Barton Gellman

Barton David Gellman (born 1960) is an American journalist and bestselling author known for his reports on the September 11 attacks, on Dick Cheney's vice presidency and on the global surveillance disclosure.[1]

Beginning in June 2013 he led The Washington Post's coverage of the U.S. National Security Agency, based on top secret documents provided to him by ex-NSA contractor Edward Snowden.[2] He is writing a book for Penguin Press on the rise of the surveillance-industrial state.[3]

Gellman is based at the Century Foundation,[4] where he is a senior fellow, and also holds an appointment as Visiting Lecturer and Author in Residence at Princeton University's Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs.[5] From 2015–2017, Gellman is also a fellow at the Center for Information Technology Policy at Princeton.[6]

Barton Gellman
ResidenceNew York City, U.S.
Alma materPrinceton University
University College, Oxford
Partner(s)Dafna Linzer

Early life

Gellman was born in 1960. His father was Stuart Gellman and his mother Marcia Jacobs of Philadelphia. He graduated summa cum laude from Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University. He earned a master's degree in politics from University College, Oxford[7] as a Rhodes Scholar.[8]


Newspaper and magazine writing

Gellman has said he found his way to his high school newspaper after washing out as a junior varsity gymnast.[9] He began his tenure as editor with a legal battle. Carol Wacker, the principal at George Washington High School in Philadelphia, directed him to kill a package of stories about teenage pregnancy. When he refused, Wacker seized and burned his first issue and fired him as editor. Gellman filed a First Amendment challenge in U.S. District Court against the principal and the School District of Philadelphia.[10] He won a favorable settlement nearly a year after graduation, but the articles were never published. Gellman became chairman, or editor in chief, of The Daily Princetonian in his junior year of college, and worked as a summer intern at The New Republic, National Journal, The Miami Herald and The Washington Post.

Washington Post editor Ben Bradlee hired Gellman as a full-time staff writer in 1988 to cover Washington, D.C. courts, including the trial of former D.C. mayor Marion Barry. Gellman went on to become Pentagon correspondent during the 1991 Persian Gulf War, the U.S. intervention in Somalia and the social upheavals relating to the status of gays in the military and the assignment of women to combat roles. In 1994, he moved to Jerusalem as bureau chief, covering peace negotiations, the assassination of Yitzhak Rabin, and the ascent of Benjamin Netanyahu. He returned to Washington as diplomatic correspondent in late 1997, covering Secretary of State Madeleine Albright and the collapse of the United Nations Special Commission (UNSCOM) effort to disarm Iraq.

Gellman moved to New York in 1999 to take up a role as special projects reporter, focusing on long-term investigative stories. Among his early projects[11] in the new role was a series on the early life of Sen. Bill Bradley, with partner Dale Russakoff, during Bradley's run for the 2000 Democratic nomination for president.[12][13][14][15]

In 2000, he led a team of reporters in an award-winning series on the rise of the global AIDS pandemic and the failure of governments, pharmaceutical companies and the World Health Organization to act on clear warnings that the disease was on a path to killing tens of millions of people.[16][17][18]

On the morning of Sept. 11, 2001, Gellman wrote an eyewitness account from the scene of the World Trade Center.[19] He spent the next two years tracking the war with Al Qaeda. Gellman broke stories on the history of the "Global War on Terror" before 9/11 under Presidents Bill Clinton and George W. Bush; the activation of a secret "shadow government"[20] and the escape of Osama bin Laden from Tora Bora. In late 2002, he and fellow reporter Dana Priest disclosed that the U.S. government was holding terrorism suspects in secret prisons overseas and subjecting them to abusive interrogation techniques.[21]

Gellman broke important stories about the use of and misuse of intelligence about Iraqi weapons of mass destruction before and after the war in Iraq, including an account of the previously undisclosed White House Iraq Group.[22] In Iraq, traveling with weapons hunters, he showed vividly how the search for WMD was failing, even as the Bush administration asserted otherwise.[23][24] When Gellman reported that U.S. and allied teams had exhausted their leads on a "reconstituted" Iraqi nuclear weapons program,[25] the CIA issued a strong rebuttal.[26] In testimony before the U.S. Senate, less than 3 months later, Kay acknowledged that The Post's account had been correct.[27] By January 2004, Gellman used independent interviews on the ground with Iraqi scientists and engineers, U.S. and United Nations officials to tell a comprehensive story about how the prewar allegations fell apart.[28] During the presidential election campaign of 2004, Gellman and partner Dafna Linzer wrote a series on the Bush administration's national security record, offering behind-the-scenes narratives of the war with al Qaeda[29] and of Bush's efforts to stop the spread of nuclear weapons.[30]

