Barremian

The Barremian is an age in the geologic timescale (or a chronostratigraphic stage) between 129.4 ± 1.5 Ma (million years ago) and 125.0 ± 1.0 Ma). It is a subdivision of the Early Cretaceous epoch (or Lower Cretaceous series). It is preceded by the Hauterivian and followed by the Aptian stage.[2]

System/
Period
Series/
Epoch
Stage/
Age
Age (Ma)
Paleogene Paleocene Danian younger
Cretaceous Upper/
Late
Maastrichtian 66.0 72.1
Campanian 72.1 83.6
Santonian 83.6 86.3
Coniacian 86.3 89.8
Turonian 89.8 93.9
Cenomanian 93.9 100.5
Lower/
Early
Albian 100.5 ~113.0
Aptian ~113.0 ~125.0
Barremian ~125.0 ~129.4
Hauterivian ~129.4 ~132.9
Valanginian ~132.9 ~139.8
Berriasian ~139.8 ~145.0
Jurassic Upper/
Late
Tithonian older
Subdivision of the Cretaceous system
according to the ICS, as of 2017.[1]

Stratigraphic definitions

StratotypeBarremienA
Barremian sedimentary rock layers, France

The original type locality for the Barremian stage is in the vicinity of the village of Barrême, Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, France. Henri Coquand defined the stage and named it in 1873.

The base of the Barremian is determined by the first appearance of the ammonites Spitidiscus hugii and Spitidiscus vandeckii. The end of the Barremian is determined by the geomagnetic reversal at the start of the M0r chronozone, which is biologically near the first appearance of the ammonite Paradeshayesites oglanlensis.

Regional equivalents

The Barremian falls in the Gallic epoch, a subdivision of the Cretaceous that is no longer used by the ICS. It overlaps the lower part of the Urgonian stage, which is sometimes used in western European stratigraphy. In North America, the late Coahulian and the early Comanchean correspond to the Barremian. In New Zealand, it falls within the Mokoiwian, and in Japan it corresponds to the late Aritan.[2]

Subdivision

The Barremian is often subdivided into two substages or subages, Lower/Early and Upper/Late Barremian.

In the Tethys domain, the Barremian stage contains eleven ammonite biozones:

Palaeontology

Much knowledge about the Barremian fauna—especially regarding birds, mammals and pterosaurs—derived from the famous Yixian Formation of China, part of which dates from this stage.

Cephalopods

Ammonoidea

Annuloceras summersi
Annuloceras

Neocoleoids

Neocoleoids of the Barremian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images

Maioteuthis

Neololigosepia

Oxyteuthis

†Belemnites

BelemniteDB2
Belemnites

Nautiloidea

Cameroceras trentonese
An illustration of a variety of fossil nautiloids.

Chondrichthyes

  • Hexanchidae: Notidanodon lanceolatus, Notorynchus aptiensis

Squamata

Dinosaurs (including birds)

Cerapoda

Dollodon bampingi Steveoc86
Hypsilophodon
Jinzhousaurus yangi
Psittacosaurus sibiricus whole BW

Sauropoda

Theropoda

Baryonyx BW
Baryonyx
Caudipteryx2mmartyniuk
Caudipteryx
Changchengornis 550 CER
Changchengornis
F. utahensis reconstruction (flipped)
Falcarius
Longipteryx restoration
Longipteryx
Harpymimus steveoc
Harpymimus
Incisivosaurus (pencil 2013)
Incisivosaurus
Microraptor Restoration
Microraptor
Neovenator
Neovenator
Shenzhousaurus
Shenzhousaurus
Siamosaurus
Siamosaurus
Sinornithosaurus
Sinornithosaurus
Utahraptor Restoration
Utahraptor

Thyreophora

Mammals

Eomaia amnh cast
Skeleton of the primitive mammal Eomaia

Plesiosaurians

Plesiosaurs of the Barremian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images

Stenorhynchosaurus

S. munozi Paja Formation, Altiplano Cundiboyacense, Colombia A brachaucheniin pliosaurid, described by María Páramo

Pterosaurs

LiaoningopterusDB
Liaoningopterus

References

Notes

  1. ^ Super User. "ICS - Chart/Time Scale". www.stratigraphy.org.
  2. ^ a b See Gradstein et al. (2004) or the online geowhen database (link below)
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Earliest occurrence: Upper Barremian
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Earliest occurrence: Lower Barremian
  5. ^ Only known from this stage

