Bartholomew (Ancient Greek: Βαρθολομαῖος, romanized: Bartholomaîos; Latin: Bartholomaeus; Coptic: ⲃⲁⲣⲑⲟⲗⲟⲙⲉⲟⲥ; Hebrew: בר-תולמי; Arabic: بَرثُولَماوُس, romanized: Barthulmāwus) was one of the twelve apostles of Jesus. He has also been identified as Nathanael or Nathaniel, who appears in the Gospel of John when introduced to Jesus by Philip (who would also become an apostle),[Jn 1:43-51] although many modern commentators reject the identification of Nathanael with Bartholomew.
According to the Synaxarium of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, Bartholomew's martyrdom is commemorated on the first day of the Coptic calendar (i.e. the first day of the month of Thout), which currently falls on September 11 (corresponding to August 29 in the Julian calendar). Eastern Christianity honours him on June 11 and the Roman Catholic Church honours him on August 24. The Church of England and other Anglican churches also honor him on August 24.
Bartholomew English for Bar Talmai (Greek: Βαρθολομαῖος, transliterated "Bartholomaios" in Greek) comes from the Aramaic: בר-תולמי bar-Tolmay native to Israel "son of Talmai" or "son of the furrows". Bartholomew is listed among the Twelve Apostles of Jesus in the three synoptic gospels: Matthew,[10:1–4] Mark,[3:13–19] and Luke,[6:12–16] and also appears as one of the witnesses of the Ascension[Acts 1:4,12,13]; on each occasion, however, he is named in the company of Philip. He is not mentioned by the name Bartholomew in the Gospel of John, nor are there any early acta, the earliest being written by a pseudepigraphical writer, Pseudo-Abdias, who assumed the identity of Abdias of Babylon and to whom is attributed the Saint-Thierry (Reims, Bibl. mun., ms 142) and Pseudo-Abdias manuscripts.
In art Bartholomew is most commonly depicted with a beard and curly hair at the time of his martyrdom. According to legends he was skinned alive and beheaded so is often depicted holding his flayed skin or the curved flensing knife with which he was skinned.
Saint Bartholomew the Apostle
Saint John and Saint Bartholomew (right) by Dosso Dossi, 1527
|Apostle and martyr|
|Born||1st century AD|
Cana, Galilee, Roman Empire
|Died||1st century AD|
|Venerated in||Assyrian Church of the East|
Eastern Orthodox Church
Islam (named in Muslim exegesis as one of the disciples)
|Major shrine||Saint Bartholomew Monastery in historical Armenia, Relics at Basilica of San Bartolomeo in Benevento, Italy, Saint Bartholomew-on-the-Tiber Church, Rome, the Canterbury Cathedral, the Cathedral in Frankfurt, and the San Bartolomeo Cathedral in Lipari|
|Feast||August 24 (Western Christianity)|
June 11 (Eastern Christianity)
|Attributes||Knife and his flayed skin, Red Martyrdom|
|Patronage||Armenia; bookbinders; butchers; Florentine cheese and salt merchants; Gambatesa, Italy; Catbalogan, Samar; Malabon, Metro Manila; Nagcarlan, Laguna, Philippines; Għargħur, Malta; leather workers; neurological diseases; plasterers; shoemakers; curriers; tanners; trappers; twitching; whiteners ; Los Cerricos (Spain)|
In the East, where Bartholomew's evangelical labours were expended, he was identified as Nathanael, in works by Abdisho bar Berika (often known as Ebedjesu in the West), the 14th century Nestorian metropolitan of Soba, and Elias, the bishop of Damascus. Nathanael is mentioned only in the Gospel of John. In the Synoptic Gospels, Philip and Bartholomew are always mentioned together, while Nathanael is never mentioned; in John's gospel, on the other hand, Philip and Nathanael are similarly mentioned together. Giuseppe Simone Assemani specifically remarks, "the Chaldeans confound Bartholomew with Nathaniel". Some Biblical scholars reject this identification, however.
Eusebius of Caesarea's Ecclesiastical History (5:10) states that after the Ascension, Bartholomew went on a missionary tour to India, where he left behind a copy of the Gospel of Matthew. Other traditions record him as serving as a missionary in Ethiopia, Mesopotamia, Parthia, and Lycaonia. Popular traditions and legends say that Bartholomew preached the Gospel in India, then went to Greater Armenia.
