Barnes & Noble

Barnes & Noble, Inc., a Fortune 1000 company, is the bookseller with the largest number of retail outlets in the United States and a retailer of content, digital media, and educational products. As of March 7, 2019, the company operates 627 retail stores in all 50 U.S. states.[2]

Barnes & Noble operates mainly through its Barnes & Noble Booksellers chain of bookstores. The company's headquarters are at 122 Fifth Avenue in New York City.[4]

After a series of mergers and bankruptcies in the American bookstore industry since the 1990s, Barnes & Noble stands alone as the United States' largest national bookstore chain.[5][6] Previously, Barnes & Noble operated the chain of small B. Dalton Bookseller stores in malls until they announced the liquidation of the chain. The company was also one of the nation's largest manager of college textbook stores located on or near many college campuses when that division was spun off as a separate public company called Barnes & Noble Education in 2015.

The company is known for large retail outlets, many of which contain a café serving Starbucks coffee and other consumables. Most stores sell books, magazines, newspapers, DVDs, graphic novels, gifts, games, toys, music, and Nook e‑readers and tablets.

Barnes & Noble, Inc.
Traded asNYSEBKS
S&P 600 Component

History

19th century: Foundations

Clifford Noble in 1893
Clifford Noble in 1893

Barnes & Noble began in 1886 as a bookstore called Arthur Hinds & Company, located in the Cooper Union Building in New York City.[7][8] In the fall of 1886, Gilbert Clifford Noble, a then-recent Harvard graduate from Westfield, Massachusetts, was hired to work there as a clerk.[9]

In 1894, Noble was made a partner, and the name of the shop was changed to Hinds & Noble.[10]

20th century: Expansion

1900–1919

In 1901, Hinds & Noble moved to 31–35 W. 15th Street.[11]

In 1917, Noble bought out Hinds and entered into a partnership with William Barnes, son of his old friend Charles and the name of the store was changed to Barnes & Noble.[12][13] Charles Barnes had opened a book-printing business in Wheaton, Illinois in 1873; William Barnes divested himself of his ownership interest in his father's C. M. Barnes-Wilcox Company just before his partnership with Noble and his father's company would go on to become Follett Corporation. Although the flagship store once featured the motto "founded in 1873," the C. M. Barnes-Wilcox Company never had any connection to Barnes & Noble other than the fact that both were partly owned (at different times) by William Barnes.

1920–1939

Barnes & Noble Fifth Ave flagship
Barnes & Noble's former flagship store at 105 Fifth Avenue in Manhattan, New York that operated from 1932 to 2014.

In 1930, Noble sold his share of the company to William Barnes' son John Wilcox Barnes.[14] Noble died on June 6, 1936, at the age of 72.[15] In the long history of the bookstore, the namesake partnership was a brief interlude of thirteen years. In 1932, at the height of the Great Depression, the bookstore moved the flagship location to 18th Street and Fifth Avenue,[16] which served as the flagship location until its closure in 2014. The Noble family retained ownership of an associated publishing business, and Barnes & Noble opened a new publishing division in 1931.[14]

1940–1959

In 1940, the store was one of the first businesses to feature Muzak and it underwent a major renovation the following year.[17] That decade the company opened stores in Brooklyn and Chicago.[18] William Barnes died in 1945, at the age of 78, and his son John Wilcox Barnes assumed full control.[18] The company underwent a significant expansion between the 1950s and the 1960s, opening an additional retail store on 23rd Street in Manhattan, as well as shops near the City University of New York, Harvard, and other Northeast college campuses.[19]

1960–1979

122 Fifth Avenue
Barnes & Noble corporate headquarters, 122 (122–124) Fifth Avenue between West 17th and 18th Streets in the Flatiron District neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City
Barnes & Noble sign
5th Avenue store sign

John Barnes died in 1964, and the company was sold to the conglomerate Amtel two years later.[20] The business was then purchased in 1971 by Leonard Riggio for $1.2 million.[19] By then, it had been mismanaged and consisted only of "a significantly reduced wholesale operation and a single retail location—the flagship store at 105 Fifth Avenue."[19] The publishing operation was sold separately by Amtel to Harper & Row.[21] In 1974, Barnes & Noble became the first bookstore chain to advertise on television and a year later, the company became the first bookseller in the United States to discount books, by selling The New York Times best-selling titles at 40% off the publishers' list price.[22] Between the 1970s and the 1980s, Barnes & Noble opened smaller discount stores, which were eventually phased out in favor of larger stores. They also began to publish their own books to be sold to mail-order customers. These titles were primarily affordable reissues of out-of-print titles and selling them through mail-order catalogs allowed Barnes & Noble to reach new customers nationwide.[22]

