Barney Gumble

Barnard Arnold "Barney" Gumble[1] is a recurring character in the American animated TV series The Simpsons. He is voiced by Dan Castellaneta and first appeared in the series premiere episode "Simpsons Roasting on an Open Fire".

Barney is the town drunk of Springfield and Homer Simpson's best friend. His desperation for alcohol is a frequent butt of jokes on the show, though Barney sobered up in the Season 11 episode "Days of Wine and D'oh'ses". Barney was inspired by the cartoon character Barney Rubble from The Flintstones and by several barflies from other television programs. In 2004, Castellaneta won an Emmy Award for voicing various characters, including Barney.

Barney can be seen in The Simpsons opening credits since 2009, passed out under a pile of leaves (but still holding his beloved bottle of Duff Beer) and being awoken by Bart Simpson skateboarding over his stomach, causing him to let out his trademark burp.

Barney Gumble
The Simpsons character
Barney Gumble
First appearance"Simpsons Roasting on an Open Fire" (1989)
Created byJay Kogen
Wallace Wolodarsky
Voiced byDan Castellaneta
OccupationBarney's Bowl-A-Rama (ex-owner) helicopter pilot, snowplow driver, astronaut, military service (unknown occupation and branch served in)
FamilyArnie Gumble (deceased father)
Mrs. Gumble (mother)
Al Gumble (uncle)

Role in The Simpsons

Barney's father, Arnie Gumble, was a World War II veteran who died in 1979 in a parade float accident.[2] Little is known about his mother, except that she lives in Norway[3] and that she served in the United States Navy, including duty on a submarine. She is seen in the season nine episode "Simpson Tide". In Treehouse of Horror XVII, Barney stated that he was Polish, after mistakenly saying he was Irish in a drunken stupor. Barney was born on April 20 (which Homer remembers is also Hitler's birthday in "Viva Ned Flanders" and Barney's entry into the Springfield Film Festival in "A Star Is Burns" where Barney states that he is 40 years old). In the episode "$pringfield", he claims that he studied dance for several years, including modern and tap.

Two episodes give different reasons for his alcoholism. "Mr. Plow" suggests that Barney was a dedicated student looking forward to a bright future. He had his mind set on going to Harvard University, until Homer introduced him to beer the day before the SATs.[4] Season 16's "She Used to Be My Girl" attributes his drinking to his high school girlfriend Chloe Talbot leaving Springfield to pursue a journalism career.[5]

In "Homer's Barbershop Quartet", Barney formed a barbershop quartet with Homer, Apu Nahasapeemapetilon, and Seymour Skinner called the Be Sharps. Barney was asked to join when the other members heard him singing in a beautiful tenor voice in the restroom of Moe's Tavern, replacing the group's original fourth member, Chief Wiggum, who was kicked out. In 1986, the Be Sharps won a Grammy Award for Outstanding Soul, Spoken Word, or Barbershop Album of the Year. Soon, creative disputes arose, and Barney left the group in all but name when he began dating a Japanese conceptual artist. The group realized that they were no longer popular and split up.[6]

Barney was rescued from a tar pit by Bart's pet elephant Stampy in "Bart Gets an Elephant" and he also started a snowplowing business rivaling Homer's in "Mr. Plow". Barney's commercial defamed Homer, causing Homer to lose his customers. As revenge, Homer fooled Barney into plowing a driveway on Widow's Peak, a treacherous mountain just outside Springfield. When Homer saw a news report showing that Barney had become trapped in an avalanche, Homer immediately drove to the mountain and rescued Barney. The friends resolved their differences and agreed to work together. However, a heat wave hit Springfield at that exact moment, driving them both out of business.[4] However, in the episodes "O Brother, Where Bart Thou?" and "Miracle on Evergreen Terrace" it is shown that Barney still drives his Plow King truck.

After being forced to spend a sober night at Moe's Tavern serving as designated driver, Barney left town in Homer Simpson's car to, among other things, give a guest lecture at Villanova (although, by his own admission, the guest lecture could just have likely occurred on a street corner). A gag in "Selma's Choice" suggests that Barney is the father of many local babies born through (presumably, paid) donation of semen and the resulting artificial insemination.