Two ancient testimonies exist about the mission of Saint Bartholomew in India. These are of Eusebius of Caesarea (early 4th century) and of Saint Jerome (late 4th century). Both of these refer to this tradition while speaking of the reported visit of Pantaenus to India in the 2nd century. The studies of Fr A.C. Perumalil SJ and Moraes hold that the Bombay region on the Konkan coast, a region which may have been known as the ancient city Kalyan, was the field of Saint Bartholomew's missionary activities.
Along with his fellow apostle Jude "Thaddeus", Bartholomew is reputed to have brought Christianity to Armenia in the 1st century. Thus, both saints are considered the patron saints of the Armenian Apostolic Church.
One tradition has it that Apostle Bartholomew was executed in Albanopolis in Armenia. According to popular hagiography, the apostle was flayed alive and beheaded. According to other accounts he was crucified upside down (head downward) like St. Peter. He is said to have been martyred for having converted Polymius, the king of Armenia, to Christianity. Enraged by the monarch's conversion, and fearing a Roman backlash, king Polymius's brother, prince Astyages, ordered Bartholomew's torture and execution, which Bartholomew courageously endured. However, there are no records of any Armenian King of the Arsacid dynasty of Armenia with the name Polymius. Current scholarship indicates that Bartholomew more likely died in Kalyan in India, where there was an official named Polymius.
The 13th-century Saint Bartholomew Monastery was a prominent Armenian monastery constructed at the site of the martyrdom of Apostle Bartholomew in Vaspurakan, Greater Armenia (now in southeastern Turkey).
The 6th-century writer in Constantinople, Theodorus Lector, averred that in about 507, the Byzantine emperor Anastasius I Dicorus gave the body of Bartholomew to the city of Dura-Europos, which he had recently refounded. The existence of relics at Lipari, a small island off the coast of Sicily, in the part of Italy controlled from Constantinople, was explained by Gregory of Tours by his body having miraculously washed up there: a large piece of his skin and many bones that were kept in the Cathedral of St Bartholomew the Apostle, Lipari, were translated to Benevento in 838, where they are still kept now in the Basilica San Bartolomeo. A small part of the relics was given in 983 by Otto II, Holy Roman Emperor, to Rome, where it is conserved at San Bartolomeo all'Isola, which was founded on the temple of Asclepius, an important Roman medical centre. This association with medicine in course of time caused Bartholomew's name to become associated with medicine and hospitals. Some of Bartholomew's alleged skull was transferred to the Frankfurt Cathedral, while an arm was venerated in Canterbury Cathedral.
Of the many miracles claimed to have been performed by Bartholomew before and after his death, two very popular ones are known by the townsfolk of the small Italian island of Lipari.
The people of Lipari celebrated his feast day annually. The tradition of the people was to take the solid silver and gold statue from inside the Cathedral of St Bartholomew and carry it through the town. On one occasion, when taking the statue down the hill towards the town, it suddenly became very heavy and had to be set down. When the men carrying the statue regained their strength, they lifted it a second time. After another few seconds, it got even heavier. They set it down and attempted once more to pick it up. They managed to lift it but had to put it down one last time. Within seconds, walls further downhill collapsed. If the statue had been able to be lifted, all the townspeople would have been killed.
During World War II, the Fascist regime looked for ways to finance their activities. The order was given to take the silver statue of Saint Bartholomew and melt it down. The statue was weighed, and it was found to be only a few grams. It was returned to its place in the Cathedral of Lipari. In reality, the statue is made from many kilograms of silver and it is considered a miracle that it was not melted down.
Saint Bartholomew is credited with many other miracles having to do with the weight of objects.
