Barred warbler

The barred warbler (Sylvia nisoria) is a typical warbler which breeds across temperate regions of central and eastern Europe and western and central Asia. This passerine bird is strongly migratory, and winters in tropical eastern Africa.[2]

Barred Warbler (Sylvia nisoria) - geograph.org.uk - 1036172
Immature on migration, England

It is the largest Sylvia warbler, 15.5–17 cm in length and weighing 22–36 g, mainly grey above and whitish below. Adult males are dark grey above with white tips on the wing coverts and tail feathers, and heavily barred below. The female is similar but slightly paler and has only light barring. Young birds buffy grey-brown above, pale buff below, and have very little barring, with few obvious distinctive features; they can easily be confused with garden warblers, differing in the slight barring on the tail coverts and the pale fringes on the wing feathers, and their slightly larger size. The eye has a yellow iris in adults, dark in immatures; the bill is blackish with a paler base, and the legs stout, grey-brown.[3][4]

Barred warbler
Sylvia nisoria
Adult male, Poland
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Sylviidae
Genus: Sylvia
Species:
S. nisoria
Binomial name
Sylvia nisoria
(Bechstein, 1792, central and northern Germany)

Taxonomy

Within the genus Sylvia it is highly distinctive; the barred underside is shared only with the Cyprus warbler, which has black barring and an entirely different overall colour pattern. The barred warbler seems to represent an ancient lineage of Sylvia warblers on its own and does not appear to have any particularly close relatives in the genus.[5][6]

Two subspecies are recognised. The nominate Sylvia nisoria nisoria occurs over most of the species' range, while Sylvia nisoria merzbacheri occurs at eastern end of the range in central Asia. The latter is marginally paler and less heavily barred than the nominate subspecies, but they are barely distinct and intergrade where the ranges meet.[2] Some authors consider them synonymous.[7]

The genus name is from Modern Latin silvia, a woodland sprite, related to silva, a wood. The specific nisoria is Medieval Latin for the Eurasian sparrowhawk, which is also barred.[8]

Ecology

The barred warbler is a bird of open country with bushes for nesting, with very similar habitat preferences to the red-backed shrike. The nest is built in low shrub or brambles, and three to seven eggs are laid. Like most warblers, it is mainly insectivorous, but also takes berries and other soft fruit extensively in late summer and autumn. Its song is a pleasant chattering like a garden warbler with many clear notes, but is harsher and less melodious, and slightly higher pitched, with some resemblance to the whitethroat's song.[3][4]

Occurrence

The European population is estimated at around 460,000 pairs. It has declined in some areas, particularly at the western end of its breeding range in Denmark (where it is now extinct as a breeding bird) and Germany, due to habitat loss from agricultural intensification; conversely, some increase has occurred in Ukraine and southern Finland. Further east, numbers are currently stable. Population densities range between 1–20 pairs per 10 ha in Germany, up to 30 pairs per 10 ha recorded in Kazakhstan.[2]

Barred warblers are regular on autumn passage as far west as Great Britain (typically 100-200 records annually), where it occurs mainly on the east coast between late August and late October, and more rarely to Ireland (around 10–20 records annually); spring passage records in Britain are very rare (1–3 per decade).[9] The vast majority of British and Irish records are of first-year birds, with adults occurring only exceptionally rarely.[7]

References

  1. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Sylvia nisoria". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  2. ^ a b c Del Hoyo, J., Elliot, A., & Christie, D. (editors). (2006). Handbook of the Birds of the World. Volume 11: Old World Flycatchers to Old World Warblers. Lynx Edicions. ISBN 84-96553-06-X.
  3. ^ a b Svensson, L., Mullarney, K. & Zetterström, D. (2009). Collins Bird Guide, second edition. HarperCollins, London ISBN 978-0-00-726726-2.
  4. ^ a b Snow, D. W. & Perrins, C. M. (1998). The Birds of the Western Palearctic (Concise ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-854099-X.
  5. ^ Helbig, A. J. (2001). Phylogeny and biogeography of the genus Sylvia. Pp. 24-29 in: Shirihai, H., Gargallo, G., Helbig, A. J., & Harris, A. Sylvia Warblers. Helm Identification Guides ISBN 0-7136-3984-9
  6. ^ Jønsson, K. A. & Fjeldså, J. (2006). A phylogenetic supertree of oscine passerine birds (Aves: Passeri). Zool. Scripta 35 (2): 149–186. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6409.2006.00221.x
  7. ^ a b Williamson, K. (1976). Identification for Ringers: The Genus Sylvia. British Trust for Ornithology.
  8. ^ Jobling, James A (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. pp. 272, 376. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
  9. ^ Dymond, J. N., Fraser, P. A., & Gantlett, S. J. M. (1989). Rare Birds in Britain and Ireland. T & A D Poyser ISBN 0-85661-053-4.
Barred wren-warbler

The barred wren-warbler or southern barred warbler (Calamonastes fasciolatus) is a species of bird in the Cisticolidae family.

