Bartolomé Mitre

Bartolomé Mitre Martínez (26 June 1821 – 19 January 1906) was an Argentine statesman, military figure, and author. He was the President of Argentina from 1862 to 1868.

Bartolomé Mitre
BartolomeMitre
President of Argentina
In office
12 October 1862 – 12 October 1868
Interim: 12 December 1861 – 12 October 1862
Vice PresidentMarcos Paz
Preceded byJuan Esteban Pedernera
Succeeded byDomingo Faustino Sarmiento
7th Governor of Buenos Aires
In office
3 May 1860 – 11 October 1862
Vice GovernorManuel Ocampo
Vicente Cazón
Preceded byFelipe Llavallol
Succeeded byVicente Cazón
Personal details
Born26 June 1821
Buenos Aires
Died19 January 1906 (aged 84)
Buenos Aires
Resting placeLa Recoleta Cemetery
NationalityArgentine
Political partyColorado (Uruguay)
Unitary (1851–1862)
Liberal (1862–1874)
National (1874)
Civic Union (1890–1891)
National Civic Union (1891–1906)
Spouse(s)Delfina Vedia
Military service
Allegiance Argentina
Branch/serviceSeal of the Argentine Army.svg Argentine Army
RankTeniente General.PNG Lieutenant general

Life and times

Mitre was born in Buenos Aires to a Greek family originally named Mitropoulos.[1]

As a liberal, he was an opponent of Juan Manuel de Rosas, and he was forced into exile. He worked as a soldier and journalist in Uruguay as a supporter of General Fructuoso Rivera, who named Mitre Lieutenant Colonel of the Uruguayan Army in 1846. Mitre later lived in Bolivia, Peru, and Chile, and in the latter country, he collaborated with legal scholar and fellow Argentine exile Juan Bautista Alberdi in the latter's periodical, El Comercio of Valparaíso.

Mitre returned to Argentina after the defeat of Rosas at the 1852 Battle of Caseros. He was a leader of the revolt of Buenos Aires Province against Justo José de Urquiza's federal system in the Revolution of 11 September 1852, and was appointed to important posts in the provincial government after the Province seceded from the Confederation.

President of Argentina

The civil war of 1859, after the revolt of Buenos Aires against Justo José de Urquiza's federal system, resulted in Mitre's defeat by Urquiza at the Battle of Cepeda, in 1860. Issues of customs revenue sharing were settled, and Buenos Aires reentered the Argentine Confederation. Victorious at the 1861 Battle of Pavón, however, Mitre obtained important concessions from the national army, notably the amendment of the Constitution to provide for indirect elections through an electoral college.[2] In October 1862, Mitre was elected president of the republic, and national political unity was finally achieved; a period of internal progress and reform then commenced. During the Paraguayan War, Mitre was initially named the head of the allied forces.

Mitre was also the founder of La Nación, one of South America's leading newspapers, in 1870. His opposition to Autonomist Party nominee Adolfo Alsina, whom he viewed as a veiled Buenos Aires separatist, led Mitre to run for the presidency again, though the seasoned Alsina outmaneuvered him by fielding Nicolás Avellaneda, a moderate lawyer from remote Tucuman Province where the independence of Argentina had been declared in 1816. The electoral college met on 12 April 1874, and awarded Mitre only three provinces, including Buenos Aires.

Mitre visiting the Museum of History, 1901

Mitre took up arms again. Hoping to prevent Avellaneda's 12 October inaugural, he mutineered a gunboat; he was defeated, however, and only President Avellaneda's commutation spared his life.[3] Following the 1890 Revolution of the Park, he broke with the conservative National Autonomist Party (PAN) and co-founded the Civic Union with reformist Leandro Alem. Mitre's desire to maintain an understanding with the ruling PAN led to the Civic Union's schism in 1891, upon which Mitre founded the National Civic Union, and Alem, the Radical Civic Union (the oldest existing party in Argentina).