Literature

  • Cossmann, M. & Pelat, E. (1907): Le Barrémien supérieur à faciès Urgonien de Brouzet-lès-Alais (Gard). Mémoires de la Société Géologique de France, Paléontologie 15(37): 5-42. ‹See Tfd›(in French)
  • Gradstein, F.M.; Ogg, J.G. & Smith, A.G.; (2004): A Geologic Time Scale 2004, Cambridge University Press.
  • Guzhikov, A.Yu. & Baraboshkin, E.J. (2006): Assessment of diachronism of biostratigraphic boundaries by magnetochronological calibration of zonal scales for the Lower Cretaceous of the Tethyan and Boreal belts. Doklady Earth Sciences 409(6): 843-846. doi:10.1134/S1028334X06060018

External links

Acostasaurus

Acostasaurus (meaning "Acosta's lizard") is an extinct genus of possibly Thalassophonean pliosaurid known from the Barremian of the Paja Formation, Colombia. The type specimen, UNDG R-1000, is known from a near complete skull, and postcranial elements including a complete hindlimb and various vertebrae. The specimen has an estimated size of around 4 to 5 metres (13 to 16 ft) long.

Amargasuchus

Amargasuchus is an extinct genus of crocodylomorph. It was a member of the Trematochampsidae, an enigmatic family of mesoeucrocodylians. Fossils have been found from the La Amarga Formation in Argentina and date back to the Barremian and Aptian stages of the Early Cretaceous. Amargasuchus inhabited a terrestrial paleoenvironment that existed during the Early Cretaceous in the Neuquén basin that was characterized by a system of braided rivers, lakes, and alluvial plains. Sauropod, abelisauroid, and stegosaurian dinosaurs have also been found existing in the Neuquén basin at this time.

The holotype was discovered in 1984 in association with the dicraeosaurid sauropod dinosaur Amargasaurus'.

Amargatitanis

Amargatitanis (meaning "Amarga giant") is a genus of dicraeosaurid sauropod dinosaur (a type of large, long-necked quadrupedal herbivorous dinosaur) from the Barremian-age (Lower Cretaceous) La Amarga Formation of Neuquén, Argentina.

Craterosaurus

Craterosaurus (meaning krater reptile or bowl reptile) was a genus of stegosaurid dinosaur. It lived during the Early Cretaceous (Valanginian to Barremian stages) around 145-136 million years ago. Its fossils were found in the Woburn Sands Formation of England. Craterosaurus may actually be a junior synonym of Regnosaurus, but only one fossil, a partial vertebra, was recovered.

The type (and only known) species is Craterosaurus pottonensis, described in 1874 by Harry Seeley. The specific name refers to the Potton bonebed. Seeley mistook the fossil, holotype SMC B.28814, for the base of a cranium. Franz Nopcsa in 1912 correctly identified it as the front part of a neural arch. Craterosaurus was placed in Stegosauria by Galton, although subsequent authors did not recognize Craterosaurus as a distinct, valid taxon.

Cretolamna

Cretolamna is a genus of extinct mackerel shark that belonged to the family Otodontidae.

These sharks lived from the Aptian of the Cretaceous period to the Ypresian stage of the early Eocene epoch (115 to 48 million years ago). It is considered by many to be the ancestor of many of the famous shark genera, such as the mako, great white, Carcharocles angustidens, and Carcharocles megalodon sharks.

Galleonosaurus

Galleonosaurus (meaning "galleon lizard" as the upper jaw bone resembles an upturned galleon) is a genus of basal ornithopod dinosaur from the Wonthaggi Formation of the Gippsland region of Victoria, Australia. The type and only species is G. dorisae, described by Herne et al. in 2019.

Gideonmantellia

Gideonmantellia is an extinct genus of basal ornithopod dinosaur known from the Early Cretaceous (Barremian stage) of Galve, Province of Teruel, Spain. It contains a single species, Gideonmantellia amosanjuanae.

Hauterivian

The Hauterivian is, in the geologic timescale, an age in the Early Cretaceous epoch or a stage in the Lower Cretaceous series. It spans the time between 132.9 ± 2 Ma and 129.4 ± 1.5 Ma (million years ago). The Hauterivian is preceded by the Valanginian and succeeded by the Barremian.

Heacham Brick Pit

Heacham Brick Pit is a 0.8-hectare (2.0-acre) geological Site of Special Scientific Interest in Heacham, north of King's Lynn in Norfolk. It is a Geological Conservation Review site.This is the only site which gives access to examine the Lower Cretaceous Snettisham Clay. It has Lower Barremian ammonite fossils, dating to around 130 million years ago.The site is private land with no public access.