It is found in Namibia, Botswana, western Angola, northern South Africa and southwestern Zimbabwe. Its natural habitat is dry savanna.

Buff-barred warbler

The buff-barred warbler (Phylloscopus pulcher) is a species of leaf warbler (family Phylloscopidae). It was formerly included in the "Old World warbler" assemblage.

It is found in Bhutan, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand, and Vietnam. Its natural habitats are boreal forests and temperate forests.

Coate Water Country Park

Coate Water (grid reference SU177827) is a country park situated 5 km (3.1 mi) to the southeast of central Swindon, England, near junction 15 of the M4. It takes its name from its main feature, a reservoir originally built to provide water for the Wilts & Berks Canal.

The reservoir formed a 70-acre (280,000 m2) lake, built in 1822 by diverting the River Cole. Its primary purpose was to provide water for the canal and it remained outside the borough of Swindon until the borough's expansion in 1928.In 1914, with the canal abandoned, Coate became a pleasure park; changing rooms and a wooden diving board were added. In 1935 the wooden diving platform was replaced with a 33 ft (10 m) high concrete platform in an Art Deco style which has been praised by English Heritage and, although swimming in the lake has been prohibited since 1958, it was given Grade II listed protection in 2013. Now named Coate Water Country Park, the lake is both a leisure facility and a nature reserve.

Dubringer Moor

The Dubringer Moor (Upper Sorbian: Dubrjenske bahno), is a nature reserve (NSG) in the Bautzen district in northern Saxony.

Gedser Odde

Gedser Odde on the island of Falster in the Baltic Sea is Denmark's southernmost point. The terminal moraine from Idestrup through Skelby to Gedser is part of the maximum glaciation line across Falster, from Orehoved to Gedser. Fronted by low cliffs, the ridge, 5–7 m (16–23 ft) high, continues underwater a further 18 km (11 mi) south-east to Gedser Rev. Sydstenen (the south stone) marks the southernmost point.

Greenish warbler

The greenish warbler (Phylloscopus trochiloides) is a widespread leaf warbler with a breeding range in northeastern Europe and temperate to subtropical continental Asia. This warbler is strongly migratory and winters in India. It is not uncommon as a spring or early autumn vagrant in Western Europe and is annually seen in Great Britain. In Central Europe large numbers of vagrant birds are encountered in some years; some of these may stay to breed, as a handful of pairs does each year in Germany.Like all leaf warblers, it was formerly placed in the "Old World warbler" assemblage, but now belongs to the new leaf-warbler family Phylloscopidae. The genus name Phylloscopus is from Ancient Greek phullon, "leaf", and skopos, "seeker" (from skopeo, "to watch"). The specific trochiloides is from Ancient Greek trokhalos, "bowed", and -oides "resembling", from the similarity to the willow warbler, P. trochilus. The English name of this species provides a perfect argument in favour of the capitalisation of species names (i.e. treating them as proper nouns), a convention which is generally applied in scientific literature. The decapitalised "greenish warbler" is equally descriptive of many bird species across multiple families, whereas a capitalised "Greenish Warbler" shows unambiguously that Phylloscopus trochiloides is under discussion.

Leaf warbler

Leaf warblers are small insectivorous passerine birds belonging to the genus Phylloscopus. The genus was introduced by the German zoologist Friedrich Boie in 1826. The name Phylloscopus is from Ancient Greek phullon, "leaf", and skopos, "seeker" (from skopeo, "to watch").Leaf warblers were formerly included in the Old World warbler family but are now considered to belong to the family Phylloscopidae, introduced in 2006. The family originally included the genus Seicercus, but all species have been moved to Phylloscopus in the most recent classification. Leaf warblers are active, constantly moving, often flicking their wings as they glean the foliage for insects along the branches of trees and bushes. They forage at various levels within forests, from the top canopy to the understorey. Most of the species are markedly territorial both in their summer and winter quarters. Most are greenish or brownish above and off-white or yellowish below. Compared to some other "warblers", their songs are very simple. Species breeding in temperate regions are usually strongly migratory.