In 2005, Gellman discovered that the Defense Department under Secretary Donald Rumsfeld was building a clandestine human intelligence service to rival the CIA's, and that the commander had a controversial past.[31] Later that year he uncovered classified details about the FBI's abuse of National Security Letters under the new powers granted by the USA Patriot Act, revealing as well that the bureau issued tens of thousands of those letters every year.[32] The Justice Department mounted a fierce campaign to discredit that story,[33] but eventually was obliged to retract many of its accusations.[34] Congress responded to the story by asking the Justice Department Inspector General to investigate the use of NSLs. The Inspector General's blistering report, nearly two years later, led to substantial reforms.[35]

In 2007, Gellman and Jo Becker wrote a four-part series on Vice President Dick Cheney, persuading many of his allies and opponents to speak on the record for the first time.[36] The widely honored series pierced the secrecy protecting the most powerful Number Two in White House history, demonstrating Cheney's dominance of the "iron issues" of national security, economic and legal policy. Gellman took an extended book leave in 2008 to expand the newspaper series into a book for Penguin Press called "Angler: The Cheney Vice Presidency."

After 21 years on the staff of The Washington Post, Gellman resigned in February 2010 to concentrate full-time on book and magazine writing.[37]

Between 2010 and 2013, Gellman was Contributing Editor at Large of Time magazine,[38] where his work included cover stories on extremist domestic militias,[39] on FBI Director Robert Mueller.[40] and on the early influences in the life of Republican Party Presidential Nominee Mitt Romney. He also wrote Time's CounterSpy blog on digital privacy and security.[41]

Global surveillance disclosure

Gellman returned to The Washington Post on temporary contract in May 2013 to lead the paper's coverage of the 2013 and 2014 Global surveillance disclosure, based on top-secret documents leaked by ex-NSA contractor Edward Snowden.[42] In December 2013, after interviewing Snowden in Moscow, Gellman summarized 6 months of reporting in The Post as follows:

Taken together, the revelations have brought to light a global surveillance system that cast off many of its historical restraints after the attacks of Sept. 11, 2001. Secret legal authorities empowered the NSA to sweep in the telephone, Internet and location records of whole populations.

Gellman has spoken about the revelations in numerous broadcasts and public appearances. Among the most widely cited is an interview on NPR's Fresh Air with host Terry Gross.[2] He spoke of the biblical roots of surveillance in a lecture at St. John's Church (the "church of the presidents")[44] and participated in panel discussions at Princeton,[45] Yale[46] and Harvard.[47] Gellman has twice debated former NSA and CIA Director Michael Hayden about the Snowden revelations, first at Duke University[48] and then at American University.[49] "The government tries to keep secrets and we try to find them out," Gellman said in the second debate. "There are tradeoffs."[50]

In February 2014, Gellman stated during an event at Georgetown University that due to legal concerns the full story about his contact with Snowden had not yet been revealed. "I don’t rule out that there is legal exposure either criminally in an unlikely case or rather more likely civil compulsion," Gellman said. "Just because Edward Snowden has outted himself doesn’t mean every part of my interaction or my reporting around these documents has been disclosed or I’d be willing to disclose any more of it." [51]

Nonfiction books

In 2008, Penguin Press published Gellman's bestselling[52] Angler: The Cheney Vice Presidency. Gellman helped adapt the book for a screenplay, initially optioned for an HBO miniseries.[53] Screenwriter Debora Cahn reworked the story as a feature film, and her script was voted among the top five unproduced movies of 2013 in Hollywood's annual "Black List."[54] It has since been optioned by independent producer Harvey Weinstein.

