Bartolomeo Marchionni

Bartolomeo Marchionni (late 15th to early 16th century) was a Florentine merchant established in Lisbon during the Age of Discovery.

Bartolomeo Marchionni arrived circa 1468 at Lisbon as an agent to the Cambini. In a long career he became the most successful merchant[1] and one of the richest men in Lisbon at the time. He was the chief merchant in sugar from Madeira islands and participated extensively in the voyages to Guinea, Brazil, Madeira, and would finance several voyages to India [2] In 1500, in a joint enterprise with Dom Álvaro of Portugal and Girolamo Sernigi, Bartolomeo Marchionni sent a ship second fleet to India that discovered Brazil under the command of Pedro Álvares Cabral.[3] In 1501 he financed the third Portuguese armada (expedition) to India, under a joint private initiative with Portuguese Dom Álvaro of Braganza.[4] The small four vessel fleet departed from Lisbon in 9 or 10 March 1501, under command of João da Nova, having Diogo Barbosa as Dom Álvaro agent. They established a feitoria (trading post) in Cananor, leaving there a factor. He was a friend of Americo Vespucci. He was followed by his son Pêro Paulo Marchionni, himself a shipowner. In the 1503 fleet to India under Francisco and Afonso de Albuquerque, Giovanni da Empoli was sent as a commercial agent of the firms Gualterroti and Frescobaldi and also Bartolomeo Marchionni.


  1. ^ K. J. P. Lowe, "Cultural links between Portugal and Italy in the Renaissance", p.8, Oxford University Press, 2000
  2. ^ "The voyage of Pedro Álvares Cabral to Brazil and India: from contemporary documents and narratives" p.146, Issue 81 of Works issued by the Hakluyt Society, William Brooks Greenlee, Asian Educational Services, 1995, ISBN 81-206-1040-7
  3. ^ Teresa Lacerda "Os Capitães das Armadas da Índia no reinado de D. Manuel I – uma análise social". Lisboa, 2006 (in Portuguese) [1]
  4. ^ Sanjay Subrahmanyam, "The Career and Legend of Vasco da Gama", p.182, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997, ISBN 978-0-521-47072-8
1501 in India

The following lists events that happened during 1501 in India.

2nd Portuguese India Armada (Cabral, 1500)

The Second Portuguese India Armada was assembled in 1500 on the order of King Manuel I of Portugal and placed under the command of Pedro Álvares Cabral. Cabral's armada famously discovered Brazil for the Portuguese crown along the way. By and large, the 2nd Armada's diplomatic mission to India failed, and provoked the opening of hostilities between the Kingdom of Portugal and the feudal city-state of Calicut, ruled by Zamorins. Nonetheless, it managed to establish a factory in the nearby Kingdom of Cochin, the first Portuguese factory in Asia.

3rd Portuguese India Armada (Nova, 1501)

The Third India Armada was assembled in 1501 on the order of King Manuel I of Portugal and placed under the command of João da Nova. Nova's armada was relatively small and primarily commercial in objective. Nonetheless, they engaged the first significant Portuguese naval battle in the Indian Ocean. The Third Armada is also credited for the first discovery of the uninhabited islands of Ascension and Saint Helena in the South Atlantic Ocean. There is also some speculation that it may have been the first Portuguese armada to reach Ceylon.

4th Portuguese India Armada (Gama, 1502)

The 4th Portuguese India Armada was assembled in 1502 on the order of King Manuel I of Portugal and placed under the command of D. Vasco da Gama. It was Gama's second trip to India. The fourth of some thirteen Portuguese India Armadas, it was designed as a punitive expedition, targeting Calicut, to avenge the travails of the 2nd Armada and the massacre of the Portuguese factory in 1500.