List of Sylviidae species

The avian family Sylviidae is commonly called sylviid babblers or sylviid warblers. The International Ornithological Congress (IOC) recognizes these 70 species; 28 are the "typical warblers" of genus Sylvia and the remaining 42 are distributed among 19 other genera.This list is presented according to the IOC taxonomic sequence and can also be sorted alphabetically by common name and binomial.

List of birds of Sweden

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Sweden. The avifauna of Sweden include a total of 508 confirmed species as of April 2014, according to Birdlife Sverige. An additional 22 species have been recorded by Bird Checklists of the World by early 2018. Of the 530 species listed here, 225 are accidental and two have been introduced by humans. One is extinct.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (English and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 2018 edition.The following tags have been used to highlight some categories of occurrence; the tags are from Bird Checklists of the World.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Sweden

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Sweden as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions, and has become established

List of birds of the Netherlands

This is a list of the bird species recorded in the Netherlands. The avifauna of the Netherlands included a total of 534 species recorded in the wild by early 2018 according to Checklist of Dutch bird species and Bird Checklists of the World. Of these species, 238 are accidental, 16 have been introduced by humans, and one is extinct.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 2018 edition.The following tags have been used to highlight some categories of occurrence. The (A) tags are from one or both of Checklist of Dutch bird species and Bird Checklists of the World, and (I) tags are from Bird Checklists of the World. The notes of population status such as "endangered" apply to the world population and are also from Bird Checklists of the World.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in the Netherlands

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to the Netherlands as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

Medni Rid

Medni Rid (Bulgarian: Медни рид, meaning Copper Ridge), also known as Bakarlak (Бакърлък) until 1942, is a ridge in south-eastern Bulgaria. It forms the north-eastern extreme of the Bosna Ridge in the Strandzha Mountains. Administratively, it lies in the municipalities of Sozopol and Primorsko, Burgas Province.

The main orographic ridge extends from the north-west to the south-east with a maximum length of 18-20 km and width of 3-5 km. The north-western extreme of Medni Rid reaches Cape Chukalya on the southern coast of the Gulf of Burgas; to the south-east it reaches the valley of the river Ropotamo, which separates it from the isolated ridge of Kitka Ridge. To the west, the valleys of the rivers Rosenska (a left tributary of the Ropotamo) and Otmanliy (flowing directly into the Gulf of Bourgas) separate it from the small ridge Rosen Bair. The two ridges are connected via a low saddle near the village of Rosen. To the east, Medni Rid descends to the shores of the Black Sea.Its highest point, Mount Bakarlaka (376.2 m), rises in the northern section. Medni Rid is composed by andesite, tuff and plutonic rocks. In its northern part there are copper ore deposits. The climate is continental with significant Black Sea influence. The ridge is drained by small rivers and streams. The predominant soils are cinnamon forest ones. The ridge and its slopes are overgrown with oak, hornbeam and lime forests.On its eastern and western foothills there are four villages: Atia and Ravadinovo to the east, Rosen and Veselie to the west.The south-eastern part of Medni Rid falls within the territory of the Ropotamo Nature Reserve; its northern part is occupied by the Rosenets recreational forest. A 7.21 hectare section of the ridge is designated as a protected area named Bakarlaka. About 172 bird species have been discovered in Medni Rid and the ridge has been declared a site of ornithologic importance. It is an important stop for migrating storks and pelicans after they cross the Gulf of Burgas from Cape Emine in the easternmost Balkan Mountains. Medni Rid is among the nation's foremost nesting sites for middle spotted woodpecker, olive-tree warbler, spotted crake and yelkouan shearwater. There are significant populations of barred warbler and ortolan bunting.On all high points of the ridge — from north to south Atia, Bakarlaka, Lobodovo Kale, Malkoto Kale — there are remnants of Thracian fortresses, built of crushed stone. Methodical excavations were conducted only at Malkoto Kale between 1973 and 1977. Copper, as well as some quantities of silver, had been mined since the second millennium BC. The last copper mine "Rosen" was closed down in 1995.

Miombo wren-warbler

The miombo wren-warbler (Calamonastes undosus), also known as the miombo barred warbler or pale wren-warbler, is a species of bird in the Cisticolidae family found in southern Africa.

