Barry Boehm

Barry W. Boehm (born 1935) is an American software engineer, distinguished professor[1][2] of computer science, industrial and systems engineering; the TRW Professor of Software Engineering; and founding director of the Center for Systems and Software Engineering at the University of Southern California. He is known for his many contributions to the area of software engineering.

O lendário Barry Boehm
Barry Boehm


Boehm received a B.A. in mathematics from Harvard University in 1957, and a M.S. in 1961, and Ph.D. from UCLA in 1964, both in mathematics as well. He has also received honorary Sc.D. in Computer Science from the U. of Massachusetts in 2000 and in Software Engineering from the Chinese Academy of Sciences in 2011.[3]

In 1955 he started working as a programmer-analyst at General Dynamics. In 1959 he switched to the RAND Corporation, where he was head of the Information Sciences Department until 1973. From 1973 to 1989 he was chief scientist of the Defense Systems Group at TRW Inc.. From 1989 to 1992 he served within the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) as director of the DARPA Information Science and Technology Office, and as director of the DDR&E Software and Computer Technology Office.[3] Since 1992 he is TRW Professor of Software Engineering, Computer Science Department, and director, USC Center for Systems and Software Engineering, formerly Center for Software Engineering.

He has served on the board of several scientific journals, including the IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, Computer, IEEE Software, ACM Computing Reviews, Automated Software Engineering, Software Process, and Information and Software Technology.[3]

Recent awards for Barry Boehm include the Office of the Secretary of Defense Award for Excellence in 1992, the ASQC Lifetime Achievement Award in 1994, the ACM Distinguished Research Award in Software Engineering in 1997, and the IEEE International Stevens Award. He is an AIAA Fellow, an ACM Fellow, an IEEE Fellow, and a member of the National Academy of Engineering. He received the Mellon Award for Excellence in Mentoring in 2005[4] and the IEEE Simon Ramo Medal in 2010. He was appointed as a distinguished professor on January 13, 2014[1]


Boehm's research interests include software development process modeling, software requirements engineering, software architectures, software metrics and cost models, software engineering environments, and knowledge-based software engineering.[3]

His contributions to the field, according to Boehm (1997) himself, include "the Constructive Cost Model (COCOMO), the spiral model of the software process, the Theory W (win-win) approach to software management and requirements determination and two advanced software engineering environments: the TRW Software Productivity System and Quantum Leap Environment".[3]

Software versus hardware costs

In an important 1973 report entitled "Ada - The Project : The DoD High Order Language Working Group" to the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA),[5] Boehm predicted that software costs would overwhelm hardware costs. DARPA had expected him to predict that hardware would remain the biggest problem, encouraging them to invest in even larger computers. The report inspired a change of direction in computing.

Software economics

Barry Boehm's 1981 book Software Engineering Economics documents his Constructive Cost Model (COCOMO). It relates software development effort for a program, in Person-Months (PM), to Thousand Source Lines of Code (KSLOC).

Where A is a calibration constant based on project data and B is an exponent for the software diseconomy of scale.

  • Note: since man-years are not interchangeable with years, Brooks' Law applies:
    • Adding programmers to a late project makes it later.
    • Thus this formula is best applied to stable software development teams which have completed multiple projects.

Spiral model

Spiral model (Boehm, 1988)
Spiral model (Boehm, 1988).

Boehm also created the spiral model of software development, in which the phases of development are repeatedly revisited. This iterative software development process influenced MBASE and extreme programming.

Wideband Delphi

Boehm refined the Delphi method of estimation to include more group iteration, making it more suitable for certain classes of problems, such as software development. This variant is called the Wideband Delphi method.