In November 1974, editors of the British-produced Guinness Book of Records, claimed on the BBC One television programme Record Breakers that the Fifth Avenue store of Barnes & Noble had overtaken that of London's Foyles bookshop to become the world's biggest bookstore.[23]

1980–1999

Barnes & Noble continued to expand throughout the 1980s, and it purchased the primarily shopping mall-based B. Dalton chain from Dayton Hudson in 1986, for an estimated $275 million to $300 million.[24] Solveig Robinson, author of The Book in Society: An Introduction to Print Culture, wrote that the purchase "gave [Barnes & Noble] the necessary know-how and infrastructure to create what, in 1992, became the definitive bookselling superstore."[25] The acquisition of the 797 B. Dalton bookstores turned the company into a nationwide retailer, and by the end of fiscal year 1999, the second-largest online bookseller in the United States.[26] B&N's critics claim that it has contributed to the decline of local and independent booksellers.[27] The last B. Dalton stores were scheduled to close in January 2010.[26]

In 1989, Barnes & Noble purchased the 22-store chain Bookstop.

Before Barnes & Noble created its official website, it sold books directly to customers through mail-order catalogs. It first began selling books online through an early videotex service called "Trintex," a joint venture between Sears and IBM, but the company's website was not launched until May 1997.[28] BarnesandNoble.com went public in 1999.[29]

21st century: Operating in an electronic environment

2000s

In 2004, it was reported that the reading of books was on the decline in America, with the number of non-reading adults increasing by 17 million between 1992 and 2002. Despite this, Barnes & Noble claimed that its retail store business was expanding in the book market.[30] Beginning in 1999, Barnes & Noble owned GameStop, a video game and electronics retail outlet. The company distributed its shares in GameStop in late 2004, spinning it off into its own company in an attempt to simplify its corporate structure.[31]

CEO Leonard Riggio stepped down in 2002, naming his younger brother and former acting chief executive of BarnesandNoble.com, Stephen Riggio, to succeed him. Some corporate governance experts noted that this appointment could potentially cause conflict of interest, but the company board noted that Riggio's experience at the company made him the right person for the job.[32] Stephen Riggio stepped down from the position in 2010.[33]

2010s

In 2010, website president William Lynch was named CEO. He is credited with helping launch the company's electronic book store and overseeing the introduction of its electronic book reader, the Nook. Many observers saw his appointment as underscoring the importance of digital books to Barnes & Noble's future. Steve Riggio stayed on as vice chairman.[34] When Lynch resigned in mid-2013,[35] he was replaced by Chief Financial Officer Michael Huseby early the next year.[36] Following the spinoff of Barnes & Noble Education, Huseby departed to head the new firm; his place was filled in mid-2015 by Ronald Boire,[37][38] who departed one year later.[39] Demos Parneros was named Barnes & Noble’s Chief Executive Officer in April 2017 after having joined the company as Chief Operating Officer in November 2016; however, he was fired in July 2018 for "company policy violations" without severance and was immediately removed from the company's board, at the advice of a law firm hired by Barnes & Noble.[40] On August 28, 2018, Parneros filed a lawsuit against Barnes & Noble, claiming wrongful termination.[41]

After the bankruptcy and closure of its chief competitor, Borders Group, in 2011,[42] Barnes & Noble became the last remaining national bookstore chain in the United States.[5][6] This followed a series of mergers and bankruptcies in the American bookstore industry since the 1990s, which also saw the demise of Waldenbooks, Barnes & Noble's own subsidiary B. Dalton, and Crown Books, among others. Barnes & Noble's largest physical bookstore rival is now Books-A-Million, which does not operate in the Western US. Barnes & Noble also faces competition from general retailers, especially from Amazon.com, and from regional and independent booksellers. Amazon has even opened its own physical bookstores, once again creating a second national bookstore chain.[43]

Barnes & Noble began reducing its overall presence in the 2010's, closing its original flagship store in early 2014.[44] In mid-2014, the company announced it would separate its Nook Media division from its retail store division.[45]