In addition to the Cheney book, Gellman is author of Contending with Kennan: Toward a Philosophy of American Power, a well-received[55] 1985 study of the post-World War II "containment" doctrine and its architect George F. Kennan.

Honors and awards

Gellman has contributed to three Pulitzer Prizes for The Washington Post, winning as an individual, team member and team leader. In 2002, he was part of the team that won the Pulitzer Prize for National Reporting on the September 11 attacks.[56] He and Becker won the same award in 2008 for "a lucid exploration of Vice President Dick Cheney and his powerful yet sometimes disguised influence on national policy.[57] The Washington Post and The Guardian shared the 2014 Pulitzer Prize for Public Service; Gellman anchored the team for the Post, cited "for its revelation of widespread secret surveillance by the National Security Agency, marked by authoritative and insightful reports that helped the public understand how the disclosures fit into the larger framework of national security."[1][58]

Previously, Gellman was a jury-nominated Pulitzer finalist in 1999 [59] and 2004.[60] Other professional honors include two Emmy Awards as editorial consultant to the PBS Frontline film USA of Secrets,[61] Harvard's Goldsmith Prize for Investigative Reporting,[62] two Overseas Press Club awards,[63][64] two George Polk Awards,[65][65] the Sigma Delta Chi Award from the Society of Professional Journalists,[66] the Gerald Ford Foundation Prize for reporting on national defense,[67] the SAIS-Novartis International Journalism Award [68] and the Jesse Laventhol Award for deadline writing from the American Society of Newspaper Editors.[69]

Angler, Gellman's book on Dick Cheney, won the Los Angeles Times Book Prize[70] and was named among the 100 Notable Books of 2008 by The New York Times.[71]

In 2014, Gellman shared the Gerald Loeb Award for Large Newspapers for five stories on the NSA.[72]


Gellman returned to Princeton for two semesters as Ferris Professor of Journalism in 2002 and 2009, teaching courses called "The Literature of Fact" and "Investigative Reporting".[73]

In 2003 and 2004, Gellman organized a lecture series on national security secrecy at Princeton's Woodrow Wilson School. He delivered two of the lectures himself, making arguments that prefigured the debate about the disclosure of secrets obtained ten years later from Edward Snowden.[74][75]

Since 2011, Gellman has twice taught a course called "Secrecy, Accountability and the National Security State".[76]

Personal life

Gellman lives with partner Dafna Linzer in New York City.[77] A previous marriage to Tracy Ellen Sivitz ended in divorce in 2007. He is the father of four children: Abigail, Micah, Lily, and Benjamin Gellman.[78]


  • Contending with Kennan: Toward a Philosophy of American Power. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1985. ISBN 0-275-91737-1 (10). ISBN 978-0-275-91737-1 (13). [Hardcover ed.] New York: Greenwood Publishing Group, 1985. ISBN 0-275-91805-X (10). ISBN 978-0-275-91805-7 (13). [Paperback ed.]
  • Angler: The Cheney Vice Presidency. New York: Penguin Press, 2008. ISBN 1-59420-186-2 (10). ISBN 978-1-59420-186-8 (13). [Hardcover ed.]