Barney made a documentary film about his life as an alcoholic, titled Pukahontas. It won the top prize at the Springfield Film Festival. He was ready to quit drinking after winning the Festival, but unfortunately, the prize he received was a lifetime supply of Duff Beer.[1] In "Deep Space Homer", Barney trained to become an astronaut for NASA. Under their alcohol-ban, he quickly regained his balance and diction and was quite appropriately selected to fly with Buzz Aldrin. However, he reverted to his old ways when he was presented with a bottle of non-alcoholic champagne.[7] Barney served in the United States Navy Reserve as a submariner on the USS Jebediah, alongside his mother, in "Simpson Tide".[8]

In "Days of Wine and D'oh'ses", after watching a video of his drunken antics at his birthday party, Barney resolves to get sober. He attends Alcoholics Anonymous meetings, cleans up his appearance, and attends helicopter-flying lessons.[9] It was revealed in the fourteenth season episode "I'm Spelling as Fast as I Can" that he had relapsed.



Barney was inspired by Barney Rubble, Fred Flintstone's best friend and next-door neighbor from the animated series The Flintstones.[10] The writers originally wanted the character to be Homer Simpson's sidekick and next-door neighbor, but instead, while still portraying him as Homer's best friend, they decided to make him an alcoholic. Ned Flanders would become the next-door neighbor instead.[10] "Barney was taking the standard sitcom sidekick and just making him as pathetic as possible," said Matt Groening, the creator of The Simpsons.[11] The writers drew further inspiration from Crazy Guggenheim, a character played by comedian Frank Fontaine on The Jackie Gleason Show.[11] Part of the reason the writers went in that direction, according to Groening, was because of "a sort of unspoken rule about not having drinking on television as a source of comedy. So, of course, we went right for it."[11] The writers also patterned the character after Norm Peterson (George Wendt), a character from the sitcom Cheers.[12]

In some early first season episodes, Barney had yellow hair. Later in the production of that season, the producers had it changed to brown, because they thought that his hair looked like his skin;[13] as well, during an artistic convention of the show, Groening stated that he wanted only the Simpsons to have yellow hair.[10] Animation director Rich Moore modeled Barney's apartment on one he and several other animators who worked on the show shared, particularly the Farrah Fawcett poster and the cable spool table.[14] The writers originally intended for the character to be the owner of Barney's Bowl-A-Rama.[15] However, after making him "pathetic", they could not regard him as a business owner any longer, and it was explained seasons later in "And Maggie Makes Three" that his Uncle Al owns the alley and named it after him.[15][16]


Dan Castellaneta 2
Dan Castellaneta, the voice of Barney.

Barney Gumble is voiced by Dan Castellaneta.[17] Early on the show, Castellaneta discovered that it was not easy for him to do Barney's trademark belch every time a script called for it, so he identified his best belch and told the producers to make that the standard.[18] Castellaneta has voiced Barney every time he has appeared in the series, with the exception of the episode "Homer's Barbershop Quartet", in which some of Barney's singing is provided by a member of The Dapper Dans, who recorded lines for all four members of the Be Sharps.[19] Their recordings were intermixed with the cast's, often with a cast member singing the melody and the Dapper Dans providing backup.[19]


Castellaneta thought of the idea of Barney sobering up early in the series. He wrote a script together with his wife Deb Lacusta. They offered their script to showrunner Al Jean. Jean liked the story, but felt that it was too similar to a script the writers were already working on, "Duffless", so he turned it down. Castellaneta and Lacusta waited several years and offered their script, which they updated, to then-show runner Mike Scully, who liked it and had them make a few changes.[20] Their script became the eleventh season episode "Days of Wine and D'oh'ses", which first aired April 9, 2000.[21] The episode was directed by Neil Affleck, who said that he had "a vested interest in getting Barney sober."[20] However, some of the writing staff was opposed to the episode as they felt Barney sober would not be funny.[11] Castellaneta commented, "He's still a goofy man-child...he's still got 15 years of booze left in his veins."[11]