The appearance of the saint is described in detail in the Golden Legend: "His hair is black and crisped, his skin fair, his eyes wide, his nose even and straight, his beard thick and with few grey hairs; he is of medium stature..." Christian tradition has three stories about Bartholomew's death: "One speaks of his being kidnapped, beaten unconscious, and cast into the sea to drown. Another account states that he was crucified upside down, and another says that he was skinned alive and beheaded in Albac or Albanopolis", near Başkale, Turkey
St Bartholomew is the most prominent flayed Christian martyr. During the 16th century, images of the flaying of Bartholomew were so popular that it came to signify the saint in works of art. Consequently, Saint Bartholomew is most often represented being skinned alive. Symbols associated with the saint include knives (alluding to the knife used to skin the saint alive) and his skin, which Bartholomew holds or drapes around his body. Similarly, the ancient herald of Bartholomew is known by "flaying knives with silver blades and gold handles, on a red field." As in Michelangelo’s Last Judgement, the saint is often depicted with both the knife and his skin. Representations of Bartholomew with a chained demon is common in Spanish painting.
St Bartholomew is often depicted in lavish medieval manuscripts. Manuscripts, which are literally made from flayed and manipulated skin, hold a strong visual and cognitive association with the saint during the medieval period and can also be seen as depicting book production. Florentine artist Pacino di Bonaguida, depicts his martyrdom in a complex and striking composition in his Laudario of Sant’Agnese, a book of Italian Hymns produced for the Compagnia di Sant’Agnese c. 1340. In the five scene, narrative based image three torturers flay Bartholomew's legs and arms as he is immobilised and chained to a gate. On the right, the saint wears his own flesh tied around his neck while he kneels in prayer before a rock, his severed head fallen to the ground. Another example includes the Flaying of St. Bartholomew in the Luttrell Psalter c.1325-40. Bartholomew is depicted on a surgical table, surrounded by tormentors while he is flayed with golden knives.
Due to the nature of his martyrdom, Bartholomew is the patron saint of tanners, plasterers, tailors, leatherworkers, bookbinders, farmers, housepainters, butchers, and glove makers. In works of art the saint has been depicted being skinned by tanners, as in Guido da Siena's reliquary shutters with the Martyrdoms of St. Francis, St. Claire, St. Bartholomew, and St. Catherine of Alexandria. Popular in Florence and other areas in Tuscany, the saint also came to be associated with salt, oil, and cheese merchants.
Although Bartholomew's death is commonly depicted in artworks of a religious nature, his story has also been used to represent anatomical depictions of the human body devoid of flesh. An example of this can be seen in Marco d'Agrate's St Bartholomew Flayed (1562) where Bartholomew is depicted wrapped in his own skin with every muscle, vein and tendon clearly visible, acting as a clear description of the muscles and structure of the human body.
The Martyrdom of Saint Bartholomew (1634) by Jusepe de Ribera depicts Bartholomew's final moments before being flayed alive. The viewer is meant to empathize with Bartholomew, whose body seemingly bursts through the surface of the canvas, and whose outstretched arms embrace a mystical light that illuminates his flesh. His piercing eyes, open mouth, and petitioning left hand bespeak an intense communion with the divine; yet this same hand draws our attention to the instruments of his torture, symbolically positioned in the shape of a cross. Transfixed by Bartholomew's active faith, the executioner seems to have stopped short in his actions, and his furrowed brow and partially illuminated face suggest a moment of doubt, with the possibility of conversion.The representation of Bartholomew's demise in the National Gallery painting differs significantly from all other depictions by Ribera. By limiting the number of participants to the main protagonists of the story—the saint, his executioner, one of the priests who condemned him, and one of the soldiers who captured him—and presenting them halflength and filling the picture space, the artist rejected an active, movemented composition for one of intense psychological drama. The cusping along all four edges shows that the painting has not been cut down: Ribera intended the composition to be just such a tight, restricted presentation, with the figures cut off and pressed together.
The idea of using the story of Bartholomew being skinned alive to create an artwork depicting an anatomical study of a human is still common amongst contemporary artists with Gunther Von Hagens's The Skin Man (2002) and Damien Hirst's Exquisite Pain (2006). Within Gunther Von Hagens's body of work called 'Body Worlds' a figure reminiscent of Bartholomew holds up his skin. This figure is depicted in actual human tissues (made possible by Hagens's plastination process) to educate the public about the inner workings of the human body and to show the effects of healthy and unhealthy lifestyles. In Exquisite Pain 2006, Damien Hirst depicts St Bartholomew with a high level of anatomical detail with his flayed skin draped over his right arm, a scalpel in one hand and a pair of scissors in the other. The inclusion of scissors was inspired by Tim Burton's film 'Edward Scissorhands' (1990).