  1. ^ a b Farhi, Paul (2014-04-14). "Washington Post wins Pulitzer Prize for NSA spying revelations; Guardian also honored". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2017-02-24.
  2. ^ a b 3:11 PM ET (2013-09-11). "Reporter Had To Decide If Snowden Leaks Were 'The Real Thing'". NPR. Retrieved 2017-02-24.
  3. ^ "Pulitzer-winner Gellman writing book on rise of spy state". Reuters. June 13, 2013. Retrieved 25 December 2013.
  4. ^ "Barton Gellman - The Century Foundation". Retrieved 2017-02-24.
  5. ^ "Search for Barton Gellman". Retrieved 2017-02-24.
  6. ^ "Fellows » Center for Information Technology Policy". Retrieved 2017-02-24.
  7. ^ "Bart Gellman" biography at The Washington Post, February 11, 2005, accessed July 29, 2007.
  8. ^ "Rhodes Scholars: complete list, 1903-2015 - The Rhodes Scholarships". Archived from the original on 2013-11-06. Retrieved 2017-02-24.
  9. ^ "Multimedia - Student Press Law Center". Retrieved 2017-02-24.
  10. ^ "Fall 1979 by Student Press Law Center". 1979-08-01. Retrieved 2017-02-24.
  11. ^ "Articles by Barton Gellman". Retrieved 2017-02-24.
  12. ^ Gellman, Barton (2 November 1999). "Following Rules, Finding Advantage" – via
  13. ^ Russakoff, Barton Gellman and Dale (13 December 1999). "Driven Scholar-Athlete Paid a Price to Meet Demands" – via
  14. ^ Russakoff, Barton Gellman and Dale (15 December 1999). "A Religious Journey With Twists and Turns" – via
  15. ^ Russakoff, Barton Gellman and Dale (14 December 1999). "A Private Journey Comes Full Circle" – via
  16. ^ Gellman, Barton (5 July 2000). "DEATH WATCH: The Global Response to AIDS in Africa" – via
  17. ^ Gellman, Barton (27 December 2000). "An Unequal Calculus of Life and Death" – via
  18. ^ Gellman, Barton (28 December 2000). "A Turning Point That Left Millions Behind" – via
  19. ^ Gellman, Barton (12 September 2001). "'I Saw Bodies Falling Out -- Oh, God, Jumping, Falling'" – via
  20. ^ Gellman, Barton; Schmidt, Susan (1 March 2002). "Shadow Government Is at Work in Secret" – via
  21. ^ Priest, Dana; Gellman, Barton (26 December 2002). "U.S. Decries Abuse but Defends Interrogations" – via
  22. ^ Barton Gellman and Walter Pincus, "Iraq's Nuclear File: Inside the Prewar Debate Depiction of Threat Outgrew Supporting Evidence", Washington Post, August 10, 2003: A01, accessed July 29, 2007.
  23. ^ Gellman, Barton (11 May 2003). "Frustrated, U.S. Arms Team to Leave Iraq" – via
  24. ^ Gellman, Barton (18 May 2003). "Odyssey of Frustration" – via
  25. ^ Gellman, Barton (26 October 2003). "Search in Iraq Fails to Find Nuclear Threat" – via
  26. ^ "Statement by Dr. David Kay, Special Advisor to the DCI — Central Intelligence Agency". Retrieved 2017-02-24.
  27. ^ "Transcript: David Kay at Senate hearing - Jan. 28, 2004". Retrieved 2017-02-24.
  28. ^ Gellman, Barton (7 January 2004). "Iraq's Arsenal Was Only on Paper" – via
  29. ^ Gellman, Barton; Linzer, Dafna (22 October 2004). "Afghanistan, Iraq: Two Wars Collide" – via
  30. ^ Gellman, Barton; Linzer, Dafna (26 October 2004). "Unprecedented Peril Forces Tough Calls" – via
  31. ^ Gellman, Barton (23 January 2005). "Secret Unit Expands Rumsfeld's Domain" – via
  32. ^ Gellman, Barton (6 November 2005). "The FBI's Secret Scrutiny" – via
  33. ^ "Washington Post's Response to DOJ Patriot Act Letter". 5 December 2005 – via
  34. ^ "U.S. Department of Justice Letter" (PDF). Retrieved 2017-02-24.
  35. ^ "A Review of the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Use of National Security Letters, March 2007" (PDF). Retrieved 2017-02-24.
  36. ^ Angler: The Cheney Vice Presidency Archived May 9, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  37. ^ "About Barton Gellman". Retrieved 2017-02-24.
  38. ^ Poynter Institute Archived February 20, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  39. ^ "The Secret World of Extreme Militias", Time
  40. ^ Gellman, Barton (12 May 2011). "Cover Story: Is the FBI Up to the Job 10 Years After 9/11?" – via
  41. ^ Gellman, Barton. "Barton Gellman |". Retrieved 2017-02-24.
