Barton Bernstein

Barton J. Bernstein (born 1936) is Professor emeritus of History at Stanford University and Co-Chair of the International Relations Program and the International Policy Studies Program. He received his Ph.D. in history from Harvard University.[1][2][3] "He is a Member of the Board of Advisors for the Center on Peace and Liberty at the Independent Institute."[4]


  • The Truman Administration: A Documentary History, New York, Harper & Row, 1966
  • Towards a New Past: Dissenting Essays in American History, New York, Pantheon Books, 1968
  • Politics and Policies of the Truman Administration
  • Twentieth-Century America: Recent Interpretations


  1. ^ The Atomic Bombings Reconsidered, Foreign Affairs, January/February 1995
  2. ^ The Independent Institute Barton J. Bernstein
  3. ^
  4. ^

Official Page at Stanford's Website: Official Page at the Independent Institute:

China–United States relations

China–United States relations, also known as U.S.–Chinese relations, Chinese–U.S. relations, or Sino-American relations, refers to international relations between China and the United States. The history of the relationship can be traced back to when the United States gained independence. The relationship between the two countries is quite strong and is even somewhat positive. However at the same time, the relationship is also complex. Both countries have an extremely extensive economic partnership, and a great amount of trade between the two countries necessitates somewhat positive political relations, yet significant issues exist. It is a relationship of economic cooperation, hegemonic rivalry in the Pacific, and mutual suspicion over the other's intentions. Therefore, each nation has adopted a wary attitude regarding the other as a potential adversary whilst at the same time being an extremely strong economic partner. It has been described by world leaders and academics as the world's most important bilateral relationship of the 21st century.As of 2018, the United States has the world's largest economy and China has the second largest, although China has a larger GDP when measured by PPP.Relations between the two countries have generally been stable with some periods of open conflict, most notably during the Korean War and the Vietnam War. Currently, China and the United States have mutual political, economic, and security interests, including but not limited to the proliferation of nuclear weapons, although there are unresolved concerns relating to the role of democracy in government in China and human rights in both respective countries. China is the largest foreign creditor of the United States. The two countries remain in dispute over territorial issues in the South China Sea.Public opinion of the other country tends to fluctuate around 40 to 50 percent favorability. as of 2015, China's public opinion of the U.S. is at 44% positive, while the United States' public opinion of China is somewhat lower at 38%. The highest recorded favorable opinion of the United States was at 58% (2010) and the lowest at 38% (2007). Conversely, the highest recorded favorable opinion of China was at 52% (2006) and the lowest at 35% (2014).

Relations with China began under George Washington, leading to the 1845 Treaty of Wangxia. The U.S. was allied to the Republic of China during the Pacific War, but broke off relations with the People's Republic of China (which ruled the mainland) for 25 years when the communist government took over, until Richard Nixon's 1972 visit to China. Since Nixon's visit, every successive U.S. president, with the exception of Jimmy Carter, has toured China. Relations with China have strained under Barack Obama's Asia pivot strategy, U.S. support for Japan in the Senkaku Islands dispute, as well as Donald Trump's threats to classify the country as a "currency manipulator" as part of the two countries' ongoing trade war.

Edward Teller

Edward Teller (Hungarian: Teller Ede; January 15, 1908 – September 9, 2003) was a Hungarian-American theoretical physicist who is known colloquially as "the father of the hydrogen bomb", although he did not care for the title. He made numerous contributions to nuclear and molecular physics, spectroscopy (in particular the Jahn–Teller and Renner–Teller effects), and surface physics. His extension of Enrico Fermi's theory of beta decay, in the form of Gamow–Teller transitions, provided an important stepping stone in its application, while the Jahn–Teller effect and the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) theory have retained their original formulation and are still mainstays in physics and chemistry. Teller also made contributions to Thomas–Fermi theory, the precursor of density functional theory, a standard modern tool in the quantum mechanical treatment of complex molecules. In 1953, along with Nicholas Metropolis, Arianna Rosenbluth, Marshall Rosenbluth, and Augusta Teller, Teller co-authored a paper that is a standard starting point for the applications of the Monte Carlo method to statistical mechanics. Throughout his life, Teller was known both for his scientific ability and for his difficult interpersonal relations and volatile personality.