Stierling's wren-warbler, Caamonastes (undosa) stierlingi, is often included in this species.

Olive-tree warbler

The olive-tree warbler (Hippolais olivetorum) is an Old World warbler in the tree warbler genus Hippolais. It breeds in southeast Europe and the near east. It is migratory, wintering in eastern and southern Africa, from Kenya south to South Africa.

This small passerine bird is a species found in open-canopy oakwoods, olive groves, orchards and almond plantations. 3-4 eggs are laid in a nest in a low tree or a bush.

This is a medium-sized warbler, similar to in size to the barred warbler, with a slightly longer bill and shorter tail. It is the largest Hippolais warbler, with a heavy bill, rather flat crown, long wings, and heavy legs. The adult has a dusty- or brownish-grey back and wings, and dusty-white underparts.

It feeds on invertebrates. Its song is a succession of loud creaks and squawks, lower in pitch than other Hippolais warblers, and slower in delivery.

The genus name Hippolais is from Ancient Greek hupolais, as misspelt by Linnaeus. It referred to a small bird mentioned by Aristotle and others and may be onomatopoeic or derived from hupo,"under", and laas, "stone". The specific olivetorum is Latin for "of the olive groves ".

Podyjí National Park

Podyjí National Park (Czech: Národní park Podyjí) is a national park in the South Moravian Region of the Czech Republic. Adjacent to Austria's Thayatal National Park on the border, together they are referred to as the Inter-National park. Podyjí is one of the Czech Republic's four national parks. It protects near-natural forests along the deep Dyje River valley. The well-preserved state of the biome of the park is cited as being unique in Central Europe.

Province of Mantua

The Province of Mantua (Italian: provincia di Mantova; Mantovano, Lower Mantovano: pruvincia ad Mantua; Upper Mantovano: pruinsa de Mantua) is a province in the Lombardy region of northern Italy. Its capital is the city of Mantua. It is bordered to the north-east by the Province of Verona, to the east by that of Rovigo, to the south by those of Ferrara, Modena, Reggio Emilia and Parma, to the west by the Province of Cremona and to the north-west by that of Brescia.

Sibley-Monroe checklist 16

The Sibley-Monroe checklist was a landmark document in the study of birds. It drew on extensive DNA-DNA hybridisation studies to reassess the relationships between modern birds.

Stierling's wren-warbler

Stierling's wren-warbler (Calamonastes stierlingi), is a species of bird in the Cisticolidae family found in southern Africa. It is sometimes considered a subspecies of the miombo wren-warbler.

Two-barred warbler

The two-barred warbler (Phylloscopus plumbeitarsus) is a species of leaf warbler (family Phylloscopidae). It was formerly included in the "Old World warbler" assemblage. It is closely related to the greenish warbler, to which it was formerly considered conspecific.

It is found in northern Mongolia, Manchuria and southern Siberia.

Typical warbler

The typical warblers are small birds belonging to the genus Sylvia in the "Old World warbler" (or sylviid warbler) family Sylviidae.There are 28 species in the genus, including five species formerly placed in the genus Parisoma, a treatment which left Sylvia paraphyletic. Typical warblers occur in the temperate to tropical regions of Europe, western and central Asia, and Africa, with the highest species diversity centred on the Mediterranean.

They are strongly built, with stouter legs and a slightly thicker bill than many other warblers, and range in size from 11 cm length and 7 g weight (African desert warbler) up to 17 cm length and 36 g weight (barred warbler). The plumage is in varying shades of grey and brown, usually darker above and paler below, with bluish or pinkish tones in several species; several also have orange-brown or rufous fringed wing feathers. The tail is square-ended in most, slightly rounded in a few, and in several species has white sides. Many of the species show some sexual dimorphism, with distinctive male and female plumages, with the males in many having black or bright grey on the heads, replaced by brown, brownish-grey or similar dusky colours in females; about a third of the species also have a conspicuous red eye ring in males. Species breeding in cool temperate regions are strongly migratory, while most of those in warmer regions are partially migratory or resident. They are active warblers usually associated with open woodland, scrub, hedges or shrubs. Their diet is largely insectivorous, though several species also eat fruit extensively, mainly small berries such as elder and ivy, particularly from late summer to late winter; one species (blackcap) also frequently takes a wide variety of human-provided foods on birdtables in winter.

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