Along the way, in East Africa, the 4th Armada established a Portuguese factory in Mozambique, made contact and opened trade with the gold entrepot of Sofala and extorted tribute from Kilwa. Once in India, the armada set about attacking Calicut shipping and disrupting trade along much of the Malabar Coast. But the ruling Zamorin of Calicut refused to accede to Portuguese demands, arguing that the violent exactions of the armada exceeded any claims they might have for compensation. The 4th Armada left without bringing the Zamorin to terms and leaving matters unresolved. Before departing, the armada established a crown factory in Cannanore and left behind a small patrol under Vicente Sodré, the first permanent Portuguese fleet in the Indian Ocean.

7th Portuguese India Armada (Almeida, 1505)

The Seventh India Armada was assembled in 1505 on the order of King Manuel I of Portugal and placed under the command of D. Francisco de Almeida, the first Portuguese Viceroy of the Indies. The 7th Armada set out to secure the dominance of the Portuguese navy over the Indian Ocean by establishing a series of coastal fortresses at critical points – Sofala, Kilwa, Anjediva, Cannanore – and reducing cities perceived to be local threats (Kilwa, Mombasa, Onor).

Aframomum melegueta

Aframomum melegueta is a species in the ginger family, Zingiberaceae, and closely related to cardamom. Its seeds are used as a spice (ground or whole), and commonly known as grains of paradise, melegueta pepper, alligator pepper, Guinea grains, ossame, or fom wisa; it imparts a pungent, black-pepper-like flavour with hints of citrus. The term Guinea pepper has also been used, but is most often applied to Xylopia aethiopica (grains of Selim).

Although it is native to West Africa, it is also an important cash crop in the Basketo district (Basketo special woreda) of southern Ethiopia. The Pepper Coast (or Grain Coast) where currently exists the Republic of Liberia, is a historical coastal region named after this commodity.


Bartolomeo or Bartolommeo is a masculine Italian given name, the Italian equivalent of Bartholomew. Its diminutive form is Baccio.

People with the name include:

Bartolomeo Aimo (1889–1970), Italian professional bicycle road racer

Bartolomeo Altomonte, a.k.a. Bartholomäus Hohenberg (1694–1783), Austrian baroque painter

Bartolomeo Amico a.k.a. Bartholomeus Amicus (1562–1649), Jesuit priest, teacher and writer who spent his adult life in Naples

Bartolomeo Ammanati (1511–1592), Florentine architect and sculptor

Bartolomeo Avanzini (1608–1658), Italian architect of the Baroque period

Bartolomeo Bacilieri (1842–1923), Italian cardinal, Bishop of Verona 1900–1923

Bartolomeo Barbarino (c. 1568–c. 1617 or later), Italian composer and singer of the early Baroque era

Bartolomeo Bassi (early 1600s-1640s), Genoese painter of the early Baroque period

Bartolomeo Bellano a.k.a. Bartolomeo Vellano (c. 1437–c. 1496), Italian Renaissance sculptor and architect

Bartolomeo Bimbi (1648–1723), Florentine painter of still lifes

Bartolomeo Biscaino (1632–1657), Italian painter of the Baroque period, active in Genoa

Bartolomeo Bon (d. after 1464), Italian sculptor and architect from Campione d’Italia

Bartolomeo Borghesi (1781–1860), Italian antiquarian, key figure in establishing the science of numismatics

Bartolomeo Campagnoli (1751–1827), Italian violinist and composer

Bartolomeo Cappellari (1765–1846), Pope Gregory XVI (1831–46)

Bartolomeo Carducci (1560–1608), Italian painter, better known as Carducho

Bartolomeo Cavaceppi (1716–1799), Italian sculptor

Bartolomeo Cavarozzi (c. 1590–1625), Italian painter of the Baroque period active in Spain

Bartolomeo Cesi (1556–1629), Italian painter of the Baroque era of the Bolognese School

Bartolomeo Colleoni (c. 1400–1475), Italian condottiero

Bartolomeo Contarini (nobleman) (fl. mid-15th century), Venetian businessman, governor of the Duchy of Athens after marrying the widowed duchess

Bartolomeo Contarini (naval commander), 17th-century commander of the Venetian and Papal fleets at the Battle of Andros in the Great Turkish War