Teller was born in Hungary and emigrated to the United States in the 1930s. He was an early member of the Manhattan Project, charged with developing the first atomic bomb; during this time he made a serious push to develop the first fusion-based weapons as well, but these were deferred until after World War II. After his controversial testimony in the security clearance hearing of his former Los Alamos Laboratory superior, J. Robert Oppenheimer, Teller was ostracized by much of the scientific community. He continued to find support from the U.S. government and military research establishment, particularly for his advocacy for nuclear energy development, a strong nuclear arsenal, and a vigorous nuclear testing program. He was a co-founder of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and was both its director and associate director for many years.

In his later years, Teller became especially known for his advocacy of controversial technological solutions to both military and civilian problems, including a plan to excavate an artificial harbor in Alaska using thermonuclear explosive in what was called Project Chariot. He was a vigorous advocate of Ronald Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative.

History of the Teller–Ulam design

This article chronicles the history and origins of the Teller–Ulam design, the technical concept behind modern thermonuclear weapons, also known as hydrogen bombs. This design, the details of which are military secrets known to only a handful of major nations, is believed to be used in virtually all modern nuclear weapons which make up the arsenals of the major nuclear powers.

Joseph Rotblat

Sir Joseph Rotblat (4 November 1908 – 31 August 2005) was a Polish physicist, a self-described "Pole with a British passport". Rotblat worked on Tube Alloys and the Manhattan Project during World War II, but left the Los Alamos Laboratory after the war with Germany ended. His work on nuclear fallout was a major contribution toward the ratification of the 1963 Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. A signatory of the 1955 Russell–Einstein Manifesto, he was secretary-general of the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs from their founding until 1973 and shared, with the Pugwash Conferences, the 1995 Nobel Peace Prize "for efforts to diminish the part played by nuclear arms in international affairs and, in the longer run, to eliminate such arms."

Modern liberalism in the United States

Modern American liberalism is the dominant version of liberalism in the United States. Ideologically, all US parties are liberal and always have been. Essentially, they espouse classical liberalism—that is, a form of democratized Whig constitutionalism plus the free market. The point of difference comes with the influence of social liberalism, and combines ideas of civil liberty and equality with support for social justice and a mixed economy. Economically, modern American liberalism opposes cuts to the social safety net and supports a role for government in reducing inequality, providing education, ensuring access to healthcare, regulating economic activity, and protecting the natural environment.This form of liberalism took shape in twentieth century America, as the franchise and other civil rights were extended to a larger class of citizens. Major examples include Theodore Roosevelt's New Nationalism, Woodrow Wilson's New Freedom, Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal, Harry S. Truman's Fair Deal, John F. Kennedy's New Frontier, and Lyndon B. Johnson's Great Society.

In the first half of the twentieth century, both major American parties had a conservative wing and a liberal wing. The conservative northern Republicans and the conservative southern Democrats formed the Conservative Coalition which dominated the US congress in the pre-Civil Rights era. As the Democratic Party under President Lyndon Johnson began to support civil rights, the formerly Solid South, meaning solidly Democratic, became solidly Republican, except in districts with a large number of African-American voters.

Starting in the twentieth century, there has been a sharp division between liberals, who tend to live in denser, more heterogeneous communities, and conservatives, who tend to live in less dense, more homogeneous communities. Liberals as a group are referred to as the Left and conservatives the Right. The Democratic Party is considered liberal, and the Republican Party is considered conservative.

Philip Nobile

Philip Nobile (born 1942) is an American freelance writer, journalist, historian, teacher, and social critic/commentator. He has written or edited several books, published investigative journalism in leading newspapers and journals, and taught since 2001 at the Cobble Hill School of American Studies, a public school in Brooklyn.