  42. ^ Michael Calderone (November 21, 2013). "Barton Gellman Hits Back at Bob Woodward for 'Insult' about Snowden Coverage". The Huffington Post. Retrieved December 10, 2013.
  43. ^ Barton Gellman (December 25, 2013). "Edward Snowden, after months of NSA revelations, says his mission's accomplished". The Washington Post. Retrieved 25 December 2013. Taken together, the revelations have brought to light a global surveillance system that cast off many of its historical restraints after the attacks of Sept. 11, 2001. Secret legal authorities empowered the NSA to sweep in the telephone, Internet and location records of whole populations.
  44. ^ The Forum: Barton Gellman "The Tension Between Liberty and Security", St John’s Church, September 29, 2013 Archived April 16, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
  45. ^ Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs (18 September 2013). "Barton Gellman and Daniel Kurtzer - "The Snowden Affair NSA Leaks"" – via YouTube.
  46. ^ 3 years ago (2013-10-11). "Foreign Affairs in the Internet Age: NSA Surveillance Panel on Vimeo". Retrieved 2017-02-24.
  47. ^ ""The Snowden Effect": Leaks and Consequences at the NSA | Shorenstein Center by Harvard University | Free Listening on SoundCloud". Retrieved 2017-02-24.
  48. ^ DukeSanfordSchool (11 November 2013). "Leakers or Whistleblowers? National Security Reporting in the Digital Age" – via YouTube.
  49. ^ "NSA and Privacy Janus Forum Debate 2014 | Political Theory Institute | School of Public Affairs | American University in Washington, DC". Retrieved 2017-02-24.
  50. ^ Warren, James (4 April 2014). "The Spy Vs. The Reporter: A Snowden Debate between two who know more than most". NY Daily News. New York. Retrieved 5 April 2014.
  51. ^ Samuelshon, Darren (25 February 2014). "Barton Gellman aware of legal risks". Politico. Retrieved 28 February 2014.
  52. ^ "New York Times Hardcover Nonfiction Best Sellers", The New York Times, 5 October 2008.
  53. ^ "Dick Cheney Miniseries Is Latest Political Play at HBO". The Hollywood Reporter. 2011-03-21. Retrieved 2017-02-24.
  54. ^ Nicole Sperling (2013-12-16). "Black List announced: See which screenplays have Hollywood talking". Retrieved 2017-02-24.
  55. ^ East, David Fromkin; David Fromkin, The Author Of the Independence Of Nations, Is Completing A. Book On The Creation Of The Modern Middle (12 May 1985). "LIFTING THE LID OFF CONTAINMENT" – via
  56. ^ "2002 Pulitzer Prizes".
  57. ^ "2008 Pulitzer Prizes".
  58. ^ "2014 Pulitzer Prizes".
  59. ^ "1999 Pulitzer Prizes".
  60. ^ "2004 Pulitzer Prizes".
  61. ^ Century, The. "TCF Senior Fellow Barton Gellman Wins Two Emmys". Retrieved 2017-02-24.
  62. ^ MA (2008-03-18). "Harvard Kennedy School - Barton Gellman and Jo Becker of The Washington Post Win Goldsmith Prize for Investigative Reporting". Retrieved 2017-02-24.
  63. ^ [1]
  64. ^ [2]
  65. ^ a b [3]
  66. ^ [4]
  67. ^ Gerald Ford Foundation Archived June 9, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  68. ^ SAIS-Novartis Intl Journalism Award Archived June 2, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  69. ^ [5]
  70. ^ Garrison, Jessica (25 April 2009). "Prizes kick off the Los Angeles Times Festival of Books" – via LA Times.
  71. ^ "100 Notable Books of 2008". 26 November 2008 – via
  72. ^ "UCLA Anderson School of Management Announces 2014 Gerald Loeb Award Winners". UCLA Anderson School of Management. June 24, 2014. Retrieved January 31, 2019.
  73. ^ "PAW June 5, 2002: Notebook". 2002-06-05. Retrieved 2017-02-24.
  74. ^ Barton Gellman. "Secrecy, Security and Self-Government: An Argument For Unauthorized Disclosures". Retrieved 2017-02-24.
  75. ^ Barton Gellman. "Secrecy, Security and Self-Government: How I Learn Secrets and Why I Print Them". Retrieved 2017-02-24.
  76. ^ "Course Details « Office of the Registrar". Retrieved 2017-02-24.
  77. ^ "Inside NBC News | Public Relations". 2015-10-08. Retrieved 2017-02-24.
  78. ^ "The Writings of Barton Gellman - TIME, the Washington Post, and Angler: The Cheney Vice Presidency". Retrieved 2017-02-24.