Bartholomew plays a part in Francis Bacon's Utopian tale New Atlantis, about a mythical isolated land, Bensalem, populated by a people dedicated to reason and natural philosophy. Some twenty years after the ascension of Christ the people of Bensalem found an ark floating off their shore. The ark contained a letter as well as the books of the Old and New Testaments. The letter was from Bartholomew the Apostle and declared that an angel told him to set the ark and its contents afloat. Thus the scientists of Bensalem received the revelation of the Word of God.
The festival in August has been a traditional occasion for markets and fairs, such as the Bartholomew Fair which was held in Smithfield, London, from the Middle Ages, and which served as the scene for Ben Jonson's homonymous comedy.
St Bartholomew's Street Fair is held in Crewkerne, Somerset, annually at the start of September. The fair dates back to Saxon times and the major traders' market was recorded in the Domesday Book. St Bartholomew's Street Fair, Crewkerne is reputed to have been granted its charter in the time of Henry III (1207–1272). The earliest surviving court record was made in 1280, which can be found in the British Library. The associated fun fair dates from at least 1861.
Template:TanaakBartolo (given name)
Bartolo as a given name may refer to:
Bartholomew the Apostle (St. Bartholomew), known as San Bartolo in Spanish-speaking countries
Bartolo Colón (born 1973), Dominican baseball pitcher
Bartolo di Fredi (1330-1410), Sienese School
Bl. Bartolo Longo (1841–1926), former Satanist priest who became a lay Dominican
Bartolo Musil, Austrian musician
Bartolo Portuondo, Cuban baseball playerCassano Irpino
Cassano Irpino is a town and comune in the province of Avellino, Campania, southern Italy.Catbalogan
Catbalogan, officially the City of Catbalogan, or simply referred to as Catbalogan City, is the capital of the province of Samar, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 103,879 people.It is Samar's main commercial, trading, educational, financial and political center. The city is the gateway to the region's three Samar provinces.
Catbalogan's patron saint is St. Bartholomew the Apostle whose feast day is August 24.
The Philippine Army's 8th Infantry Division (Stormtroopers) is based at Camp General Vicente Lukban, Barangay Maulong, Catbalogan City. The camp is named in honor of Gen. Vicente Lukbán, a Filipino officer in Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo's staff during the Philippine Revolution and the politico-military chief of Samar and Leyte during the Philippine-American War.Donald Keith Hummel
Donald Keith Hummel is an American Roman Catholic priest of the Archdiocese of Newark. Father Hummel is the Director of the Continuing Education and Formation of Priests for the Archdiocese of Newark. He has served as pastor of St. Bartholomew the Apostle in Scotch Plains, New Jersey from 2000 to 2005.An Eagle Scout, Father Hummel has served as national chaplain to the National Catholic Committee on Scouting since 2001. He has also served as chaplain at Philmont Scout Ranch in New Mexico and chaplain to four national Scout jamborees. He received the Distinguished Eagle Scout Award in 1999 and the Silver Buffalo Award in 2004.