In February 2018, Barnes & Noble permanently laid off 1,800 full time employees at an annual cost savings of $40 million per year.[46] According to TechCrunch, the company essentially fired their entire full time staff at all their stores, who would be making an average of $22,000 per year (~$11 per hour), and were replaced by part time workers earning close to minimum wage.[47]

In the 2018 fiscal year that ended in July, the company overall losses reached $17 million.[48] In early July 2018, Barnes & Noble fired Demos Parneros, for unspecified violation of company policy, which was later revealed to be over sexual abuse claims.[49]

On October 3, 2018, the board of directors announced that they would entertain offers to buy the company. Among the potential buyers was Leonard Riggio, who owns approximately 19% of Barnes & Noble stock. As a result of the news, the company’s stock price jumped by nearly 30%.[50]

Publishing

Barnes & Noble maintains a separate publishing business in addition to its retail stores and other entities. Barnes & Noble's publishing company got its start by reissuing inexpensive versions of out-of-print books, and made a push to expand the unit in 2003. The company saw success the following year; in September 2004, its book, "Hippie," reached the New York Times best-seller list.[51]

Barnes & Noble often publishes and sells books at a lower cost than competitors, and sells lines of inexpensive books like Barnes & Noble Classics.[51] In addition, the company has a second paperback series called the Barnes & Noble Library of Essential Reading.[52]Barnes & Noble's edition of The Gentle Art of Verbal Self-Defense by Suzette Haden Elgin, has sold over 250,000 copies,[28] and its reissued edition of The Columbia History of the World by John Garrity, has sold over 1 million copies.[28][53]

The company has expanded business by acquiring several firms over the years, including SparkNotes, an educational website and publishing company, in 2001[54] and Sterling Publishing in 2003.[28]

Food service

6.25.11SpringfieldBarnes&NobleByLuigiNovi
The Barnes & Noble café in Springfield, New Jersey

In 1993, Barnes & Noble signed an agreement to serve Starbucks coffee in each of its existing and future cafes.[55][56] In 2004, Barnes & Noble began offering Wi-Fi in the café area of selected stores, using SBC FreedomLink (now the AT&T Wi-Fi network). All stores offered Wi-Fi as of 2006 and as of July 27, 2009, Wi-Fi is offered for free to all customers.[57]

Bnlynnwood
Barnes & Noble in Lynnwood, Washington, using the former 1990s era logo.

In 2016, Barnes & Noble announced plans to open four concept stores in 2017 that featured cafés twice the size of its usual food spots, as well as bars offering wine and beer. Restaurants would also include a waitstaff and a full menu for breakfast, lunch, and dinner. The restaurants were expected to revive sales growth. Company executives planned to open additional concept stores if sales met expectations.[58] The first stores were opened in Scarsdale, New York, Edina, Minnesota, Plano, Texas, and Folsom, California.[59]

Community involvement

Barnes & Noble hires community business development managers to engage in community outreach.[60][61] Barnes & Noble also gives back to the community to increase literacy and education. The Barnes & Noble located in Fairbanks, Alaska gave over $80,000 to the community between 2015 and 2018 through book fair fundraising programs.[60] To promote nationwide literacy among 1st through 6th graders and encourage more reading during the summer, Barnes & Noble has implemented a summer challenge.[62][63][64]

Barnes & Noble Nook

Barnes & Noble Nook (styled NOOK) is a suite of e-book readers developed by the company,[65] based on the Android platform. The first device was announced in the United States on October 20, 2009 and was released November 30, 2009, for $259.[66] On June 21, 2010, Barnes & Noble reduced the Nook's price to $199, as well as launched a new Wi-Fi-only model, for $149, and released a Nook colored touch screen for $249.[67]

The Nook competes with the Amazon Kindle, Kobo eReader, and other e-reader offerings and color tablets with reading apps, such as Apple's iBooks for iOS devices. Various Nook models feature a 6-inch, 7-inch, or larger touchscreen.[68] Version 1.3 of the Nook introduced Wi-Fi connectivity, a web browser, a dictionary, chess, and sudoku games, and a separate, smaller color touchscreen that serves as the primary input device. The Nook also features a Read in Store capability that allows visitors to stream and read any book for up to one hour while shopping in a Barnes & Noble bookstore. According to a June 2010 CNet article, the company planned to expand this feature to include periodicals in the near future.[69] The color version of the Nook introduced a 7-inch color touchscreen and the ability to view at a portrait or landscape orientation.[70]