External links

2008 Pulitzer Prize

The 2008 Pulitzer Prizes were announced on April 7, 2008, the 92nd annual awards.The Washington Post won six awards, second only to the seven won by The New York Times in 2002. Three organizations were awarded prizes for the first time: Reuters, Investor's Business Daily and the Concord Monitor. No prize was given for editorial writing.


Angler may refer to:

A fisherman who uses the fishing technique of angling

Angler (video game)

The angler, Lophius piscatorius, a monkfish

More generally, any anglerfish in the order Lophiiformes

Angler: The Cheney Vice Presidency, a book written by Barton Gellman in 2008 about Vice President Dick Cheney, whose Secret Service codename was "Angler".

The Huawei Nexus 6P, codename angler

Ashkan Soltani

Ashkan Soltani was the Chief Technologist of the Federal Trade Commission. He was previously an independent privacy and security researcher, based in Washington, DC.

Between 2010 and 2011, he worked for the US Federal Trade Commission as a staff technologist in the Division of Privacy and Identity Protection, where he assisted with the investigations of Google and Facebook. He has also worked as the primary technical consultant to the Wall Street Journal's What They Know series investigating online privacy.

In 2011, he testified at two different hearings held by US Senate committees focused on privacy related matters. Julia Angwin, in her 2014 book Dragnet Nation, describes Soltani as 'the leading technical expert on ad tracking technology'. He was part of the team at The Washington Post that shared the 2014 Pulitzer Prize for Public Service with The Guardian US and earned the 2014 Gerald Loeb Award for Large Newspapers for their coverage of the disclosures about surveillance done by the US National Security Agency.

Dafna Linzer

Dafna Linzer is an American journalist. Since October 2015, she has been managing editor of politics for NBC News and MSNBC, with a role spanning broadcast and digital coverage on both networks for the 2016 election campaign. Linzer was formerly managing editor of MSNBC; senior reporter at ProPublica; foreign correspondent for the Associated Press; and national security reporter for the Washington Post.

Direction générale de la surveillance du territoire

The Direction Générale de la Surveillance du Territoire (General Directorate for Territorial Surveillance; Arabic: مديرية مراقبة التراب الوطني‎, Mudīriyyat Murāqabat al-Turāb al-Waṭaniy, literally, "Directorate of Surveillance of the National Territory"; commonly referred to as the DGST or the DST), is the internal intelligence agency of the Moroccan state. It is tasked with the monitoring of potentially subversive domestic activities.

Prior to 2005, it was known as the Direction de la Surveillance du Territoire (DST).


Gellman is the surname of:

Barton Gellman (born 1960), American journalist

Yani Gellman (born 1985), Canadian/American actor

Global surveillance by category

This is a category of disclosures related to global surveillance.

Global surveillance disclosures (2013–present)

