Barry Trost

Barry M. Trost (born June 13, 1941 in Philadelphia) is an American chemist, Tamaki Professor of Humanities and Sciences at Stanford University.

He studied at the University of Pennsylvania and obtained his B.A. in 1962. His Ph.D. thesis research on The Structure and Reactivity of Enolate Anions was conducted at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He was professor at the University of Wisconsin–Madison from 1965 until his appointment to Stanford University in 1987.

The Tsuji Trost reaction and the Trost ligand are named after him. He is prominent for advancing the concept of atom economy.[1][2]

Barry M Trost
Barry M Trost 01
Barry M. Trost in June 2012
Born13 June 1941 (age 77)
ResidenceStanford
NationalityAmerican
Alma materUniversity of Pennsylvania
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Known forTrost ligand
AwardsACS Award in Pure Chemistry (1977)
Arthur C. Cope Award (2004)
The Ryoji Noyori Prize (2013)
Linus Pauling Award (2015)
Scientific career
FieldsChemist
InstitutionsUniversity of Wisconsin–Madison
Stanford University
Doctoral advisorHerbert O. House
Doctoral studentsBrian Coppola

References

  1. ^ Trost, Barry M. (1991). "Atom Economy: A Search for Synthetic Efficiency". Science. 254 (5037): 1471–1477. Bibcode:1991Sci...254.1471T. doi:10.1126/science.1962206. PMID 1962206.
  2. ^ Trost, Barry M. (1995). "Atom Economy - A Challenge for Organic Synthesis: Homogeneous Catalysis Leads the Way". Angewandte Chemie International Edition. 34 (3): 259–281. doi:10.1002/anie.199502591.
Aflatoxin total synthesis

Aflatoxin total synthesis concerns the total synthesis of a group of organic compounds called aflatoxins. These compounds occur naturally in several fungi. As with other chemical compound targets in organic chemistry, the organic synthesis of aflatoxins serves various purposes. Traditionally it served to prove the structure of a complex biocompound in addition to evidence obtained from spectroscopy. It also demonstrates new concepts in organic chemistry (reagents, reaction types) and opens the way to molecular derivatives not found in nature. And for practical purposes, a synthetic biocompound is a commercial alternative to isolating the compound from natural resources. Aflatoxins in particular add another dimension because it is suspected that they have been mass-produced in the past from biological sources as part of a biological weapons program.

The synthesis of racemic aflatoxin B1 has been reported by Buechi et al. in 1967 and that of racemic aflatoxin B2 by Roberts et al. in 1968 The group of Barry Trost of Stanford University is responsible for the enantioselective total synthesis of (+)-Aflatoxin B1 and B2a in 2003. In 2005 the group of E. J. Corey of Harvard University presented the enantioselective synthesis of Aflatoxin B2.

Centenary Prize

The Centenary Prize is an award granted annually by the United Kingdom-based Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) to up to three "outstanding chemists, who are also exceptional communicators, from overseas".The prize, established in 1947, and first awarded in 1949, by the RSC's forerunner, the Chemical Society, is named after the centenary of that organisation's founding, in 1841. Winners are given a £5000 cash prize, a medal and a certificate, and undertake a lecture tour of the UK.

Dennis P. Curran

Dennis P. Curran (born June 10, 1953) is an American organic chemist and a professor of chemistry at University of Pittsburgh known for his research in the fields of organic chemistry, radical chemistry, and fluorous chemistry.

Flavagline

Flavaglines are a family of natural products that are found in plants of the genus Aglaia (Meliaceae). These compounds are characterized by a cyclopenta[b]benzofuran skeleton. In 1982 King and colleagues discovered the first member of this family, rocaglamide, based on its antileukemic activity. Since then, about 50 other flavaglines have been characterized. These molecules display strong insecticidal, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, cardioprotective and anticancer activities. In mouse models of cancer, flavaglines enhance the efficacy of chemotherapies and also alleviate the cardiac adverse effect of these chemotherapies.The challenge raised by their structural complexity has attracted the attention of some organic chemists. In 1990, Barry Trost presented an enantioselective synthesis of rocaglamide in 18 steps and confirmed its absolute configuration.