After a long discussion about how the episode should end, the writers decided that they did not want Barney to return to being drunk at the end of the episode. Barney stayed sober for several seasons. The animators modified the appearance of the character, straightening his hair, among other things, to indicate his sobriety. Castellaneta altered his voice for the character by no longer slurring.[20] Barney was still seen at Moe's Tavern, but only drinking lattes.[22] The character's new addiction to coffee was suggested by writer-producer David Mirkin, who has friends who stopped drinking alcohol and became addicted to coffee.[20]

Reception ranked Barney 18th on their 2008 list of "The 21 Best Movie Alcoholics of All Time". Recognizing the character for his appearance in The Simpsons Movie, Filmcritic called him "the most awesomely funny town drunk in pop culture".[23] IGN ranked Barney fifth on their list of the "Top 25 Simpsons Peripheral Characters" in 2006, stating that, "he's been a dependable source of humor through his many drunken asides, burps included...Occasionally he's sobered up...But let's face it, for comedy's sake, The Simpsons is better off with a drunken Barney mouthing off at Moe's."[24] Author Chris Turner (Planet Simpson) said, "Making [Barney] sober falls into the trap of all the stuff The Simpsons satirizes, all those simple sitcom narratives where everything is wrapped up in half an hour and everyone learns a lesson in the end."[25]

Britain's The Guardian said that Barney "should be hailed for making compulsive drinking a source of comedy on US TV, a hitherto impossible dream."[26] Entertainment Weekly placed "Mr. Plow" sixth on their list of the best 25 Simpsons episodes in 2003.[27] In 2004, Dan Castellaneta won a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Voice-Over Performance for voicing several characters, including Barney, in the episode "Today I Am a Clown".[28] "Days of Wine and D'oh'ses" was nominated for a PRISM Award in 2001.[29]


Playmates Toys created three Barney Gumble action figures as part of the World of Springfield toy line.[30] The first one, released in August 2000, depicts Barney in his usual appearance. The second, Barney in his Plow King jacket from "Mr. Plow", was released in January 2003.[31] The third, a Toys "R" Us retail exclusive, was released in July 2003 as part of a Be Sharps play set.[32] The song "A Boozehound named Barney" from the episode "Simpsoncalifragilisticexpiala(Annoyed Grunt)cious" was included on the Go Simpsonic with The Simpsons album.[33] Barney plays a role in The Simpsons Ride, launched in 2008 at Universal Studios Florida and Hollywood.[34]