Ongoing news reports in the international media have revealed operational details about the United States National Security Agency (NSA) and its international partners' global surveillance of both foreign nationals and U.S. citizens. The reports mostly emanate from a cache of top secret documents leaked by ex-NSA contractor Edward Snowden, which he obtained whilst working for Booz Allen Hamilton, one of the largest contractors for defense and intelligence in the United States. In addition to a trove of U.S. federal documents, Snowden's cache reportedly contains thousands of Australian, British and Canadian intelligence files that he had accessed via the exclusive "Five Eyes" network. In June 2013, the first of Snowden's documents were published simultaneously by The Washington Post and The Guardian, attracting considerable public attention. The disclosure continued throughout 2013, and a small portion of the estimated full cache of documents was later published by other media outlets worldwide, most notably The New York Times (United States), the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, the Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Der Spiegel (Germany), O Globo (Brazil), Le Monde (France), L'espresso (Italy), NRC Handelsblad (the Netherlands), Dagbladet (Norway), El País (Spain), and Sveriges Television (Sweden).These media reports have shed light on the implications of several secret treaties signed by members of the UKUSA community in their efforts to implement global surveillance. For example, Der Spiegel revealed how the German Foreign Intelligence Service (German: Bundesnachrichtendienst; BND) transfers "massive amounts of intercepted data to the NSA", while Swedish Television revealed the National Defence Radio Establishment (FRA) provided the NSA with data from its cable collection, under a secret treaty signed in 1954 for bilateral cooperation on surveillance. Other security and intelligence agencies involved in the practice of global surveillance include those in Australia (ASD), Britain (GCHQ), Canada (CSEC), Denmark (PET), France (DGSE), Germany (BND), Italy (AISE), the Netherlands (AIVD), Norway (NIS), Spain (CNI), Switzerland (NDB), Singapore (SID) as well as Israel (ISNU), which receives raw, unfiltered data of U.S. citizens that is shared by the NSA.On June 14, 2013, United States prosecutors charged Edward Snowden with espionage and theft of government property. In late July 2013, he was granted a one-year temporary asylum by the Russian government, contributing to a deterioration of Russia–United States relations. On August 6, 2013, U.S. President Barack Obama made a public appearance on national television where he told Americans that "We don't have a domestic spying program" and that "There is no spying on Americans". Towards the end of October 2013, the British Prime Minister David Cameron warned The Guardian not to publish any more leaks, or it will receive a DA-Notice. In November 2013, a criminal investigation of the disclosure was being undertaken by Britain's Metropolitan Police Service. In December 2013, The Guardian editor Alan Rusbridger said: "We have published I think 26 documents so far out of the 58,000 we've seen."The extent to which the media reports have responsibly informed the public is disputed. In January 2014, Obama said that "the sensational way in which these disclosures have come out has often shed more heat than light" and critics such as Sean Wilentz have noted that many of the Snowden documents released do not concern domestic surveillance. The US & UK Defense establishment weigh the strategic harm in the period following the disclosures more heavily than their civic public benefit. In its first assessment of these disclosures, the Pentagon concluded that Snowden committed the biggest "theft" of U.S. secrets in the history of the United States. Sir David Omand, a former director of GCHQ, described Snowden's disclosure as the "most catastrophic loss to British intelligence ever".

Jo Becker

Jo Becker is an American journalist and author and a three-time co-recipient of the Pulitzer Prize. She works as an investigative reporter for The New York Times.

Larry DuPraz

Larry DuPraz (1919–2006) was the long-time production supervisor of The Daily Princetonian and Princeton University's unofficial "professor of journalism." From 1946 until 1987, DuPraz oversaw production of Princeton's independent student daily newspaper. DuPraz supervised publishing using technology ranging from hot lead type to modern desktop publishing. In this position, DuPraz ran what many alumni and journalists refer to as the "Larry DuPraz School of Journalism," an unofficial academy through which he educated and influenced some of the most important names in American journalism, including:

Joel Achenbach '82, writer for The Washington Post and author of the Post's Achenblog.

Peter D. Bunzel '49, op-ed page editor, Los Angeles Times.

Robert Caro '57, Pulitzer Prize-winning non-fiction writer.

Frank Deford '61, writer for Sports Illustrated and broadcaster on U.S. radio and television.

Barton Gellman '82, editor at The Washington Post and Pulitzer Prize-winner.

Donald Kirk '59, national correspondent, Chicago Tribune.

Don Oberdorfer '52, former writer for the Washington Post. Now a professor at Johns Hopkins University.

James Ridgeway '59, editor and writer, New Republic and Village Voice.

Mark Stevens '73, film critic for New York Magazine and co-author of De Kooning: An American Master.

Annalyn Swan '73, co-author of 2005 Pulitzer Prize-winning De Kooning: An American Master.

Christine Whelan '99, author of Why Smart Men Marry Smart WomenUpon retiring in 1987, DuPraz was recognized by President Ronald Reagan for his lifelong contribution to American education and journalism. After his retirement, DuPraz remained a trusted adviser and loyal friend to the newspaper, some would say a curmudgeon, making regular appearances in the newsroom at least through 2004. A lifelong Princeton resident and diehard Princeton basketball fan, DuPraz was also a committed volunteer fireman and World War II veteran. He married Nora Enright (1919-2008), also of Princeton, in 1947. They had one daughter, Claudia (1950-2009), and four grandsons. In December 2006, DuPraz died of heart disease at the age of 87. Several Daily Princetonian alumni share their memories of DuPraz's life on the newspaper's blog.