On April 30, 2012, Microsoft invested $300 million for a 17.6% stake in Nook, which valued the business at about $1.7 billion.[71]

In November 2012, the technology publications Mashable and Techdirt criticized the license agreement with which Barnes & Noble sells ebooks to consumers, pointing out that the rights to re-download a purchased ebook expire when the customer's credit card expires, and a valid credit card must be added to the account to restore this functionality.[72][73]

In June 2014, Barnes & Noble had previously announced that it would spin off its Nook Digital division into a separate publicly traded company,[45][74] but as of 2016, Nook remains a part of Barnes & Noble. That same month, the company announced a partnership with Samsung Electronics to make Nook tablets, as the bookseller moved forward with plans to revamp its digital business.[75] Samsung and Barnes & Noble introduced the Samsung Galaxy Tab 4 Nook 7.0 in August 2014, followed by the Samsung Galaxy Tab 4 Nook 10.1 in October 2014. In December 2014, Barnes & Noble announced that it had ended its Nook partnership with Microsoft by buying back its stake.[76] Samsung and Barnes & Noble continue to introduce new Nook tablets.[77]

In March 2016, Barnes & Noble announced it would close the Nook App Store and Nook Video and in the UK close the Nook Store on March 15.[78] It will continue to sell e-books as well as digital magazines and newspapers in the US.

College bookstores

Barnes & Noble Education, Inc.
Public
Traded asNYSEBNED
PredecessorCorporate spin-off from Barnes & Noble, Inc.
FoundedAugust 3, 2015
Headquarters,
United States
Number of locations
773 (December 2018)[79]
Key people
Michael P. Huseby (CEO, chairman)
BrandsYuzu digital textbook platform
Divisions
  • Barnes & Noble College Booksellers, LLC
  • MBS Textbook Exchange, LLC
  • Digital Student Solutions
Websitewww.bned.com

In February 2015, Barnes & Noble had announced plans to spin off its college bookstore assets and create a separate company called Barnes & Noble Education.[80] August 3, 2015, Barnes & Noble Education, Inc. began trading on the New York Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol, "BNED".[81][82] The company operated stores dedicated to selling college textbooks, both on and off campus.[83]

In February 2017, Barnes & Noble Education had acquired MBS Textbook Exchange, a major textbook distributor based in Columbia, Missouri, for $174.2 million in cash.[84][85]

By December 2018, Barnes & Noble Education had operated or managed 773 campus bookstores under contracts.[79]

See also

References

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Further reading

External links

Barnes, London

Barnes is a district in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames. It takes up the extreme northeast of the borough (and as such is the closest part of the borough to central London). It is centred 5.3 miles (8.5 km) west south-west of Charing Cross in a bend of the River Thames.

Its built environment includes a wide variety of convenience and arts shopping on its high street and a high proportion of 18th- and 19th-century buildings in the streets near Barnes Pond. Together they make up the Barnes Village conservation area where along with its west riverside, pictured, most of the mid-19th century properties are concentrated. On the east riverside is the WWT London Wetland Centre adjoining several fields for the three main national team sports. Barnes has retained woodland on the "Barnes Trail" which is a short circular walk taking in the riverside, commercial streets and conservation area, marked by silver discs set in the ground and with QR coded information on distinctive oar signs. The Thames Path National Trail provides a public promenade along the entire bend of the river which is on the Championship Course in rowing. Barnes has two railway stations (Barnes and Barnes Bridge) and is served by bus routes towards central London and Richmond.

Bucky Barnes

James Buchanan "Bucky" Barnes is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. Originally introduced as a sidekick to Captain America, the character was created by Joe Simon and Jack Kirby and first appeared in Captain America Comics #1 (cover-dated March 1941) (which was published by Marvel's predecessor) as the original and most well-known incarnation of "Bucky". The character is brought back from supposed death as the brainwashed assassin Winter Soldier (Russian: Зимний Солдат, translit. Zimniy Soldát; Belarusian: Зімовы Салдат translit. Zimovy Saldat; Uzbek: Qish Askari translit. Kish Askari), and later assumed the role of Captain America when Steve Rogers was presumed to be dead.