Thermonuclear weapon

A thermonuclear weapon, or fusion weapon, is a second-generation nuclear weapon design which affords vastly greater destructive power than first-generation atomic bombs. Modern fusion weapons consist essentially of two main components: a nuclear fission primary stage (fueled by uranium-235 or plutonium-239) and a separate nuclear fusion secondary stage containing thermonuclear fuel: the heavy hydrogen isotopes deuterium and tritium, or in modern weapons lithium deuteride. For this reason, thermonuclear weapons are often colloquially called hydrogen bombs or H-bombs.A fusion explosion begins with the detonation of the fission primary stage. Its temperature soars past approximately one hundred million Kelvins, causing it to glow intensely with thermal x-radiation. These X-rays flood the void (the "radiation channel" often filled with polystyrene foam) between the primary and secondary assemblies placed within an enclosure called a radiation case, which confines the X-ray energy and resists getting pressed outwards. The distance separating the two assemblies ensures that debris fragments from the fission primary (which move much slower than X-ray photons) cannot disassemble the secondary before the fusion explosion runs to completion.

The secondary fusion stage–consisting of pusher/tamper, fusion fuel, and plutonium spark plug–is imploded by the X-ray energy pressing it inward. This compresses it and drives up the density of the plutonium spark plug at its center. The density of the plutonium fuel rises to such an extent that the spark plug is driven into a supercritical state, and it begins a nuclear fission chain reaction. The fission products so produced heat the highly compressed, and thus superdense, thermonuclear fuel surrounding the spark plug to the region of some three hundred million Kelvins, igniting fusion reactions between fusion fuel nuclei. In modern weapons fueled by lithium deuteride, the fissioning plutonium spark plug also emits free neutrons which collide with lithium nuclei and supply the tritium component of the thermonuclear fuel.

The radiation implosion mechanism exploits the temperature difference between the secondary stage's hot, surrounding radiation channel and its relatively cool interior. This temperature difference is briefly maintained by a massive heat barrier called the "pusher"/"tamper", which also serves as an implosion tamper, increasing and prolonging the compression of the secondary. If made of uranium, enriched uranium or plutonium, it can capture fusion neutrons produced by the fusion reaction and undergo fission itself, increasing the overall explosive yield. In addition to that, some designs also make the radiation case out of a fissile material that undergoes fission. As a result, such bombs get a third tertiary fission stage, and the majority of current Teller–Ulam are fission-fusion-fission weapons. Fission of the tamper or radiation case is the main contribution to the total yield and produces radioactive fission product fallout.The first full-scale thermonuclear test was carried out by the United States in 1952; the concept has since been employed by most of the world's nuclear powers in the design of their weapons. The design of all modern thermonuclear weapons in the United States is known as the Teller–Ulam configuration for its two chief contributors, Edward Teller and Stanislaw Ulam, who developed it in 1951 for the United States, with certain concepts developed with the contribution of physicist John von Neumann. Similar devices were developed by the Soviet Union, United Kingdom, France, and China.

As thermonuclear weapons represent the most efficient design for weapon energy yield in weapons with yields above 50 kilotons of TNT (210 TJ), virtually all the nuclear weapons of this size deployed by the five nuclear-weapon states under the Non-Proliferation Treaty today are thermonuclear weapons using the Teller–Ulam design.

Washington Decoded

Washington Decoded is a monthly online newsletter presenting articles on American history. Founded in March 2007 by editor Max Holland, the site publishes new pieces on the 11th of each month, with additional "extra" features. The site features book reviews and articles by authors, journalists, and scholars including John Earl Haynes, Harvey Klehr, Merle L. Pribbenow, Jeffrey T. Richelson, Sheldon M. Stern, and Holland, many of whose articles published elsewhere are also hosted on the site. has hosted articles on a wide range of topics such as Watergate, Cold War History, 9/11, John F. Kennedy's assassination, and intelligence-related subjects. In November 2009, Washingtonian magazine featured a version of a article on Richard Nixon's Deep Throat.

The banner of features an edited quote from a 1946 George Orwell essay, "Political language . . . is designed to make lies sound truthful . . . and to give an appearance of solidity to pure wind."

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