Currently, he works at Paramus Catholic High School to teach Religion to juniors and seniors, allowing them to broaden their ideas and critical thinking in concepts about God, Jesus Christ, the Holy Spirit, sacraments, and other strong Catholic concepts and beliefs.Mogiła Abbey
Mogiła Abbey (Polish: Opactwo Cystersów w Mogile; Latin: Abbatia B.M.V. de Clara Tumba) is a Cistercian monastery in the Nowa Huta District of Kraków, Poland. The abbey was founded in 1222 by the Bishop of Kraków, Iwo Odrowąż. The religious complex was built for religious reasons as well as for prestige. It was the largest and most impressive church in medieval Poland after Wawel Cathedral, and served as the Odrowąż family's burial place until the 16th century.The architectural complex includes the stuccoed Polish Gothic church, the Basilica of the Holy Cross (Polish: Bazylika Krzyża Świętego), which serves as the Parish Church of St. Bartholomew the Apostle as well as the abbey church for the monks. There is also the Polish Renaissance-style abbot's palace, built around 1569, as well as the red-brick monastery, with a broad inner courtyard, outbuildings, vegetable garden, greenhouse, etc.Nathanael (follower of Jesus)
Nathanael (Hebrew נתנאל, "God has given") of Cana in Galilee was a follower or disciple of Jesus, mentioned only in the Gospel of John in Chapters 1 and 21.Saint Bartholomew Monastery
Saint Bartholomew Monastery (Armenian: Սուրբ Բարդուղիմեոսի վանք, Surb Barduğimeosi vank' ; Western Armenian: Surp Part'uğimeosi vank' ) was a medieval Armenian monastery in the historic province of Vaspurakan, 23 km north-east from the town of Başkale, in present-day Turkey's Van Province, near the Iranian border. The monastery was built on the traditional site of martyrdom of Bartholomew the Apostle, who is reputed to have brought Christianity to Armenia in the first century. Along with Thaddeus the Apostle, Bartholomew is considered the patron saint of the Armenian Apostolic Church. It was a prominent pilgrimage site prior to the Armenian Genocide. Today, it is heavily ruined and the dome entirely gone.San Bartolome Apostol Parish Church (Nagcarlan)
The San Bartolome Apostol Parish Church (Saint Bartholomew, the Apostle Parish Church) is a Roman Catholic church in Nagcarlan, Laguna, Philippines. Its titular is St. Bartholomew and its feast day is celebrated every August 24.San Bartolome Church (Malabon)
San Bartolome Church is a Roman Catholic church located in Poblacion, Malabon, Metro Manila, Philippines. The church's titular is Malabon's patron saint, Saint Bartholomew the Apostle whose feast day falls on every 24th day of August.San Bartolomeo, Marne
San Bartolomeo (Bartholomew the Apostle) is a church in Marne, Italy. It was an independent parish until the village of Marne became a municipality.San Bartolomeo all'Isola
The Basilica of St. Bartholomew on the Island (Italian: Basilica di San Bartolomeo all'Isola, Latin: Basilica S. Bartholomaei in Insula) is a titular minor basilica, located in Rome, Italy. It was founded in 998 by Otto III, Holy Roman Emperor and contains relics of St. Bartholomew the Apostle. It is located on Tiber Island, on the site of the former temple of Aesculapius, which had cleansed the island of its former ill-repute among the Romans and established its reputation as a hospital, continued under Christian auspices today.
Its Cardinal priest has been Cardinal Blase Cupich since 19 November 2016.San Bartolomeo in Pantano
San Bartolomeo in Pantano is a Romanesque and Gothic style, Roman Catholic church in Pistoia, Tuscany, central Italy, dedicated to St. Bartholomew the Apostle. The pantano of the name refers to the once marshy area in which the building was located.San Leonardo, Nueva Ecija
San Leonardo, officially the Municipality of San Leonardo, is a 1st class municipality in the province of Nueva Ecija, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 65,299 people.San Leonardo is located between Gapan City and Santa Rosa. It is 103 kilometres (64 mi) from Manila. The area has a farming economy. San Leonardo has vast rice fields and land for growing vegetables and poultry products.Santi Bartolomeo ed Alessandro dei Bergamaschi
Santi Bartolomeo ed Alessandro dei Bergamaschi (Saint Bartholomew the Apostle and Alexander of Bergamo of the inhabitants of Bergamo) is a little church in Piazza Colonna in Rome, Italy, next to Palazzo Wedekind. Originally it was named Santa Maria della Pietà, from the high relief over the door. The present Santa Maria della Pietà in Rome is in Vatican City.
In its origins (1591) the church was the chapel erected by padre Ferrante Ruiz for the Ospedale dei Pazzarelli, Rome's first insane asylum. When this was moved to Via della Lungara in the 1720s, the church was given over to the Archiconfraternità dei Bergamaschi, who rebuilt it in 1731-35 to designs of Giuseppe Valvassori, added their patron saint to its dedication and used the hospital for their own sick. It is the burial place of Cardinal Giuseppe Alessandro Furietti, antiquarian and native of Bergamo.