He dedicated much of his time in later years to writing. According to some of his critics, as a historian Mitre took several questionable actions, often ignoring key documents and events on purpose in his writings. This caused his student Adolfo Saldías to distance himself from him, and for future revisionist historians such as José María Rosa to question the validity of his work altogether. He also wrote poetry and fiction (Soledad: novela original), and translated Dante's La divina commedia (The Divine Comedy) into Spanish. He was also an active freemason,[4] and the grandfather of poet, Margarita Abella Caprile.

On his death in 1906, he was interred in La Recoleta Cemetery in Buenos Aires. 19 January 2006 marked the centenary of Mitre's death.

Bibliography

Mitre ranks as an important South-American historiographer. He wrote the best accounts of South America's wars of independence and published many works, amongst which are:

There is an abridged translation of the Historia de San Martín, entitled The Emancipation of South America (London, 1893) by W. Pilling. Mitre's speeches were collected as Arengas (third edition, three volumes, 1902).

Gallery

Daguerrotipobartolommit

Bartolomé Mitre at age 33, 1854

Bartolomé Mitre

Mitre's official portrait, 1861

Bartolome mitre circa 1870

Mitre, perhaps around age 49, 1870

Bagley ad politicians

1889 ad with caricatures of Mitre and other politicians

Argentina-1895-Bill-0.20-Obverse

Mitre's portrait on an 1895 bill

Sepulcro Bartolome Mitre I

Mitre's tomb in La Recoleta Cemetery

References

  • J. J. Biedma, El Teniente General Bartolomé Mitre, in Bartolomé Mitre, Arengas, volume iii (Buenos Aires, 1902).
  • William H. Katra, The Argentine Generation of 1837: Echeverría, Alberdi, Sarmiento, Mitre (Madison, N.J.: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1996).
  1. ^ Gardner, James. "The Biography of a City", 110. (St Martin's Press, 2015, ISBN 9781466879034).
  2. ^ Historical Dictionary of Argentina. London: Scarecrow Press, 1978.
  3. ^ Todo Argentina: 1874 (in Spanish)
  4. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 22 September 2013. Retrieved 2 April 2013.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)

External links

Political offices
Preceded by
Juan E. Pedernera
President of Argentina
1862–1868
Succeeded by
Domingo F. Sarmiento
1862 Argentine presidential election

The Argentine presidential election of 1862 was held on 4 September to choose the first president of Argentina. Bartolomé Mitre was elected president.

Avellaneda Partido

Avellaneda is a partido in Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. It has an area of 55.17 km² (21.3 sq mi) and a population of 663,953 in 2001. Its administrative seat is the city of Avellaneda.

The partido is located in the Greater Buenos Aires urban area, separated from the city of Buenos Aires by the Matanza River, popularly known as Riachuelo. The Bartolomé Mitre is the main avenue of the district, connecting with the main federal city through two bridges, the Pueyrredón Bridge to Barracas and the New Pueyrredón Bridge, directly to the 9 de Julio Avenue. The Nicolás Avellaneda Bridge also connects the Isla Maciel (in Dock Sud) with La Boca neighbourhood.

Battle of Cepeda (1859)

The Battle of Cepeda of 1859 took place on October 23 at Cañada de Cepeda, Santa Fe, Argentina. The Republic of the Argentine Confederation army, led by Federal Justo José de Urquiza defeated the State of Buenos Aires forces, led by Unitarian Bartolomé Mitre.

Battle of Pavón

The Battle of Pavón was a key battle of the Argentine civil wars. It was fought in Pavón, Santa Fé Province, Argentina on 17 September 1861, between the Army of the State of Buenos Aires, commanded by Bartolomé Mitre, and the Army of Republic of the Argentine Confederation commanded by Justo José de Urquiza. The withdrawal of Urquiza left the field to Mitre.

It led to the dissolution of the national government and the reincorporation of Buenos Aires Province into the Argentine Republic as a dominant member of the nation. Governor Bartolomé Mitre would act as interim President, ratified by the National Congress, and then as the first President of a unified Argentine Republic.