Bartolomeo Costantini (1889–1941), Italian aviator and racing car driver

Bartolomeo Cristofori (1655–1731), Italian maker of musical instruments, generally regarded as the inventor of the piano

Bartolomeo da Bologna (fl. 1405–1427), Italian composer of the early Quattrocento

Bartolomeo d'Alviano (1455–1515), Italian condottiero and captain, fought in the defense of the Venetian Republic against the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian

Bartolomeo d'Aragona (fl. late 14th–early 15th centuries), Sicilian nobleman and statesman; defeated in a rebellion and exiled

Bartolomeo degli Organi (1474–1539), Italian composer, singer, and organist of the Renaissance

Bartolomeo della Gatta (1448–1502), Florentine painter, illuminator, and architect

Bartolomeo della Rocca (1467–1504), Bolognese scholar of chiromancy, physiognomy, and astrology

Bartolomeo di Breganze(c. 1200–c. 1271), Italian prelate, bishop of Vicenza and founder of the Order of the Blessed Virgin Mary

Bartolomeo di Cassino (fl. late 16th century), Italian painter active in the Mannerist period

Bartolomeo di Giovanni (d. 1501), Florentine painter, worked under Sandro Botticelli

Bartolomeo di Tommaso (fl. early 15th century), Italian painter

Bartolomeo Eustachi a.k.a. Eustachius (c. 1500–1574), Italian anatomist, one of the founders of the science of human anatomy, eponym of the Eustachian tube

Bartolomeo Facio (1400–1457), Italian historian, writer, and humanist

Bartolomeo Gastaldi (1818–1879), Italian geologist and paleontologist, one of the founders of the Club Alpino Italiano

Bartolomeo Ghetti (painter) (died 1536), Renaissance painter from Florence

Bartolomeo Ghetti (sculptor) (died 1708), Baroque sculptor from Carrara

Bartolomeo Giuseppe Guarneri a.k.a. Giuseppe Guarneri (1698–1744), Italian luthier from the Guarneri house of Cremona

Bartolomeo Gradenigo (c. 1260–1342), 53rd doge of Venice 1339–1342

Bartolomeo Guidobono a.k.a. il Prete di Savona or Prete Bartolomeo da Savona (1654–1709), Italian painter of the Baroque period

Bartolomeo I della Scala (d. 1304), lord of Verona 1301–04

Bartolomeo II della Scala (d. July 12, 1381), lord of Verona 1375–1381

Bartolomeo Letterini (1669–after 1731), Venetian painter of the Baroque period

Bartolomeo Manfredi (1582–1622), Italian painter, a leading member of the Caravaggisti

Bartolomeo Maranta a.k.a. Bartholomaeus Marantha (c. 1500–1571), Venetian physician, botanist, and literary theorist

Bartolomeo Marchionni (fl. late 15th–early 16th centuries), Florentine merchant established in Lisbon during the Age of Discovery

Bartolomeo Mastri a.k.a. Bartholomew Mastrius (1602–1673), Italian Conventual Franciscan philosopher and theologian

Bartolomeo Minio (fl. late 15th century), Venetian sea captain and commander (provveditor e capitanio) of Nauplion in the Venetian Morea

Bartolomeo Montagna (c. 1450–1523), Italian painter and architect who worked in Vicenza and Venice

Bartolomeo Montalbano (c. 1598–before 1651), Venetian Baroque composer

Bartolomeo Nazari (1693–1758), Italian painter of the late-Baroque period

Bartolomeo Pacca (1756–1844), Italian Cardinal, scholar, and Vatican statesman

Bartolomeo Pagano (1878–1947), Italian motion picture actor

Bartolomeo Panizza (1785–1867), Italian anatomist and surgeon

Bartolomeo Passarotti (1529–1592), Italian painter of the mannerist period

Bartolomeo Pinelli (1771–1835), Italian illustrator and engraver

Bartolomeo Platina (1421–1481), Italian teacher, scholar, author, and member of the College of Abbreviators