Iguanacolossus

Iguanacolossus (meaning 'iguana colossus' from the genus name Iguana and the Latin word "colossus") is a genus of herbivorous iguanodontian dinosaur. It is a basal iguanodontian which lived during the lower Cretaceous period (?lower Barremian age) in what is now Utah, United States. It is known from UMNH VP 20205, the associated partial skeleton of a single individual, recovered from the lower Yellow Cat Member of the Cedar Mountain Formation, dating to at least the early Barremian stage (about 130 million years ago). Iguanacolossus was named by Andrew T. McDonald, James I. Kirkland, Donald D. DeBlieux, Scott K. Madsen, Jennifer Cavin, Andrew R. C. Milner, and Lukas Panzarin in 2010, along with the genus Hippodraco, also from the Cedar Mountain Formation. The type species of Iguanacolossus is I. fortis. The specific name fortis means "mighty" in Latin.

Leptocleididae

Leptocleididae is a family of small-sized plesiosaurs that lived during the Early Cretaceous period (early Berriasian to early Albian stage). Leptocleidus and Umoonasaurus had round bodies and triangle-shaped heads. Hilary F. Ketchum and Roger B. J. Benson (2010), transferred Brancasaurus, Kaiwhekea, Nichollssaura and Thililua to this family. However, Ketchum and Benson (2011) reassigned Kaiwhekea and Thililua to their original positions, as an elasmosaurid and a polycotylid, respectively.

Neovenator

Neovenator (nee-o-ven-a-tor) which means "new hunter" is a genus of allosauroid dinosaur. At the time of its discovery on the Isle of Wight, United Kingdom, it was the best-known large carnivorous dinosaur from the Early Cretaceous (Hauterivian-Barremian) of Europe.

Pteranodontia

Pteranodontia is an extinct group of ornithocheiroid pterosaurs that lived from the Early Cretaceous to the Late Cretaceous (middle Barremian to middle Campanian stages) of Asia, Europe, North America and South America.

Pteranodontoidea

Pteranodontoidea is an extinct clade of ornithocheiroid pterosaurs from the Early Cretaceous to the Late Cretaceous (middle Barremian to middle Campanian stages) of Asia, Europe, North America and South America. It was named by Alexander Wilhelm Armin Kellner in 1996. In 2003, Kellner defined the clade as a node-based taxon consisting of the last common ancestor of Anhanguera, Pteranodon and all its descendants. Ornithocheiroidea is sometimes considered to be the senior synonym of Pteranodontoidea, however its depends on it definition. Ornithocheiroidea was originally defined as an apomorphy-based taxon by Christopher Bennett in 1994. Later, Kellner (2003) redefined it to represent the node of Anhanguera, Pteranodon, Quetzalcoatlus and Dsungaripterus. Later, David Unwin (2003) suggested a different definition, the node that contains Pteranodon longiceps and Istiodactylus latidens, thus making Pteranodontoidea a junior synonym of Ornithocheiroidea. Brian Andres (2008, 2010, 2014) in his analyses, converts Ornithocheiroidea using the definition of Kellner (2003) to avoid this synonymy.

Sachicasaurus

Sachicasaurus is an extinct genus of brachauchenine pliosaurid known from the Barremian of the Paja Formation, Altiplano Cundiboyacense in the Colombian Eastern Ranges of the Andes. The type species is S. vitae.

Stenorhynchosaurus

Stenorhynchosaurus is an extinct genus of pliosaurid plesiosaurs which lived in South America during the Early Cretaceous. The type species and only known is Stenorhynchosaurus munozi.

Tengrisaurus

Tengrisaurus (meaning "Tengri lizard") is a genus of lithostrotian sauropod, from the Early Cretaceous (Barremian-Aptian), of the Murtoi Formation, Russia. It was described in 2017 by Averianov & Skutschas. The type species is T. starkovi.

Yixian Formation

The Yixian Formation (simplified Chinese: 义县组; traditional Chinese: 義縣組; pinyin: Yìxiàn zǔ) is a geological formation in Jinzhou, Liaoning, People's Republic of China, that spans 11 million years during the early Cretaceous period. It is known for its exquisitely preserved fossils, and is mainly composed of basalts interspersed with siliciclastic sediments.

Zapalasaurus

Zapalasaurus is a genus of dinosaur described by Leonardo Salgado, Ismar de Souza Carvalho and Alberto C. It was named after the city of Zapala. The type species, Zapalasaurus bonapartei, was found in the La Amarga Formation of the Neuquén Basin, Neuquén Province, Argentina. It was a diplodocoid, a long-necked herbivore, and it lived during the Early Cretaceous. The authors conclude from examining the skeleton that "The record of Zapalasaurus bonapartei shows that, at least in the Neuquén Basin, basal diplodocoids were more diverse than previously thought." Zapalasaurus is assumed to have a long neck which would have been developed for feeding adaption, allowing its neck to swing in an arc like shape. This would allow Zapalasaurus to browse a wide variety of plants and greens without having to walk very far.

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