IGN listed Bucky Barnes as the 53rd greatest comic book hero of all time stating that after Robin, Bucky is easily the most iconic superhero sidekick of the Golden Age and describing him as one of the central players in the Marvel Universe since his role of being Captain America. IGN also lists Bucky as #8 in their list of "The Top 50 Avengers" in 2012. Sebastian Stan portrays the character in the Marvel Cinematic Universe films Captain America: The First Avenger, Captain America: The Winter Soldier, Ant-Man, Captain America: Civil War, Black Panther, and Avengers: Infinity War.

Chris Patten

Christopher Francis Patten, Baron Patten of Barnes, (Chinese: 彭定康; born 12 May 1944) is a British politician who served as the 28th and final Governor of Hong Kong from 1992–1997. He has been a crossbench member of the British House of Lords since 2005 and a former British Conservative politician until 2011, as Member of Parliament (MP) for Bath from 1979 to 1992.

Patten first became a junior minister in 1986, and a member of the Cabinet from 1989–1992. He was Chairman of the Conservative Party from 1990–1992, and European Commissioner from 1999–2004. Patten served as Chairman of the BBC Trust from 2011–2014. Currently, he is the Chancellor of the University of Oxford, a post he has held since 2003.

Patten served various junior ministerial posts under Margaret Thatcher, including at the Department of Education and Science, before joining the Cabinet in 1989 as Environment Secretary. On the succession of John Major as Prime Minister in 1990, Patten was promoted to become Chairman of the Conservative Party and Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. He orchestrated the Conservatives' unexpected fourth consecutive general election victory in 1992, but unexpectedly lost his own seat.

He then accepted the final (28th) Governorship of Hong Kong until the territory's handover to China on 1 July 1997. As Governor and Commander-in-Chief, Patten presided over a steady rise in the living standards of Hong Kongers while encouraging a significant expansion of Hong Kong's social welfare and electoral system. Patten played a significant role in the Hong Kong handover ceremony with Charles, Prince of Wales and exited Victoria Harbour on HMY Britannia. Patten received national recognition for his services by appointment as Member of the Order of the Companions of Honour (CH) in the 1998 New Year Honours.

From 1999–2004, he served as one of the United Kingdom's two members of the European Commission. He returned to the UK and became Chancellor of the University of Oxford in 2003 and was made a life peer in 2005. On 7 April 2011, Queen Elizabeth II approved Patten's appointment as the Chairman of the BBC Trust, the governing body of the British Broadcasting Corporation. Patten held the position until his resignation on grounds of ill-health on 6 May 2014.

Constantine the Great

Constantine the Great (Latin: Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus; Greek: Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Μέγας; 27 February c. 272 AD – 22 May 337 AD), also known as Constantine I, was a Roman Emperor who ruled between 306 and 337 AD. Born in Naissus, in Dacia Ripensis, town now known as Niš (Serbian Cyrillic: Ниш, located in Serbia), he was the son of Flavius Valerius Constantius, a Roman Army officer. His mother was Empress Helena. His father became Caesar, the deputy emperor in the west, in 293 AD. Constantine was sent east, where he rose through the ranks to become a military tribune under Emperors Diocletian and Galerius. In 305, Constantius was raised to the rank of Augustus, senior western emperor, and Constantine was recalled west to campaign under his father in Britannia (Britain). Constantine was acclaimed as emperor by the army at Eboracum (modern-day York) after his father's death in 306 AD. He emerged victorious in a series of civil wars against Emperors Maxentius and Licinius to become sole ruler of both west and east by 324 AD.

As emperor, Constantine enacted administrative, financial, social, and military reforms to strengthen the empire. He restructured the government, separating civil and military authorities. To combat inflation he introduced the solidus, a new gold coin that became the standard for Byzantine and European currencies for more than a thousand years. The Roman army was reorganised to consist of mobile field units and garrison soldiers capable of countering internal threats and barbarian invasions. Constantine pursued successful campaigns against the tribes on the Roman frontiers—the Franks, the Alamanni, the Goths, and the Sarmatians—even resettling territories abandoned by his predecessors during the Crisis of the Third Century.