Laura Poitras

Laura Poitras (; born February 2, 1964) is an American director and producer of documentary films. She lives in New York City.Poitras has received numerous awards for her work, including the 2015 Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature for Citizenfour, about Edward Snowden, while My Country, My Country received a nomination in the same category in 2007. She won the 2013 George Polk Award for "national security reporting" related to the NSA disclosures. The NSA reporting by Poitras, Glenn Greenwald, Ewen MacAskill, and Barton Gellman contributed to the 2014 Pulitzer Prize for Public Service awarded jointly to The Guardian and The Washington Post.She is a MacDowell Colony Fellow, 2012 MacArthur Fellow, the creator of Field of Vision, and one of the initial supporters of the Freedom of the Press Foundation.

She was awarded the George Polk Award for National Reporting in 1984 and the I.F. Stone Medal for Journalistic Independence by Harvard's Nieman Foundation in 2014.


OAKSTAR is a secret internet surveillance program of the National Security Agency (NSA) of the United States. It was disclosed in 2013 as part of the leaks by former NSA contractor Edward Snowden.

OAKSTAR is an umbrella program involving surveillance of telecommunications, it falls under the category of "Upstream collection", meaning that data is pulled directly from fiber-optic cables and top-level communications infrastructure. Upstream collection programs allow access to very high volumes of data, and most of the pre-selection is done by the providers themselves, before the data is passed on to the NSA.

The FY 2013 budget for OAKSTAR is $9.41 million. OAKSTAR consists of the following SIGADs:

Note: SIGADs not otherwise designated are presumed to operate under the legal authority of Section 702 of the FISA Amendments Act (FAA)


STORMBREW is a secret internet surveillance program of the National Security Agency (NSA) of the United States. It was disclosed in the summer of 2013 as part of the leaks by former NSA contractor Edward Snowden.

The FY 2013 budget for STORMBREW was $46.06 million.

Secrecy (film)

Secrecy is a 2008 documentary film directed by Harvard University professors Peter Galison and Robb Moss. According to its website, it "is a film about the vast, invisible world of government secrecy," and features interviews with a variety of people on all sides of the secrecy issue, including Steven Aftergood (of Federation of American Scientists), Tom Blanton (of the National Security Archive), James B. Bruce (who was a senior staff member to the Iraq Intelligence Commission), Barton Gellman (a Washington Post journalist), Melissa Boyle Mahle (a former CIA officer), the plaintiffs in United States v. Reynolds (1953) (the case which established the State Secrets Privilege in the United States), Siegfried Hecker (former director of Los Alamos National Laboratory), Mike Levin (a former member of the National Security Agency), and Neal Katyal and Charles Swift (the lawyers for the defendant in Hamdan v. Rumsfeld).

The film competed in the Documentary Competition at the 2008 Sundance Film Festival and at the Berlin Film Festival, among many other venues.

The film was the winner of the Special Jury Award for Documentary Features at the Independent Film Festival, Boston, and was named Best Documentary at the Newport International Film Festival.

The Snowden Files

The Snowden Files: The Inside Story of the World's Most Wanted Man (ISBN 978-0-8041-7352-0) is a 2014 book by Luke Harding, published by Vintage Books.

Greg Miller of The Washington Post described the book as the first single-book account of Edward Snowden's 2013 leaking of National Security Agency (NSA) documents. However, Miller commented that the "British perspective" of the book "overlooks some significant U.S. developments and underplays important work done by other journalists, including Barton Gellman of The Washington Post."

Timeline of global surveillance disclosures (2013–present)

This timeline of global surveillance disclosures from 2013 to the present day is a chronological list of the global surveillance disclosures that began in 2013. The disclosures have been largely instigated by revelations from the former American National Security Agency contractor Edward Snowden.

Zakaria Moumni

Zakaria Moumni (Arabic: زكرياء مومني‎; born 4 February 1980 is a former Kickboxer who was detained by the Moroccan authority between September 2010 and February 2012.


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