  1. ^ a b Keeler, Ken; Dietter, Susie (1995-03-05). "A Star Is Burns". The Simpsons. Fox.
  2. ^ Collier, Jonathan; Lynch, Jeffrey (1996-04-28). "Raging Abe Simpson and His Grumbling Grandson in 'The Curse of the Flying Hellfish'". The Simpsons. Fox.
  3. ^ Kogen, Jay; Wolodarsky, Wallace (1992-01-23). "Lisa the Greek". The Simpsons. Fox.
  4. ^ a b Vitti, Jon; Reardon, Jim (1992-11-19). "Mr. Plow". The Simpsons. Fox.
  5. ^ Long, Tim; Nastuk, Matthew (2004-12-05). "She Used to Be My Girl". The Simpsons. Fox.
  6. ^ Martin, Jeff; Kirkland, Mark (1993-09-30). "Homer's Barbershop Quartet". The Simpsons. Fox.
  7. ^ Mirkin, David; Baeza, Carlos (1994-02-12). "Deep Space Homer". The Simpsons. Fox.
  8. ^ Sternin, Joshua and Jeffrey Ventimilia; Gray, Milton (1998-03-29). "Simpson Tide". The Simpsons. Fox.
  9. ^ Lacusta, Deb and Dan Castellaneta; Affleck, Neil (2000-04-09). "Days of Wine and D'oh'ses". The Simpsons. Fox.
  10. ^ a b c Groening, Matt (2001). Commentary for "Simpsons Roasting on an Open Fire", in The Simpsons: The Complete First Season [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
  11. ^ a b c d e Rhodes, Joe (2000-10-21). "Flash! 24 Simpsons Stars Reveal Themselves". TV Guide.
  12. ^ Castellaneta, Dan; Groening, Matt; Jean, Al; Moore, Rich; Reiss, Mike; Silverman, David (2003). Commentary for "Flaming Moe's", in The Simpsons: The Complete Third Season [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
  13. ^ Jean, Al (2001). Commentary for "Some Enchanted Evening", in The Simpsons: The Complete First Season [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
  14. ^ Moore, Rich (2001). Commentary for "Homer's Night Out", in The Simpsons: The Complete First Season [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
  15. ^ a b Groening, Matt; Jean, Al; Silverman, David (2001). Commentary for "Life on the Fast Lane", in The Simpsons: The Complete First Season [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
  16. ^ Groening, Matt; Silverman, David (2005). Commentary for "And Maggie Makes Three", in The Simpsons: The Complete Sixth Season [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
  17. ^ Richmond & Coffman 1997, p. 165.
  18. ^ Jean, Al (2002). Commentary for "Blood Feud", in The Simpsons: The Complete Second Season [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
  19. ^ a b Martin, Jeff; Reiss, Mike (2004). Commentary for "Homer's Barbershop Quartet", in The Simpsons: The Complete Fifth Season DVD. 20th Century Fox.
  20. ^ a b c d Affleck, Neil; Castellaneta, Dan; Lacusta, Deb; Maxtone-Graham, Ian; Meyer, George; Scully, Mike (2008). Commentary for "Days of Wine and D'oh'ses", in The Simpsons: The Complete Eleventh Season [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
  21. ^ McCann, Jesse L. (2002). The Simpsons Beyond Forever! A Complete Guide to Our Favorite Family...Still Continued. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-050592-9.
  22. ^ Loerzel, Robert. "D'oh! Now He's Van Gogh". Archived from the original on 2006-08-13. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  23. ^ Antani, Jay; Brenner, Jules; Brenner, Paul; Cabin, Chris; Croatto, Pete; French, Blake; Meyerson, Eric; Null, Christopher & Don Willmott (2008). "The 21 Best Movie Alcoholics of All Time". Archived from the original on 8 January 2009. Retrieved 2008-12-29.
  24. ^ Goldman, Eric; Iverson, Dan; Brian Zoromski (2006-10-06). "Top 25 Simpsons Peripheral Characters". IGN. Archived from the original on 29 September 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-16.
  25. ^ Ortved, John (2009). The Simpsons: An Uncensored, Unauthorized History. New York: Faber and Faber. p. 176. ISBN 978-0-86547-988-3.
  26. ^ Horgan, Sharon; Dennis Kelly (2008-03-22). "Under the influence". The Guardian. Retrieved 2009-11-06.
  27. ^ "The Family Dynamic". Entertainment Weekly. 2003-01-29. Archived from the original on 13 September 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-16.
  28. ^ Schneider, Michael (2004-08-10). "Emmy speaks for Homer". Variety. Archived from the original on 12 October 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-04.
  29. ^ "Winners & Nominees". PRISM Awards. Retrieved 2008-10-14.
  30. ^ "Series 2". The Simpsons Action Figure Information Station. Retrieved 2008-11-03.
  31. ^ "Series 11". The Simpsons Action Figure Information Station. Retrieved 2008-11-04.
  32. ^ "Toysrus exclusives". The Simpsons Action Figure Information Station. Retrieved 2008-11-03.
  33. ^ Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "Go Simpsonic with the Simpsons". Retrieved 2007-02-10.
  34. ^ MacDonald, Brady (2008-04-09). "Simpsons ride features 29 characters, original voices". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on September 14, 2008. Retrieved 2009-11-06.

External links

1957 in animation

Events in 1957 in animation.