It is looked after by the Arciconfraternità, a historic association of Bergamaschi living in Rome that was begun in 1539. It supports understanding of the culture, the values and the traditions of Bergamo and their fertile dialogue with those of Rome.St. Bartholomew's Church, Berchtesgaden
St. Bartholomew's (German: St. Bartholomä) is a Roman Catholic pilgrimage church in the Berchtesgadener Land district of Bavaria in Germany. It is named after Saint Bartholomew the Apostle (Bartholomäus in German), patron of alpine farmers and dairymen. The church is located at the western shore of the Königssee lake, on the Hirschau peninsula. It can only be reached by ship or after a long hike across the surrounding mountains.
A first chapel at the lake was built in 1134 by the Provosts of Berchtesgaden. In 1697 it was rebuilt in a Baroque style with a floor plan modelled on Salzburg Cathedral, two onion domes and a red domed roof. The church features stucco work by the Salzburg artist Joseph Schmidt and a three-apse choir. The altars in the apses are consecrated to Saint Bartholomew, Saint Catherine, and Saint James respectively.
An annual pilgrimage to St. Bartholomew's is held on the Saturday after 24 August, starting from the Austrian municipality of Maria Alm and crossing the Berchtesgaden Alps.
Near the chapel lies the old hunting lodge of the same name. The lodge, which was first erected in the 12th century with the church, has been rebuilt several times. Until 1803, it was a private residence of the Berchtesgaden Prince-provosts; after their territory had been incorporated into the Kingdom of Bavaria in 1810, the building became a favourite hunting lodge of the ruling House of Wittelsbach; today it is an inn.
The church can bee seen from a famous scenic viewpoint 743 meters above, which is called Archenkanzel.St. Bartholomew the Apostle Church, Kafr Kanna
The St. Bartholomew the Apostle Church (Hebrew: כנסיית בית ברתולומאוס השליח Latin: Ecclesia Sancti Bartholomei Apostoli) is the name given to a Catholic church administered by the Franciscan order in Kafr Kanna in Israel, built in honor of Cana, the place where Scripture says was the hometown of the apostle St. Bartholomew. The church was founded in 1885. Bartholomew is one of the apostles who according to the Bible were present at the miracle of the fish: "Later, by the Sea of Tiberias, Jesus again revealed Himself to the disciples. He made Himself known in this way: Simon Peter, Thomas called Didymus, Nathanael from Cana in Galilee, the sons of Zebedee, and two other disciples were together" (John 21: 1-2)
The front of the church features four pillars and a round window above the main doorway. In the center is a Latin inscription: "DOM S NATHANAELIS BARTHOLOMAEI APOSTOLI" (which means The apostle Nathanael Bartholomew). The altar stands on a raised platform, and in front, two pairs of small-sized columns have Corinthian capitals, and a bas-relief depicting the meeting of Nathanael and Philip the Apostle. Nearby is a small cemetery.St Bartholomew's Church, East Ham
St Bartholomew's Church, East Ham is a Church of England church on Barking Road in East Ham, east London dedicated to Bartholomew the Apostle.It was built in 1902 to replace St John the Baptist's Church, which became its parish hall. Designed by Micklethwaite & Somers Clarke, it had a south aisle added in 1910. It was gutted by bombing in 1941 and a wooden hut was erected for worship within its shell, becoming known as 'St. Bartholomew-in-the-ruins', until it burned down in 1947. Services moved to the vestry then in 1948 to St John's Institute. The old church's south aisle was restored in 1949, followed by the rest of the church in 1953. It now forms part of the East Ham Team Parish (also known as the Parish of the Holy Trinity) alongside St Edmund's, St Mary Magdalene's and St Alban's.St Bartholomew's Church, Welby
St Bartholomew's Church is a Grade I listed Anglican church dedicated to St Bartholomew the Apostle, in the English village of Welby, Lincolnshire. It is 4 miles (6 km) north-east of Grantham, and 1 mile (1.6 km) east of High Dyke, on part of the old Ermine Street Roman road. The church is in the ecclesiastical parish and Group of Ancaster and Wilsford, in the Deanery of Loveden, and the Diocese of Lincoln.
New Testament people
† Recognized as a prophet. ‡Status as a prophet is not universally recognized