Bartolomeo Prignano (1318–1389), Pope Urban VI 1378–1389

Bartolomeo Ruspoli (1697–1741), Italian cardinal, Knight of Malta

Bartolomeo Sanvito (1435–1518), scribe from Padua, trained in Rome; master of Humanist italic script

Bartolomeo Scala (1430–1497), Italian politician, author, and historian

Bartolomeo Scappi (c. 1500–1577), Renaissance chef, served Popes Pius IV and Pius V from the Vatican kitchen

Bartolomeo Schedoni (1578–1615), Italian early Baroque painter of Reggio Emilia

Bartolomeo Sinibaldi a.k.a. Baccio da Montelupo (1469–c. 1523), sculptor of the Italian Renaissance period

Bartolomeo Suardi a.k.a. Bramantino (c. 1456–c. 1530), Italian painter and architect in Milano

Bartolomeo Trinci (d. 1421), Italian nobleman, lord of Foligno 1415–21

Bartolomeo Tromboncino (1470–1535 or later), Italian composer of the middle Renaissance period; infamous for murdering his wife

Bartolomeo Trosylho (1500–1567), Portuguese composer of the Renaissance period

Bartolomeo Vanzetti (of Sacco and Vanzetti) (1888–1927), Italian immigrant convicted and executed for murder in Massachusetts, USA

Bartolomeo Veneto (1502–1546), Italian painter who worked in Venice

Bartolomeo Vivarini (c. 1432–c. 1499), Italian painter

Bartolomeo Zaccaria (d. 1334), Italian nobleman, Margrave of Bodonitsa, Lord of Damala

Fra Bartolomeo (1472–1517), also known as Bartolommeo di S. Marco, Bartolommeo di Pagholo, and Bacchio della Porta, an Italian Renaissance painter

Santo Bartolomeo Quadri (1919–2008), Italian prelate of Roman Catholic Church

Economic history of Portugal

The economic history of Portugal covers the development of the economy throughout the course of Portuguese history. It has its roots prior to nationality, when Roman occupation developed a thriving economy in Hispania, in the provinces of Lusitania and Gallaecia, as producers and exporters to the Roman Empire. This continued under the Visigoths and then Al-Andalus Moorish rule, until the Kingdom of Portugal was established in 1139.

With the end of Portuguese reconquista and integration in the European Middle Age economy, the Portuguese were at the forefront of maritime exploration of the age of discovery, expanding to become the first global empire. Portugal then became the world's main economic power during the Renaissance, introducing most of Africa and the East to European society, and establishing a multi-continental trading system extending from Japan to Brazil.In 1822, Portugal lost its main colony, Brazil. The transition from absolutism to a parliamentary monarchy involved a devastating Civil War from 1828 to 1834. The governments of the Constitutional Monarchy were not able to truly industrialize and modernize the country; by the dawn of the 20th century, Portugal had a GDP per capita of 40% of the Western European average and an illiteracy rate of 74%. Portuguese territorial claims in Africa were challenged during the Scramble for Africa. Political chaos and economic problems endured from the last years of the monarchy to the first Republic of 1910–1926, which led to the installing of a national dictatorship in 1926. While Finance Minister António de Oliveira Salazar managed to discipline the Portuguese public finances, it evolved into a single-party corporative regime in the early 1930s—the Estado Novo—whose first three decades were also marked by a relative stagnation and underdevelopment; as such, by 1960 the Portuguese GDP per capita was only 38 percent of the EC-12 average.Starting in the early 1960s, Portugal entered in a period of robust economic growth and structural modernization, owing to a liberalization of the economy. As an expression of such economic opening, in 1960 the country was one of the EFTA founding member states. Yearly growth rates sometimes with two digits, allowed the Portuguese GDP per capita to reach 56% of the EC-12 average by 1973. This growth period eventually ended in the mid-1970s, for that contributing the 1973 oil crisis and the political turnoil following the April 25, 1974 coup which led to the transition to democracy. From 1974 to the late 1970s, over a million Portuguese citizens arrived from the former African overseas colonies, most as destitute refugees—the retornados. After nearly a decade of economic troubles, during which Portugal received two IMF-monitored bailouts, in 1986 the country entered the European Economic Community (and left the EFTA). The European Union's structural and cohesion funds and the growth of many of Portugal's main exporting companies were leading forces in a new period of robust economic growth and socio-economic development which would last (though with a short crisis around 1992–94) to the early 2000s. In 1991, GDP per capita surpassed the 1973 level and by 2000 it had achieved 70% of the EU-12 average, which nonetheless constituted an approach to the Western European standards of living without precedents in the centuries before. Similarly, for several years Portuguese subsidiaries of large multinational companies ranked among the most productive in the world. However, the economy has been stagnated since the early 2000s and was hardly hit by the effects of the Great Recession, which eventually led to an IMF/EU-monitored bailout from 2011 to 2014.