Any Given Sundance

"Any Given Sundance" (a play on the title of the film Any Given Sunday, but otherwise unrelated) is the eighteenth episode of The Simpsons' nineteenth season. It originally aired on the Fox network in the United States on May 4, 2008. It guest-starred Jim Jarmusch and John C. Reilly as themselves. After Lisa enters a film about her family into the Sundance Film Festival, Homer, Marge, and Bart, and Maggie are appalled by the candid behind-the scenes look at their family. Meanwhile, Principal Skinner and Superintendent Chalmers decide to enter the movie business.

Dan Castellaneta

Daniel Louis Castellaneta (; born October 29, 1957) is an American actor, voice actor, comedian, producer and screenwriter, best known for his long-running role as Homer Simpson on the Fox Broadcasting Company animated sitcom The Simpsons. He also voices many other characters for the show including Abraham "Grampa" Simpson, Barney Gumble, Krusty the Clown, Sideshow Mel, Groundskeeper Willie, Mayor Quimby and Hans Moleman. Castellaneta also had roles in several other programs, including Futurama for Fox Broadcasting Company, Sibs and Darkwing Duck for ABC, The Adventures of Dynamo Duck for Fox Kids, Back to the Future: The Animated Series for CBS, Aladdin for Toon Disney, Taz-Mania for Warner Bros. Animation and in Hey Arnold! as Grandpa Phil for Nickelodeon.

In 1999, he appeared in the Christmas special Olive, the Other Reindeer, and won an Annie Award for his portrayal of the Postman. He released a comedy album I Am Not Homer, and wrote and starred in a one-person show titled Where Did Vincent van Gogh?

Entertainment Industries Council

The Entertainment Industries Council is a United States non-profit organization founded in 1983 that promotes the depiction of accurate health and social issues in film, television, music, and comic books. The Council provides guidelines on the depictions of these issues to the entertainment industry, generally promoting content that includes negative consequences of addiction, dependency and violence.


Gumbel or Gumble is a surname. Notable people with the surname include:

Bryant Gumbel (born 1948), American television sportscaster, brother of Greg

David Heinz Gumbel (1906–1992), Israeli designer and silversmith

Emil Julius Gumbel (1891–1966), German mathematician, pacifist and anti-Nazi campaigner

creator of Gumbel distribution

Greg Gumbel (born 1946), American television sportscaster, brother of Bryant

Nicky Gumbel (born 1955), Anglican priest and author

Thomas Gumble (died 1676), English biographer

Wilhelm Theodor Gumbel (1812–1858), German bryologist

Wilhelm von Gumbel (1823–1898), German geologist

Homer's Barbershop Quartet

"Homer's Barbershop Quartet" is the first episode of The Simpsons' fifth season. It originally aired on the Fox network in the United States on September 30, 1993. The episode was written by Jeff Martin and directed by Mark Kirkland. It features the Be Sharps, a barbershop quartet founded by Homer Simpson. The band's story roughly parallels that of The Beatles. George Harrison and David Crosby guest star as themselves, and The Dapper Dans provide the singing voices of the Be Sharps.

The episode begins with the Simpson family as they attend a swap meet. There, Bart Simpson and his sister Lisa notice a picture of their father, Homer, on the cover of an old LP album. Homer explains to his family that he, Principal Skinner, Barney Gumble, and Apu Nahasapeemapetilon recorded a barbershop quartet album in 1985, which catapulted them to national fame. He narrates to his family the story of how the band formed, reached the pinnacle of success, and eventually folded. At the end of the episode, the group reunites to perform a concert on the roof of Moe's Tavern, singing their number-one hit "Baby on Board".

Throughout the episode, several references are made to the Beatles and other popular culture icons. In its original American broadcast, "Homer's Barbershop Quartet" finished 30th in ratings, with a Nielsen rating of 12.7. It was praised for its Beatles cameo, despite being a leftover episode from the previous season. Reviews that criticized the episode's inconsistent humor blamed it on the change of writers before the episode's creation.

I Am Not Homer

I Am Not Homer is a 2002 comedy album by actor and comedian Dan Castellaneta, with additional input by his wife Deb Lacusta. The album is a collection of comedy sketches written and performed by Castellaneta and Lacusta, and was the follow-up to Castellaneta's previous all-music album Two Lips. The title of the album is a reference to Leonard Nimoy's first autobiography, I Am Not Spock, and a majority of the sketches were material that the pair had used before in their careers.