Incremental Commitment Model

The Incremental Commitment Model (ICM)[6] is a system design, developmental, and evolution process for the 21st Century systems. The systems' types cover a wide range from COTS based systems to "routine" Information Systems to human intensive and life or safety critical.[7]

It was only in 1998, after the development of the ICM that Barry Boehm along with A Winsor Brown started to focus on reconciling it with the WinWin Spiral Model and its incarnation in MBASE[8] and the follow-on Lean MBASE,[9] and working towards an Incremental Commitment Model for Software (ICMS) by adapting the existing WinWin Spiral Model support tools.[7] In 2008, the evolving ICM for Software with its risk-driven anchor point decisions, proved very useful to several projects which ended up having unusual life cycle phase sequences.[7]


Barry Boehm has published over 170 articles[10] and several books. Books, a selection:

  • 1978. Characteristics of Software Quality. With J.R. Brown, H. Kaspar, M. Lipow, G. McLeod, and M. Merritt, North Holland.
  • 1981. Software Engineering Economics. Englewood Cliffs, NJ : Prentice-Hall, 1981 ISBN 0-13-822122-7.
  • — (1989). "Software Risk Management". In Ghezzi, C.; McDermid, J. A. (eds.). Proceedings of 2nd European Software Engineering Conference. ESEC'89. LNCS. 387. pp. 1–19. doi:10.1007/3-540-51635-2_29. ISBN 3-540-51635-2. ISSN 0302-9743.
  • 1996. Ada and Beyond: Software Policies for the Department of Defense. National Academy Press.
  • 2007. Software engineering: Barry Boehm's lifetime contributions to software development, management and research. Ed. by Richard Selby. Wiley/IEEE press, 2007. ISBN 0-470-14873-X.
  • 2004. Balancing agility and discipline:a guild for the perplexed. With Richard Turner. Person Education, Inc 2004 ISBN 0-321-18612-5.
  • 2014. The Incremental Commitment Spiral Model: Principles and Practices for Successful Systems and Software. B. Boehm, J. Lane, S. Koolmanojwong, R. Turner. Addison-Wesley Professional, 2014. ISBN 0-321-80822-3.
  • 1996. "Anchoring the Software Process",. In: IEEE Software, July 1996.
  • 1997. "Developing Multimedia Applications with the WinWin Spiral Model," with A. Egyed, J. Kwan, and R. Madachy. In: Proceedings, ESEC/FSE 97 and ACM Software Engineering Notes, November 1997.


  1. ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-04-19. Retrieved 2014-04-23.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  2. ^ "Dr. Barry W. Boehm named USC Distinguished Professor – CSSE". 2014-01-27. Retrieved 2016-10-23.
  3. ^ a b c d e "Biography". Retrieved 2017-05-14.
  4. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2005-08-25. Retrieved 2005-08-24.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  5. ^ William A. Whitaker (1993). Ada - The Project : The DoD High Order Language Working Group Archived 2008-08-12 at the Wayback Machine. Accessdate 2008-08-06.
  6. ^ "CSE Website". Retrieved 2016-10-23.
  7. ^ a b c Boehm, B., Brown, A. W., and Koolmanojwong, S. Demonstration Proposal: Incremental Commitment Model for Software. University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA. 90089.
  8. ^ Boehm, B., Abts, C., Brown, A. W., Chulani, S., Clark, B. K., Horowitz, K., Madachy, R., Reifer, D., and Steece, B. 2000. Software Cost Estimation with COCOMO II. ISBN 0-13-026692-2. Prentice Hall PTR Upper Saddle River, NJ.
  9. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-06-18. Retrieved 2009-06-04.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  10. ^ "DBLP: Barry W. Boehm". Retrieved 2016-10-23.