The country adopted the euro in 1999. Despite being both a developed country and a high income country, Portugal's GDP per capita was of about 80% of the EU-27 average. The Global Competitiveness Report of 2008–2009 ranked Portugal 43rd out of 134 countries and territories. Research by the Economist Intelligence Unit's (EIU) Quality of Life survey in 2005 ranked Portugal 19th in the world. Portugal is home to a number of major companies with international reputation such as Grupo Portucel Soporcel, a major world player in the international paper market, Sonae Indústria, the largest producer of wood-based panels in the world, Corticeira Amorim, the world leader in cork production, and Conservas Ramirez, the oldest canned fish producer in continuous operation.

João da Nova

João da Nova (Galician spelling Xoán de Novoa or Joam de Nôvoa, Spanish spelling Juan de Nova; Portuguese pronunciation: [ʒuˈɐ̃w̃ dɐ ˈnɔvɐ]; born c. 1460 in Maceda, Ourense, Galicia; died July 16, 1509 in Kochi, India) was a Galician explorer of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans at the service of Portugal. He is credited as the discoverer of Ascension and Saint Helena islands.

The Juan de Nova Island, in the Mozambique Channel, is named after him. The Farquhar atoll (in the Seychelles) was, for a long time, known as the João da Nova islands. It is sometimes thought that the Agaléga islands (in the Indian Ocean) was also named after him (although it is almost certain he never visited them).

Ludovico di Varthema

Ludovico di Varthema, also known as Barthema and Vertomannus (c. 1470 – 1517), was an Italian traveller, diarist and aristocrat known for being the first non-Muslim European to enter Mecca as a pilgrim. Nearly everything that is known about his life comes from his own account of his travels, Itinerario de Ludouico de Varthema Bolognese, published in Rome in 1510.

Malagueta pepper

Malagueta pepper (Portuguese pronunciation: [mɐlɐˈɣeːtɐ]), a variety of Capsicum frutescens, is a type of chili pepper widely used in Brazil, the Caribbean, Portugal, Mozambique, Angola, and São Tomé and Príncipe. It is heavily used in the Bahia state of Brazil. It apparently got its name from the unrelated melegueta pepper (a seed-derived spice) from West Africa, because of a similar level of piquancy (spiciness or hotness of flavor).

It is a small, tapered, green chili that turns red as it matures, at about 5 cm (2 in) in length. It has a range of 60,000 to 100,000 Scoville units. Two sizes are seen in markets, which sometimes have different names: the smaller ones are called malaguetinha in Brazil, and as piri piri (a Swahili name) in Mozambique and in Portugal, though this name is now also used for a newer, derived African cultivar, the piri piri pepper), while the larger ones are called malagueta in both Brazil and Portugal. They are not different varieties, just peppers of different maturities from the same plant. In Portugal, it is sometimes simply referred to as pimenta or chili, though other varieties are available in modern markets today. It is also known in Angola by the names of jindungo, ndongo, nedungo, and pripíri in various local languages. In Cape Verde, malagueta is called malgueta and margueta in the Criola language.