Constantine was the first Roman emperor to convert to Christianity. Although he lived much of his life as a pagan, and later as a catechumen, he joined the Christian faith on his deathbed, being baptised by Eusebius of Nicomedia. He played an influential role in the proclamation of the Edict of Milan in 313, which declared religious tolerance for Christianity in the Roman empire. He called the First Council of Nicaea in 325, which produced the statement of Christian belief known as the Nicene Creed. The Church of the Holy Sepulchre was built on his orders at the purported site of Jesus' tomb in Jerusalem and became the holiest place in Christendom. The Papal claim to temporal power in the High Middle Ages was based on the forged Donation of Constantine. He has historically been referred to as the "First Christian Emperor", and he did heavily promote the Christian Church. Some modern scholars, however, debate his beliefs and even his comprehension of the Christian faith itself.The age of Constantine marked a distinct epoch in the history of the Roman Empire. He built a new imperial residence at Byzantium and renamed the city Constantinople (now Istanbul) after himself (the laudatory epithet of "New Rome" came later, and was never an official title). It became the capital of the Empire for more than a thousand years, with the later eastern Roman Empire now being referred to as the Byzantine Empire by historians. His more immediate political legacy was that he replaced Diocletian's tetrarchy with the principle of dynastic succession by leaving the empire to his sons. His reputation flourished during the lifetime of his children and for centuries after his reign. The medieval church upheld him as a paragon of virtue, while secular rulers invoked him as a prototype, a point of reference, and the symbol of imperial legitimacy and identity. Beginning with the Renaissance, there were more critical appraisals of his reign, due to the rediscovery of anti-Constantinian sources. Trends in modern and recent scholarship have attempted to balance the extremes of previous scholarship.

Diocletian

Diocletian (; Latin: Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus), born Diocles (22 December 244 – 3 December 311), was a Roman emperor from 284 to 305. Born to a family of low status in Dalmatia, Diocletian rose through the ranks of the military to become Roman cavalry commander to the Emperor Carus. After the deaths of Carus and his son Numerian on campaign in Persia, Diocletian was proclaimed emperor. The title was also claimed by Carus' surviving son, Carinus, but Diocletian defeated him in the Battle of the Margus.

Diocletian's reign stabilized the empire and marks the end of the Crisis of the Third Century. He appointed fellow officer Maximian as Augustus, co-emperor, in 286. Diocletian reigned in the Eastern Empire, and Maximian reigned in the Western Empire. Diocletian delegated further on 1 March 293, appointing Galerius and Constantius as Caesars, junior co-emperors, under himself and Maximian respectively. Under this 'tetrarchy', or "rule of four", each emperor would rule over a quarter-division of the empire. Diocletian secured the empire's borders and purged it of all threats to his power. He defeated the Sarmatians and Carpi during several campaigns between 285 and 299, the Alamanni in 288, and usurpers in Egypt between 297 and 298. Galerius, aided by Diocletian, campaigned successfully against Sassanid Persia, the empire's traditional enemy. In 299 he sacked their capital, Ctesiphon. Diocletian led the subsequent negotiations and achieved a lasting and favourable peace.

Diocletian separated and enlarged the empire's civil and military services and reorganized the empire's provincial divisions, establishing the largest and most bureaucratic government in the history of the empire. He established new administrative centres in Nicomedia, Mediolanum, Sirmium, and Trevorum, closer to the empire's frontiers than the traditional capital at Rome. Building on third-century trends towards absolutism, he styled himself an autocrat, elevating himself above the empire's masses with imposing forms of court ceremonies and architecture. Bureaucratic and military growth, constant campaigning, and construction projects increased the state's expenditures and necessitated a comprehensive tax reform. From at least 297 on, imperial taxation was standardized, made more equitable, and levied at generally higher rates.

Not all of Diocletian's plans were successful: the Edict on Maximum Prices (301), his attempt to curb inflation via price controls, was counterproductive and quickly ignored. Although effective while he ruled, Diocletian's tetrarchic system collapsed after his abdication under the competing dynastic claims of Maxentius and Constantine, sons of Maximian and Constantius respectively. The Diocletianic Persecution (303–312), the empire's last, largest, and bloodiest official persecution of Christianity, failed to eliminate Christianity in the empire; indeed, after 324, Christianity became the empire's preferred religion under Constantine. Despite these failures and challenges, Diocletian's reforms fundamentally changed the structure of Roman imperial government and helped stabilize the empire economically and militarily, enabling the empire to remain essentially intact for another 150 years despite being near the brink of collapse in Diocletian's youth. Weakened by illness, Diocletian left the imperial office on 1 May 305, and became the first Roman emperor to abdicate the position voluntarily. He lived out his retirement in his palace on the Dalmatian coast, tending to his vegetable gardens. His palace eventually became the core of the modern-day city of Split in Croatia.