External links


Boehm (US: ) is a German surname, transliterated from Böhm (literally: Bohemian, from Bohemia) or reflective of a spelling adopted by a given family before the introduction of the umlaut diacritic. It may refer to:

Aleksandra Ziółkowska-Boehm (born 1949), American-Polish author

Barry Boehm (born 1935), American software engineer

Christopher Boehm (b. 1931) American Anthropologist, Primatologist

David Boehm (1893–1962), American screenwriter

Doug Boehm (born 1969), American record producer and sound engineer

Edward Marshall Boehm (1913–1969), American sculptor

Elisabet Boehm (1859–1943), German feminist and writer

Erhard F. Boehm (1911–1994), Australian farmer and amateur ornithologist

Gero von Boehm (born 1954), German journalist

Gottfried Boehm (born 1942), German art historian and philosopher

Henry Boehm (1775–1875), American clergyman and pastor

Joseph Boehm (Sir (Joseph) Edgar Boehm, 1834–1890), Austrian sculptor

Martin Boehm (1725–1812), American clergyman and pastor

Mary Louise Boehm (1928–2002), American pianist and painter

Paul Boehm (born 1974), Canadian skeleton racer

Peter Boehm, Canadian diplomat

Peter M. Boehm (1845–1914), soldier in the American Civil War, Medal of Honor recipient

Robert Boehm (1914–2006), American political activist

Ron Boehm (born 1943), retired ice hockey winger

Roy Boehm (1924–2008), known as the "First SEAL"; established the U.S. Navy's first SEAL Team.

Sydney Boehm (1908–1990), American screenwriter and producer

Theobald Boehm (1794–1881), Bavarian inventor and musician

Boehm system of flute fingering

Boehm system (clarinet), a similar system for the clarinet

Theodore R. Boehm (born 1938), Justice of the Indiana Supreme Court

Traugott Wilhelm Boehm (1836–1917) founder of Hahndorf Academy in South Australia


The Constructive Cost Model (COCOMO) is a procedural software cost estimation model developed by Barry W. Boehm. The model parameters are derived from fitting a regression formula using data from historical projects (61 projects for COCOMO 81 and 163 projects for COCOMO II).

Dan Galorath

Daniel D. Galorath is the President and CEO of Galorath Incorporated and the chief architect of SEER-SEM, an algorithmic project management software application. He is a recognized expert in the fields of software estimation and sizing and the author of Software Sizing, Estimation, and Risk Management.

Design rationale

A design rationale is an explicit documentation of the reasons behind decisions made when designing a system or artifact. As initially developed by W.R. Kunz and Horst Rittel, design rationale seeks to provide argumentation-based structure to the political, collaborative process of addressing wicked problems.

Development testing

Development testing is a software development process that involves synchronized application of a broad spectrum of defect prevention and detection strategies in order to reduce software development risks, time, and costs.

Depending on the organization's expectations for software development, development testing might include static code analysis, data flow analysis, metrics analysis, peer code reviews, unit testing, code coverage analysis, traceability, and other software verification practices.


Model-Based Architecture and Software Engineering (MBASE) in software engineering is a software development process developed by Barry Boehm and Dan Port in the late 1990s. MBASE focuses on ensuring that a project’s product models (architecture, requirements, source code, etc.), process models (tasks, activities, milestones), property models (cost, schedule, performance, dependability), and success models (stakeholder win-win, IKIWISI - I’ll Know It When I See It, business case) are consistent and mutually enforcing.

MBASE is an approach to the development of software systems that integrates the system’s process (PS), product (PD), property (PY) and success (SS) models, models that are documented in the following system definition elements (also referred to as “artifacts” or “deliverables”):

Operational Concept Description (OCD)

System and Software Requirements Definition (SSRD)

System and Software Architecture Description (SSAD)

Life Cycle Plan (LCP)

Feasibility Rationale Description (FRD)

Construction, Transition, Support (CTS) plans and reports

Risk-driven prototypesThe essence of the LeanMBASE approach is to develop the system definition elements concurrently, through iterative refinement, using the risk-driven, three-anchor point, Win–Win Spiral approach defined in Boehm's Anchoring the Software Process.

Neil Siegel

Neil Gilbert Siegel (born February 19, 1954) is an American computer scientist, systems engineer, and engineer, known for his development of many key systems for the United States military, including the Blue-Force Tracking system, the US Army's first unmanned air vehicle system, the US Army forward-area air defense system, and many others. Several of his key inventions also found their way into consumer products, such as hand-held devices (e.g., GPS user devices, the iPhone, etc.) whose map displays automatically orient themselves to align with the real-world's cardinal points.