Lenny and Carl

Lenford "Lenny" Leonard and Carlton "Carl" Carlson are recurring characters in the Fox animated series The Simpsons, voiced by Harry Shearer and Hank Azaria, respectively. They are best friends of Homer Simpson and work with him at the Springfield Nuclear Power Plant. Lenny and Carl are rarely seen apart and have a close relationship. Each possesses a master's degree in nuclear physics, but are often portrayed as blue-collar working men.

List of The Simpsons cast members

The Simpsons is an American animated sitcom that includes six main voice actors and numerous regular cast and recurring guest stars. The principal cast consists of Dan Castellaneta, Julie Kavner, Nancy Cartwright, Yeardley Smith, Hank Azaria and Harry Shearer. Chris Edgerly, Pamela Hayden, Tress MacNeille, Kevin Michael Richardson, Maggie Roswell, and Russi Taylor have appeared as supporting cast members, along with former supporting cast members Karl Wiedergott, Marcia Mitzman Gaven, Doris Grau, and Christopher Collins. Repeat guest cast members include Marcia Wallace, Albert Brooks, Phil Hartman, Jon Lovitz, Joe Mantegna and Kelsey Grammer. With one exception, episode credits list only the voice actors, and not the characters they voice.

Both Fox and the production crew wanted to keep their identities secret during the early seasons and closed most of the recording sessions while refusing to publish photos of the recording artists. The network eventually revealed which roles each actor performed in the episode "Old Money", because the producers said the voice actors should receive credit for their work. Every main cast member has won an Emmy for Outstanding Voice-Over Performance. Shearer was the last cast member to win, receiving his award in 2014 for the episode "Four Regrettings and a Funeral." Castellaneta and Azaria have won four, while Kavner, Cartwright, Smith, Shearer, Wallace, Grammer, and guest star Jackie Mason have each won one.


MacHomer is a one-person play by Rick Miller which blends William Shakespeare's tragedy Macbeth with the animated television series The Simpsons. Miller first conceived of the idea in 1994, when he was performing in a production of Macbeth. The first performance of MacHomer was at the Montreal Fringe Festival in 1995. MacHomer has been re-written a number of times. The early version of the play was more of a stand-up comedy routine, but in 2000, it was expanded into a theatrical production. In 2006, for the 10th anniversary tour, Miller further revamped the play, adding new songs and characters, and incorporating videos.

The script of the play "remains 85% Shakespeare" and mostly follows the plot of Macbeth. Miller performs the various roles using voices from The Simpsons characters, using more than 50 voices. The set includes a video screen at the back of the stage, and sound and video effects are incorporated into the performance. Miller has performed the play in over 150 cities around the world, including performances at the Edinburgh Festival Fringe, the Melbourne International Comedy Festival, and the Just for Laughs comedy festival.

MacHomer has received largely positive reviews from critics, with praise going to Miller's impersonations. However, some critics felt that the play seems more like a group of sketches, while others felt that Miller's Homer Simpson voice was one of his weaker impersonations. According to Miller, The Simpsons creator Matt Groening is a fan of the play and gave him permission to perform it.

Moe Szyslak

Morris "Moe" Szyslak is a recurring character from the animated television series The Simpsons. He is voiced by Hank Azaria and first appeared in the series premiere episode "Simpsons Roasting on an Open Fire". Moe is the proprietor and bartender of Moe's Tavern, a Springfield bar frequented by Homer Simpson, Barney Gumble, Lenny Leonard, Carl Carlson, Sam, Larry, and others.

Grouchy, lonely, miserable and prone to violent outbursts, Moe is constantly down on his luck, and has attempted suicide numerous times. Other running jokes featuring him include being prank called by Bart Simpson, running illegal activities from his bar, and an ambiguous ethnic origin.