Harrison Barnes

Harrison Bryce Jordan Barnes (born May 30, 1992) is an American professional basketball player for the Sacramento Kings of the National Basketball Association (NBA). He played college basketball for the North Carolina Tar Heels before being selected by the Golden State Warriors in the first round of the 2012 NBA draft with the seventh overall pick. Barnes won an NBA championship with the Warriors in 2015.

Jimmy Barnes

James Dixon Barnes (né Swan, usually Jimmy; born 28 April 1956) is a Scottish-Australian rock singer and songwriter. His career both as a solo performer and as the lead vocalist with the rock band Cold Chisel has made him one of the most popular and best-selling Australian music artists of all time. The combination of 14 Australian Top 40 albums for Cold Chisel and 13 charting solo albums, including nine No. 1s, gives Barnes the highest number of hit albums of any Australian artist.

John Barnes (footballer)

John Charles Bryan Barnes MBE (born 7 November 1963) is an English former professional footballer and manager, who currently works as a commentator and pundit for ESPN and SuperSport. A fast, skilful left winger, Barnes had successful periods at Watford and Liverpool in the 1980s and 1990s, and won 79 caps for England.

Born and initially raised in Jamaica, the son of a military officer from Trinidad and Tobago and a Jamaican mother, Barnes moved to London with his family when he was 12 years old. He joined Watford at the age of 17 in 1981 and over the next six years made 296 appearances for the club, scoring 85 goals. He made his debut for England in 1983 and four years later joined Liverpool for £900,000. Between 1987 and 1997 Barnes won the then top-flight First Division twice and the FA Cup twice with Liverpool, scoring 106 goals in 403 matches. By the time of his last appearance for England in 1995, he had played more times than any other black player. After two years with Newcastle United, he ended his playing career at Charlton Athletic in 1999. Barnes moved to Scotland to become head coach of Celtic in 1999 with his former Liverpool manager Kenny Dalglish as director of football. This was not successful and Barnes was sacked in 2000. Since then Barnes has managed the Jamaica national team in 2008–09 and the English club Tranmere Rovers for four months in 2009.

During his playing career Barnes was named the PFA Players' Player of the Year once (in 1987–88) and the Football Writers' Association Footballer of the Year twice (in 1987–88 and 1989–90). In the run-up to England's 1990 FIFA World Cup campaign he recorded a rap for the official team song, New Order's "World in Motion". In 2005, he was inducted into the English Football Hall of Fame. In 2006, in a poll of Liverpool fans' favourite players, Barnes came fifth; a year later, FourFourTwo magazine named him Liverpool's best player of all time. In 2016, he was voted England's greatest ever left-footed player by readers of The Times.

Platoon (film)

Platoon is a 1986 American anti-war film written and directed by Oliver Stone, starring Tom Berenger, Willem Dafoe, Charlie Sheen, Keith David, Kevin Dillion, John C. McGinley, Forest Whitaker, and Johnny Depp. It is the first film of a trilogy of Vietnam War films directed by Stone, followed by Born on the Fourth of July (1989) and Heaven & Earth (1993). The film, based on Stone's experience from the war, follows a U.S. Army volunteer (Sheen) fighting in the war while his two sergeants (Berenger and Dafoe) argue over the leadership of the platoon.

Stone wrote the screenplay based upon his experiences as a U.S. infantryman in Vietnam, to counter the vision of the war portrayed in John Wayne's The Green Berets. Although having written films such as Midnight Express and Scarface, Stone struggled to get the film developed until Hemdale Film Corporation acquired the project along with Salvador. Filming took place in the Philippines in February 1986 and lasted 54 days. Platoon was the first Hollywood film to be written and directed by a veteran of the Vietnam War.Upon its release, Platoon received critical acclaim for Stone's directing and screenplay, the performances, cinematography, battle sequences, and realism. The film was a box office success upon its release, grossing $138.5 million domestically against its $6 million budget. The film was nominated for eight Academy Awards at the 59th Academy Awards, and won four including Best Picture, Best Director for Stone, Best Sound and Best Film Editing. In 1998, the American Film Institute placed Platoon at #83 in their "AFI's 100 Years ... 100 Movies" poll.