Battle of Yataytí Corá

The Battle of Yataytí Corá was a battle of the Paraguay War fought between Argentina and Paraguay in Yataytí Corá, Paraguayan territory. The Argentinian troops under the leadership of President and General Bartolomé Mitre won the conflict.

Civic Union (Argentina)

The Civic Union was a short-lived political party in Argentina, founded on April 13, 1890 out of the Civic Union of the Youth. That same year it led the Revolution of the Park that forced President Miguel Juárez Celman resignation, but shortly after dissolved itself in two branches, the Radical Civic Union and the National Civic Union, each following one of the Civic Union's foremost leaders, Leandro Alem and Bartolomé Mitre.

Ferrocarriles Mediterráneos

Ferrocarriles Mediterráneos S.A. (FEMED) was an Argentine company which operated a 5 ft 6 in (1,676 mm) broad gauge railway line between Córdoba and Villa María originally built by the British-owned Central Argentine Railway, which became part of Ferrocarril General Bartolomé Mitre after railway nationalization in 1948.

General Bartolomé Mitre Railway

The General Bartolomé Mitre Railway (FCGBM) (native name: Ferrocarril General Bartolomé Mitre), named after the former Argentine president Bartolomé Mitre, is one of the six state-owned Argentine railway lines formed after President Juan Perón's nationalisation of the railway network in 1948 and one of the largest of Argentina. The six divisions, managed by Ferrocarriles Argentinos were later broken up during the process of railway privatisation beginning in 1991 during Carlos Menem's presidency.

The FCGBM incorporated the British-owned 5 ft 6 in (1,676 mm) broad gauge company, Central Argentine Railway, and the northern section of the French-owned broad gauge Rosario and Puerto Belgrano Railway.

The principal lines departed from Retiro railway terminus in Buenos Aires to the north through the provinces of Buenos Aires, Santa Fe, Córdoba, Santiago del Estero and Tucumán.

The Ferrocarril Mitre also has a branch that extends from Villa Gobernador Gálvez in Santa Fe Province to Puerto Belgrano, south of the Buenos Aires Province. This branch was part of the Rosario and Puerto Belgrano Railway although it is out of use nowadays.

Historia de Belgrano y de la Independencia Argentina

Historia de Belgrano y de la Independencia Argentina (in Spanish, History of Belgrano and of the Independence of Argentina) is an Argentine history book written by Bartolomé Mitre. It is mainly a biography of Manuel Belgrano, but the author expanded the scope into the whole Argentine War of Independence, where Belgrano was involved. It was the first book about the history of Argentina, and as such it was the starting point of the historiography of Argentina. It includes as well the autobiography of Manuel Belgrano, which was published by the first time in this book.

When it was edited, the book generated controversies between the author and Dalmacio Vélez Sarsfield and Juan Bautista Alberdi.

Historia de San Martín y de la emancipación sudamericana

Historia de San Martín y de la emancipación sudamericana (Spanish: History of San Martín and the South American emancipation) is a biography of José de San Martín, written by Bartolomé Mitre in 1869. Along with his biography of Manuel Belgrano, it is one of the earliest major works of the historiography of Argentina.

Historiography of Argentina

The Historiography of Argentina is composed of the works of the authors that have written about the History of Argentina. The first historiographical works are usually considered to be those by Bartolomé Mitre and other authors from the middle 19th century.

La Banda

La Banda is a city in the province of Santiago del Estero, Argentina. It has about 95,000 inhabitants as per the 2001 census [INDEC], making it the second largest in the province. It is the head town of the Banda Department.

La Banda is located only 8 km away from the provincial capital Santiago del Estero, separated from it by the course of the Dulce River, which is crossed by two connecting bridges. The two cities form a metropolitan area with about 280,000 inhabitants. Close to it, the Dulce is turned into an artificial lake by the Los Quiroga Dam.

Besides the access to National Route 9 through Santiago del Estero, the city is linked to Tucumán and to Buenos Aires by a weekly train service of the Ferrocarril General Bartolomé Mitre.

La Banda is the birthplace of the infamous former provincial governor and caudillo Carlos Juárez.