Mr. Plow

"Mr. Plow" is the ninth episode of The Simpsons' fourth season. It originally aired on the Fox network in the United States on November 19, 1992. In the episode, Homer buys a snow plow and starts a business plowing driveways. It is a huge success, and inspired by this, Barney Gumble starts a rival company and quickly puts Homer out of business. The episode was written by Jon Vitti and directed by Jim Reardon. The episode was well received, with some critics calling it one of the best in the show's history. In 1993, Dan Castellaneta won his second Emmy Award for "Outstanding Voice-Over Performance" for this episode. The episode was also submitted in the "Outstanding Comedy Series" category although ultimately it was not nominated.

Nixon's Enemies List

"Nixon's Enemies List" is the informal name of what started as a list of President of the United States Richard Nixon's major political opponents compiled by Charles Colson, written by George T. Bell (assistant to Colson, special counsel to the White House), and sent in memorandum form to John Dean on September 9, 1971. The list was part of a campaign officially known as "Opponents List" and "Political Enemies Project".

The list became public knowledge on June 27, 1973, when Dean mentioned during hearings with the Senate Watergate Committee that a list existed containing those whom the president did not like. Journalist Daniel Schorr, who happened to be on the list, managed to obtain a copy of it later that day.A longer second list was made public by Dean on December 20, 1973, during a hearing with the Congressional Joint Committee on Internal Revenue Taxation.

Simpsons Roasting on an Open Fire

"Simpsons Roasting on an Open Fire", also known as "The Simpsons Christmas Special", is the series premiere episode of The Simpsons. It was the first episode to air despite originally being the eighth episode produced for season one. It is the only full-length episode to air during the 1980s, having originally aired on the Fox network in the United States on December 17, 1989.

In the episode, Homer Simpson discovers that he will not be getting a Christmas bonus and thus his family has no money to buy Christmas presents after they had to waste money on getting his son Bart's tattoo removed. He decides to keep their financial troubles a secret and gets a job as a shopping mall Santa Claus, but later discovers that the job does not pay enough. Desperate for a miracle, Homer and Bart go to the dog-racing track on Christmas Eve in hopes of earning some money but end up adopting an abandoned greyhound, Santa's Little Helper.

The episode was written by Mimi Pond, and it was directed by David Silverman. "Simpsons Roasting on an Open Fire" was nominated for two Emmy Awards in 1990, and has received positive reviews from television critics. It was viewed by approximately 13.4 million viewers in its original airing.

The show was originally intended to debut earlier in 1989 with "Some Enchanted Evening", but due to animation issues with that episode, the show debuted with this episode on December 17.

Singin' in the Lane

"Singin' in the Lane" is the seventh episode of the twenty-ninth season of the animated television series The Simpsons, and the 625th episode of the series overall. It aired in the United States on Fox on November 19, 2017.

Springfield (Universal Studios Florida)

Springfield is a themed area at the Universal Studios Florida theme park in Orlando, Florida. The area is part of the two themed areas at Universal parks around the fictional town of the same name from the American animated sitcom, The Simpsons.

The City of New York vs. Homer Simpson

"The City of New York vs. Homer Simpson" is the first episode of The Simpsons' ninth season. It was originally broadcast on the Fox network in the United States on September 21, 1997, as the 179th episode of the series. The episode features the Simpson family traveling to Manhattan to recover the family car, which was taken by Barney Gumble and abandoned outside the World Trade Center, where it has been repeatedly posted with parking tickets, and disabled with a parking boot.

Writer Ian Maxtone-Graham was interested in making an episode where the Simpson family travels to New York to retrieve their misplaced car. Executive producers Bill Oakley and Josh Weinstein suggested that the car be found in Austin J. Tobin Plaza at the World Trade Center, as they wanted a location that would be widely known. Great lengths were taken to make a detailed replica of the borough of Manhattan. The episode received generally positive reviews, and has since been on accolade lists of The Simpsons episodes. The "You're Checkin' In" musical sequence won two awards. Because of the World Trade Center's main role, the episode was taken off syndication in many areas following the September 11 attacks, but had come back into syndication by 2006.

Town drunk

The town drunk (also called a tavern fool) is a stock character, almost always male, who is drunk more often than sober.

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