Production of the James Bond films

The James Bond film series is a British series of spy films based on the fictional character of MI6 agent James Bond, "007", who originally appeared in a series of books by Ian Fleming. It is one of the longest continually-running film series in history, having been in on-going production from 1962 to the present (with a six-year hiatus between 1989 and 1995). In that time Eon Productions has produced 24 films, most of them at Pinewood Studios. With a combined gross of over $7 billion to date, the films produced by Eon constitute the fourth-highest-grossing film series. Six actors have portrayed 007 in the Eon series, the latest being Daniel Craig.

Albert R. Broccoli and Harry Saltzman co-produced most of the Eon films until 1975, when Broccoli became the sole producer. The single exception during this period was Thunderball, on which Broccoli and Saltzman became executive producers while Kevin McClory produced. From 1984 Broccoli was joined by his stepson Michael G. Wilson as producer and in 1995 Broccoli stepped aside from Eon and was replaced by his daughter Barbara, who has co-produced with Wilson since. Broccoli's (and until 1975, Saltzman's) family company, Danjaq, has held ownership of the series through Eon, and maintained co-ownership with United Artists since the mid-1970s. The Eon series has seen continuity both in the main actors and in the production crews, with directors, writers, composers, production designers, and others employed through a number of films.

From the release of Dr. No (1962) to For Your Eyes Only (1981), the films were distributed solely by United Artists. When Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer absorbed United Artists in 1981, MGM/UA Entertainment Co. was formed and distributed the films until 1995. MGM solely distributed three films from 1997 to 2002 after United Artists was retired as a mainstream studio. From 2006 to 2015, MGM and Columbia Pictures co-distributed the film series, following the 2004 acquisition of MGM by a consortium led by Columbia's parent company, Sony Pictures. In November 2010, MGM filed for bankruptcy. Following its emergence from insolvency, Columbia became co-production partner of the series with Eon. Sony's distribution rights to the franchise expired in late 2015 with the release of Spectre. In 2017, MGM and Eon offered a one-film contract to co-finance and distribute the upcoming 25th film worldwide, which was reported on 25 May 2018 to have been won by Universal Pictures.Independently of the Eon series, there have been three additional productions with the character of James Bond: an American television adaptation, Casino Royale (1954), produced by CBS; a spoof, Casino Royale (1967), produced by Charles K. Feldman; and a remake of Thunderball entitled Never Say Never Again (1983), produced by Jack Schwartzman, who had obtained the rights to the film from McClory.

Rick Barnes

Richard Dale Barnes (born July 17, 1954) is a college basketball coach who is the current head coach of the Tennessee Volunteers men's basketball team, a post he has held since 2015. He coached Texas from 1998 to 2015, taking the team to the NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament in 16 of his 17 seasons with the Longhorns, including 14 straight from 1999 to 2012, as well as a Final Four appearance led by T. J. Ford in 2003. Barnes previously coached at George Mason University, Providence College, and Clemson University. He is a 1977 graduate of Lenoir-Rhyne College where he was a member of the men's basketball team.

Barnes' success at Texas, a traditional football powerhouse, sparked interest in college basketball at the university and throughout the state. Barnes was hired in April 1998, and the basketball program immediately displayed his impact. Despite playing with just seven scholarship players for the majority of the 1998–99 season — and opening the season with a 3-8 record — the Longhorns won 16 of their final 21 games, winning the regular season Big 12 conference championship by a two-game margin, and finishing the year at 19-13 and in the NCAA Tournament. Barnes received his third Big 12 Coach of the Year award on March 10, 2008.

At Texas, Barnes had great regular season success with 400+ wins and transformed the school into one of the top college basketball programs in the nation. He also led Texas to their first #1 ranking in 2010, and owns the only 30-win seasons in school history. However, he has won only one post-season conference tourney championship (Providence, 1994 Big East) in his 30 years as a collegiate head coach. He has an overall record of 22–23 (.489) in the NCAA tournament (19-16 at Texas). In nine of his seventeen years at Texas (16 NCAA Tournament appearances), the Longhorns went on to lose to a lower seed in the NCAA Tournament.

In 2007 Barnes made a cameo appearance in the NBC television series Friday Night Lights as a recruiter for the fictional school TMU.

In March 2018, Barnes was named the Southeastern Conference Coach of the Year after leading the Vols to a share of their first regular-season SEC title in a decade and a spot in the conference championship game, earning his sixth-career COY award.

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