphrased in the phrase "Rien ne se perd, rien ne se crée, tout se transforme." ("Nothing is lost, nothing is created, everything is transformed.")

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