Green chemistry metrics

Green chemistry metrics are metrics that measure aspects of a chemical process relating to the principles of green chemistry. These metrics serve to quantify the efficiency or environmental performance of chemical processes, and allow changes in performance to be measured. The motivation for using metrics is the expectation that quantifying technical and environmental improvements can make the benefits of new technologies more tangible, perceptible, or understandable. This, in turn, is likely to aid the communication of research and potentially facilitate the wider adoption of green chemistry technologies in industry.

For a non-chemist the most attractive method of quoting the improvement might be a decrease of X unit cost per kilogram of compound Y. This, however, would be an oversimplification—for example, it would not allow a chemist to visualise the improvement made or to understand changes in material toxicity and process hazards. For yield improvements and selectivity increases, simple percentages are suitable, but this simplistic approach may not always be appropriate. For example, when a highly pyrophoric reagent is replaced by a benign one, a numerical value is difficult to assign but the improvement is obvious, if all other factors are similar.Numerous metrics have been formulated over time and their suitability discussed at great length. A general problem observed is that the more accurate and universally applicable the metric devised, the more complex and unemployable it becomes. A good metric must be clearly defined, simple, measurable, objective rather than subjective and must ultimately drive the desired behavior.

Herbert O. House

Herbert Otis House (December 5, 1929 – October 2, 2013) was an American organic chemist. House was born in Willoughby, Ohio and obtained his Ph.D. in 1953 from the University of Illinois under the guidance of Reynold Fuson. Upon graduation, he joined the faculty of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and remained there until 1970. During this time, he co-discovered the Corey-House alkane synthesis, an early example of a transition metal mediated cross coupling reaction. In 1970, he joined the faculty of the Georgia Institute of Technology. House retired in 1990 and was the Vasser Woolley Professor Emeritus at Georgia Tech until his death in 2013 in Alpharetta, Georgia.

In addition to the publication of 180 scientific papers, House received the American Chemical Society's Award for Creative Work in Synthetic Chemistry (1975) and authored the textbook Modern Synthetic Reactions. Renowned organic chemist Barry Trost (Stanford University, formerly Wisconsin) received his Ph.D. (1965) under his mentorship.

Janine Cossy

Janine Cossy (born in 1950) is a French chemist who specialises in the synthesis of biologically-active products and is a professor of organic chemistry at ESPCI ParisTech.

List of University of Pennsylvania people

This is a partial list of notable faculty, alumni and scholars of the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, United States.

List of members of the National Academy of Sciences (Chemistry)

This list is a subsection of the List of members of the National Academy of Sciences, which includes approximately 2,000 members and 350 foreign associates of the United States National Academy of Sciences, each of whom is affiliated with one of 31 disciplinary sections. Each person's name, primary institution, and election year are given.

The designation (d) after the name means the member is deceased.

Living polymerization

In polymer chemistry, living polymerization is a form of chain growth polymerization where the ability of a growing polymer chain to terminate has been removed. This can be accomplished in a variety of ways. Chain termination and chain transfer reactions are absent and the rate of chain initiation is also much larger than the rate of chain propagation. The result is that the polymer chains grow at a more constant rate than seen in traditional chain polymerization and their lengths remain very similar (i.e. they have a very low polydispersity index). Living polymerization is a popular method for synthesizing block copolymers since the polymer can be synthesized in stages, each stage containing a different monomer. Additional advantages are predetermined molar mass and control over end-groups.

Living polymerization is desirable because it offers precision and control in macromolecular synthesis. This is important since many of the novel/useful properties of polymers result from their microstructure and molecular weight. Since molecular weight and dispersity are less controlled in non-living polymerizations, this method is more desirable for materials designIn many cases, living polymerization reactions are confused or thought to be synonymous with controlled polymerizations. While these polymerization reactions are very similar, there is a distinct difference in the definitions of these two reactions. While living polymerizations are defined as polymerization reactions where termination or chain transfer is eliminated, controlled polymerization reactions are reactions where termination is suppressed, but not eliminated, through the introduction of a dormant state of the polymer. However, this distinction is still up for debate in the literature.