Marchionni is an Italian surname. Notable people with the surname include:

Bartolomeo Marchionni, Florentine merchant

Carlo Marchionni (1702–1786), Italian architect

Lorenzo Marchionni (born 1994), Italian footballer

Marco Marchionni (born 1980), Italian footballer

Portuguese Empire

The Portuguese Empire (Portuguese: Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (Ultramar Português) or the Portuguese Colonial Empire (Império Colonial Português), was one of the largest and longest-lived empires in world history. It existed for almost six centuries, from the capture of Ceuta in 1415, to the handover of Portuguese Macau to China in 1999. The empire began in the 15th century, and from the early 16th century it stretched across the globe, with bases in North and South America, Africa, and various regions of Asia and Oceania. The Portuguese Empire has been described as the first global empire in history, a description also given to the Spanish Empire.The Portuguese Empire originated at the beginning of the Age of Discovery, and the power and influence of the Kingdom of Portugal would eventually expand across the globe. In the wake of the Reconquista, Portuguese sailors began exploring the coast of Africa and the Atlantic archipelagos in 1418–19, using recent developments in navigation, cartography and maritime technology such as the caravel, with the aim of finding a sea route to the source of the lucrative spice-trade. In 1488 Bartolomeu Dias rounded the Cape of Good Hope, and in 1498 Vasco da Gama reached India. In 1500, either by an accidental landfall or by the crown's secret design, Pedro Álvares Cabral discovered Brazil on the South American coast.

Over the following decades, Portuguese sailors continued to explore the coasts and islands of East Asia, establishing forts and factories as they went. By 1571 a string of naval outposts connected Lisbon to Nagasaki along the coasts of Africa, the Middle East, India and South Asia. This commercial network and the colonial trade had a substantial positive impact on Portuguese economic growth (1500–1800), when it accounted for about a fifth of Portugal's per-capita income.

When King Philip II of Spain (Philip I of Portugal) inherited the Portuguese crown in 1580 there began a 60-year union between Spain and Portugal known to subsequent historiography as the Iberian Union. The realms continued to have separate administrations. As the King of Spain was also King of Portugal, Portuguese colonies became the subject of attacks by three rival European powers hostile to Spain: the Dutch Republic, England, and France. With its smaller population, Portugal found itself unable to effectively defend its overstretched network of trading posts, and the empire began a long and gradual decline. Eventually, Brazil became the most valuable colony of the second era of empire (1663–1825), until, as part of the wave of independence movements that swept the Americas during the early 19th century, it broke away in 1822.

The third era of empire covers the final stage of Portuguese colonialism after the independence of Brazil in the 1820s. By then, the colonial possessions had been reduced to forts and plantations along the African coastline (expanded inland during the Scramble for Africa in the late 19th century), Portuguese Timor, and enclaves in India (Portuguese India) and China (Portuguese Macau). The 1890 British Ultimatum led to the contraction of Portuguese ambitions in Africa.

Under António Salazar (in office 1932–1968), the Second Portuguese Republic made some ill-fated attempts to cling on to its last remaining colonies. Under the ideology of Pluricontinentalism, the regime renamed its colonies "overseas provinces" while retaining the system of forced labour, from which only a small indigenous élite was normally exempt. In 1961 India annexed Goa and Dahomey (now Benin) annexed Fort of São João Baptista de Ajudá. The Portuguese Colonial War in Africa lasted from 1961 until the final overthrow of the Estado Novo regime in 1974. The so-called Carnation Revolution of April 1974 in Lisbon led to the hasty decolonization of Portuguese Africa and to the 1975 annexation of Portuguese Timor by Indonesia. Decolonization prompted the exodus of nearly all the Portuguese colonial settlers and of many mixed-race people from the colonies. Portugal returned Macau to China in 1999. The only overseas possessions to remain under Portuguese rule, the Azores and Madeira, both had overwhelmingly Portuguese populations, and Lisbon subsequently changed their constitutional status from "overseas provinces" to "autonomous regions".

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