Rapid application development

Rapid-application development (RAD), also called Rapid-application building (RAB), is both a general term, used to refer to adaptive software development approaches, as well as the name for James Martin's approach to rapid development. In general, RAD approaches to software development put less emphasis on planning and more emphasis on an adaptive process. Prototypes are often used in addition to or sometimes even in place of design specifications.

RAD is especially well suited for (although not limited to) developing software that is driven by user interface requirements. Graphical user interface builders are often called rapid application development tools. Other approaches to rapid development include the adaptive, agile, spiral, and unified models.

Richard Turner (computer scientist)

Richard Turner (born 1954) is a Distinguished Service Professor in the School of Systems and Enterprises of Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken, New Jersey.Turner has a BA in Mathematics from Huntingdon College, an MS in Computer Science from the University of Louisiana-Lafayette, and a DSc in Engineering Management from the George Washington University.Before joining Stevens, he was a Fellow of the Systems and Software Consortium Inc., a Research Professor at The George Washington University, a Computer Scientist at the Federal Aviation Administration, and technical manager and practitioner with various DC area businesses working with defense, intelligence, and commercial clients. He has also served as a Visiting Scientist at the Software Engineering Institute of Carnegie Mellon University, and consulted independently.Much of his research at Stevens has been through the Systems Engineering Research Center (SERC) supporting the U.S. Department of Defense, particularly on the integration of systems and software engineering and the acquisition of complex defense systems. He was on the original author team of the CMMI and a core author of the Software Extension to the Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge PMI and IEEE Computer Society.He is a Senior Member of the IEEE, a Golden Core Awardee of the IEEE Computer Society, and a Fellow of the Lean Systems Society.He has authored / co authored several books:-

The Incremental Commitment Spiral Model: Principles and Practices for Successful Systems and Software, by Barry Boehm, Jo Ann Lane, Supannika Koolmanojwong, and Richard Turner: Addison-Wesley, (2014). ISBN 978-0321808226

CMMI (Capability Maturity Model Integration) Distilled: A Practical Introduction to Integrated Process Improvement, by Dennis M. Ahern, Aaron Clouse, Richard Turner: Addison-Wesley, (Third Edition 2008). ISBN 0-321-46108-8

CMMI Survival Guide: Just enough process improvement, by Suzanne Garcia, Richard Turner: Addison-Wesley, (2007). ISBN 0-321-42277-5

Balancing Agility and Discipline: A Guide for the Perplexed by Barry Boehm, Richard Turner: Addison-Wesley, (Paperback - September 26, 2003) ISBN 0-321-18612-5

An interactive simulator for MATHILDA-RIKKE on multics: Concept, design and implementation by Richard Turner, Publisher: Computer Science Dept., University of Southwestern, Louisiana (1977)Turner lives in the District of Columbia with his wife, Johanna - they have three grown children and two grandchildren.

Sharla Boehm

Sharla Boehm, née Perrine, (born 1929, Seattle) is an American computer scientist who carried out pioneering work in packet switching while working for the RAND Corporation in the 1960s.

Software development process

In software engineering, a software development process is the process of dividing software development work into distinct phases to improve design, product management, and project management. It is also known as a software development life cycle. The methodology may include the pre-definition of specific deliverables and artifacts that are created and completed by a project team to develop or maintain an application.Most modern development processes can be vaguely described as agile. Other methodologies include waterfall, prototyping, iterative and incremental development, spiral development, rapid application development, and extreme programming.

Some people consider a life-cycle "model" a more general term for a category of methodologies and a software development "process" a more specific term to refer to a specific process chosen by a specific organization. For example, there are many specific software development processes that fit the spiral life-cycle model. The field is often considered a subset of the systems development life cycle.

Software engineer

A software engineer is a person who applies the principles of software engineering to the design, development, maintenance, testing, and evaluation of computer software.