La Nación

La Nación (The Nation) is an Argentine daily newspaper. As the country's leading conservative paper, La Nación's main competitor is the centrist Clarín.

Liberal Party of Corrientes

The Liberal Party of Corrientes (Spanish: Partido Liberal de Corrientes) is a liberal conservative provincial political party in Corrientes Province, Argentina. Founded in 1856, it is the oldest political party in Argentina still active.The Party had its origins in the Federalist traditions of Corrientes and was founded on 15 December 1856 by Juan Eusebio Torrent. From its first activities it supported Bartolomé Mitre at the national level. José Pampín was elected Corrientes Governor in 1861, the first of 17 Liberal governors. Torrent was Mitre's vice-presidential candidate in 1874.The party's leading past figures include Juan Balestra, a government minister under Carlos Pellegrini, Raimundo Meabe who governed Salta and Buenos Aires provinces, and Juan R. Aguirre Lanari, a senator and government minister.The Party was a member of the national Recrear electoral alliance then led by Ricardo López Murphy, having backed López Murphy for president in 2003.

Mitre Line

The Mitre line is an Argentine broad gauge commuter rail service in Buenos Aires Province as part of Ferrocarril General Bartolomé Mitre. The service is currently operated by State-owned company Operadora Ferroviaria Sociedad del Estado after the Government of Argentina rescinded contract with Corredores Ferroviarios in March 2015.

Monument to Bartolomé Mitre

The Monumento ecuestre a Bartolomé Mitre located on Plaza Bartolomé Mitre, a landmark in the Recoleta neighbourhood of Buenos Aires, Argentina, and was raised in honor of Bartolomé Mitre (1821-1906).

It is a work by Italian sculptors David Calandra and Eduardo Rubino in 1927.

The Mitre bronze figure stands on a polished red granite base surrounded by allegories of Carrara marble. The monument was inaugurated on July 8, 1927, with a speech by the Minister of War, General Agustín P. Justo.

Museo Mitre

The Museo Mitre (Spanish) (Mitre Museum) in Buenos Aires, Argentina, is a museum dedicated to Argentine history, as well as to the legacy of President Bartolomé Mitre.

National Civic Union (Argentina)

The National Civic Union (in Spanish Unión Cívica Nacional) was an Argentine political party formed in 1891 as the result of a split in the Civic Union, and dissolved in 1916. It was initially based largely on the personality of its leader, Bartolomé Mitre.

Villa General Mitre

Villa General Mitre is a neighborhood, or barrio, of Buenos Aires.

The ward has a land area of 2.2 square kilometers (0.9 mi²), and a population of 36,000. It was named after General Bartolomé Mitre, President of Argentina from 1862 to 1868.

Villa Mitre was developed on land originally purchased by Francisco Ruiz de Gaona during the late colonial era, and he lived there until his death in 1813; Gaona Avenue, located along the ward's southern border, was named in his honor. The land was later subdivided into smallholdings mainly devoted to alfalfa, horticulture, and brick kilns. It became home to a large Italian immigrant community during the late 19th century, and in 1901 Mother Frances Xavier Cabrini founded the future Cabrini Institute here (one of 67 around the world, and her first in South America).

Initially a subdivision of the Villa Santa Rita ward to the west, Villa Mitre was formally established as such on November 6, 1908; it was named in honor of former President Bartolomé Mitre, who died in 1906. The neighborhood remained prone to flooding until work began in 1929 on converting the Maldonado Stream into an underground storm sewer, above which Juan B. Justo Avenue was inaugurated in 1936. A block-sized lot adjacent to the Cabrini Institute was purchased by the City Government in 1937 to create Sáenz Peña Square, the neighborhood's largest park. Diego Maradona Stadium, home venue for the Argentinos Juniors football team, was inaugurated in Villa Mitre in 2003.

May Revolution and Independence War Period
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Supreme Directors of the United Provinces
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Unitarian Republic – First Presidential Government (1826–1827)
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National OrganizationArgentine Republic (1862–1880)
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Infamous Decade (1930–1943)
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