The main living polymerization techniques are:

Living anionic polymerization

Living cationic polymerization

Living ring-opening metathesis polymerization

Living free radical polymerization

Living chain-growth polycondensations

Michael J. Krische

Michael J. Krische (FRSC, FAAAS) is an American chemist and Robert A. Welch Chair in Science at the Department of Chemistry, University of Texas at Austin. Krische has pioneered a broad, new family of catalytic C-C bond formations that occur through the addition or redistribution of hydrogen. These processes merge the characteristics of catalytic hydrogenation and carbonyl addition, contributing to a departure from the use of stoichiometric organometallic reagents in chemical synthesis.

Nuno Maulide

Nuno Maulide, born in 1979 (Lisboa, Portugal), is a Portuguese chemist, currently professor of organic chemistry at the University of Vienna.

Rocaglamide

Rocaglamide is a natural product which belongs to a class of molecules called flavaglines. This compound was isolated in 1982 by King and colleagues based on its antileukemic activity. Like other flavaglines, rocaglamide displays potent insecticidal, antifungal, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. Rocaglamide A (RocA) inhibits eukaryotic translation initiation by binding to the translation initiation factor eIF4A and converting it into a translational repressor.Rocaglamide was first synthesized by Barry Trost in 1990. Although other syntheses have been described since, Trost’s remains the only one to afford rocaglamide in an enantio-specific manner.

Ryoji Noyori Prize

The Ryoji Noyori Prize was established by the Society of Synthetic Organic Chemistry, Japan in 2002 to commemorate Ryōji Noyori winning the 101st Nobel Prize in Chemistry as well as the 60th anniversary of the Society of Synthetic Organic Chemistry. The prize is given "to recognize and encourage outstanding contributions to research in asymmetric synthetic chemistry defined in its broadest sense." The prize is sponsored by Takasago International Corporation.

Tetrahedron Prize

The Tetrahedron Prize for Creativity in Organic Chemistry or Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry is awarded annually by Elsevier, the publisher of Tetrahedron Publications. It was established in 1980 and named in honour of the founding co-chairmen of these publications, Professor Sir Robert Robinson and Professor Robert Burns Woodward. The prize consists of a gold medal, a certificate, and a monetary award of US $15,000.

Thomas Starzl

Thomas Earl Starzl (March 11, 1926 – March 4, 2017) was an American physician, researcher, and expert on organ transplants. He performed the first human liver transplants, and has often been referred to as "the father of modern transplantation."

Tsuji–Trost reaction

The Tsuji–Trost reaction (also called the Trost allylic alkylation or allylic alkylation) is a palladium-catalysed substitution reaction involving a substrate that contains a leaving group in an allylic position. The palladium catalyst first coordinates with the allyl group and then undergoes oxidative addition, forming the π-allyl complex. This allyl complex can then be attacked by a nucleophile, resulting in the substituted product.

This work was first pioneered by Jiro Tsuji in 1965 and, later, adapted by Barry Trost in 1973 with the introduction of phosphine ligands.

The scope of this reaction has been expanded to many different carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen-based nucleophiles, many different leaving groups, many different phosphorus, nitrogen, and sulfur-based ligands, and many different metals (although palladium is still preferred).

The introduction of phosphine ligands led to improved reactivity and numerous asymmetric allylic alkylation strategies. Many of these strategies are driven by the advent of chiral ligands, which are often able to provide high enantioselectivity and high diastereoselectivity under mild conditions. This modification greatly expands the utility of this reaction for many different synthetic applications. The ability to form carbon-carbon, carbon-nitrogen, and carbon-oxygen bonds under these conditions, makes this reaction very appealing to the fields of both medicinal chemistry and natural product synthesis.

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