Prior to the mid-1970s, software practitioners generally called themselves computer scientists, computer programmers or software developers, regardless of their actual jobs. Many people prefer to call themselves software developer and programmer, because most widely agree what these terms mean, while the exact meaning of software engineer is still being debated.

Source lines of code

Source lines of code (SLOC), also known as lines of code (LOC), is a software metric used to measure the size of a computer program by counting the number of lines in the text of the program's source code. SLOC is typically used to predict the amount of effort that will be required to develop a program, as well as to estimate programming productivity or maintainability once the software is produced.

Spiral model

The spiral model is a risk-driven software development process model. Based on the unique risk patterns of a given project, the spiral model guides a team to adopt elements of one or more process models, such as incremental, waterfall, or evolutionary prototyping.

Stevens Award

The Stevens Award is a software engineering lecture award given by the Reengineering Forum, an industry association. The international Stevens Award was created to recognize outstanding contributions to the literature or practice of methods for software and systems development. The first award was given in 1995. The presentations focus on the current state of software methods and their direction for the future.This award lecture is named in memory of Wayne Stevens (1944-1993), a consultant, author, pioneer, and advocate of the practical application of software methods and tools. The Stevens Award and lecture is managed by the Reengineering Forum. The award was founded by International Workshop on Computer Aided Software Engineering (IWCASE), an international workshop association of users and developers of computer-aided software engineering (CASE) technology, which merged into The Reengineering Forum. Wayne Stevens was a charter member of the IWCASE executive board.

USC Viterbi School of Engineering

The Viterbi School of Engineering (formerly the USC School of Engineering) is located at the University of Southern California in the United States. It was renamed following a $52 million donation by Andrew Viterbi, co-founder of Qualcomm Inc. The USC Viterbi School of Engineering celebrated its 100th birthday in conjunction with the university's 125th birthday.

With over $135 million in external funding support, the school is among the nation's highest in volume of research activity. The Viterbi School of Engineering is currently ranked No. 9 in the United States by U.S. News and World Report.The school is headed by Dean Yannis Yortsos. Its research centers have played a major role in development of multiple technologies, including early development of the Internet when USC researcher Jonathan Postel was an editor of communications-protocol for the fledgling internet, also known as ARPANET. The school's faculty includes Irving Reed, Leonard Adleman, Solomon W. Golomb, Barry Boehm, Clifford Newman, Richard Bellman, Lloyd Welch, Alexander Sawchuk, and George V. Chilingar.

Victor Basili

Victor R. Basili, born April 13, 1940 in Brooklyn, New York, is an emeritus professor at the Department of Computer Science, which is part of the University of Maryland College of Computer, Mathematical, and Natural Sciences, and the Institute for Advanced Computer Studies. He holds a Ph.D. in computer science from the University of Texas at Austin and two honorary degrees. He is a fellow of both the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) and of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE).From 1982 through 1988 he was chair of the Department of Computer Science at the University of Maryland. He is currently a senior research fellow at the Fraunhofer Center for Experimental Software Engineering - Maryland and from 1997-2004 was its executive director.He is well known for his works on measuring, evaluating, and improving the software development process, as a pioneer of empirical software engineering, especially through his papers on the Goal/Question/Metric Approach, the Quality Improvement Paradigm, and the Experience Factory.

Many of these ideas developed through his affiliation with the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL), which he helped to create and was one of its directors from 1976 through 2002.

Wideband delphi

The Wideband Delphi estimation method is a consensus-based technique for estimating effort. It derives from the Delphi method which was developed in the 1950-1960s at the RAND Corporation as a forecasting tool. It has since been adapted across many industries to estimate many kinds of tasks, ranging from statistical data collection results to sales and marketing forecasts.

Winston W. Royce

Winston Walker Royce (August 15, 1929 – June 7, 1995) was an American computer scientist, director at Lockheed Software Technology Center in Austin, Texas. He was a pioneer in the field of software development, known for his 1970 paper from which the Waterfall model for software development was mistakenly drawn.

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