Barnard

Barnard is a surname.

People

Some of the Barnard family in England may have been Huguenots[1] who fled from the Atlantic coast region of France circa 1685 (the time of the revocation of the edict of Nantes) or earlier than that date, however the evidence for this is tenuous, as the name does not appear in lists of proven Huguenot names.[2] By contrast, the Barnard family in Holland (the western provinces of the Netherlands) can be definitively traced back to circa 1751 (Izaak Barnard)[3] of Scheveningen. The countries from which they entered Holland prior to that date are uncertain.[3] The Jewish branch of the Barnard family in England is well documented,[4][5] and is thought to have arrived in England and Ireland, after the time of the readmission of Jews by Oliver Cromwell (1656); some of whom can be traced back to Rabbi Daniel Barnard of Canterbury, with notable descendants around London,[6][7][8] Chatham, Dartford,[9] Kingston upon Hull,[10] Stockton-on-Tees,[11][12] Bournemouth,[13] Ipswich, Norwich[14] and in Australia.[15]

Surname

The surname is most commonly found in Greater London and the South Eastern counties of England, and in California, Texas, Florida and New York in the United States of America.[16] It is also found in Canada, the Netherlands, South Africa, Australia, and occasionally in Germany.[16] It is an English or Dutch version of Bernard, from the Germanic name Bernhard, composed of the elements ber(n) ‘bear’ + hard ‘brave’, ‘hardy’, ‘strong’.[17] The name is a held by Hebrew scholars to be a symbolic representation (or Kinnui[18][19][20]) for the Israelite tribe of Issachar. One of the sons of Jacob, Issachar, was compared to a donkey,[21] so one would expect to find the donkey as a Kinnui[22][19] of Issachar. However, the donkey, not considered to be very auspicious, was replaced by a bear; Dov in Hebrew, Bär or Baer in German. The corresponding family names are BAER, BER, BERR, BEHR, BERNHARDT, BERNARD (in France),[23] Anglicised and also found in Holland as BARNARD.[24]

Barnard family Coat of Arms
Barnard Coat of Arms Argent, bear rampant sable, muzzle or

List of people with the surname

Given name

See also

  • Barney (disambiguation)
  • Bernard (disambiguation)
  • Bernhard (disambiguation)

References

  1. ^ The Huguenots in England: Immigration and Settlement, c. 1550 – 1700 by Bernard Cottret
  2. ^ "Australian Family Tree Connections - Huguenot Surnames Index". aftc.com.au. Retrieved 2017-02-05.
  3. ^ a b Willeke Wendrich. "Find a Barnard". barnard.nl. Retrieved 2017-02-05.
  4. ^ "Jewish Communities and Records - United Kingdom Database". jewishgen.org. Retrieved 2017-02-05.
  5. ^ "Search Results: CemeteryScribes Jewish tombstone inscriptions, Genealogy, Family History". cemeteryscribes.com. Retrieved 2017-02-05.
  6. ^ Chatham Synagogue marriage records
  7. ^ Great Synagogue birth register
  8. ^ Hambro Synagogue records
  9. ^ "JCR-UK: History of Chatham Memorial Synagogue, Kent, England". jewishgen.org. Retrieved 2017-02-05.
  10. ^ Delhi Street Cemetery burial records, Hull
  11. ^ Stockton Hebrew Congregation burial records, Stockton-on-Tees
  12. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-05-01. Retrieved 2009-12-09.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  13. ^ Boscombe Cemetery burial records, Bournemouth
  14. ^ Jewish Genealogical Society of Great Britain: a Study of the Jewish Population living in Britain in 1851
  15. ^ The Jewish Victorian, Genealogical Information from the Jewish Newspapers, 1861–1871 by Doreen Berger
  16. ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-04-26. Retrieved 2012-01-02.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  17. ^ "Bernhard Name Meaning & Bernhard Family History at Ancestry.com.au". ancestry.com.au. Retrieved 2017-02-05.
  18. ^ Calques, Kinnuim and Couplets:The use of alternative names by Jewish families, by James B. Koenig "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-12-22. Retrieved 2009-09-03.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  19. ^ a b "Shem Kodesh / Kinnui". jewishgen.org. Retrieved 2017-02-05.
  20. ^ Kinnui
  21. ^ Genesis at 49:1-27
  22. ^ Calques, Kinnuim and Couplets: The use of alternative names by Jewish families, by James B. Koenig "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-12-22. Retrieved 2009-09-03.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  23. ^ "ENtexte/page15". genealoj.org. Archived from the original on 2009-03-05. Retrieved 2017-02-05.
  24. ^ "NAMES (PERSONAL) - JewishEncyclopedia.com". jewishencyclopedia.com. Retrieved 2017-02-05.
177P/Barnard

Comet 177P/Barnard, also known as Barnard 2, is a periodic comet with an orbital period of 119 years. It fits the classical definition of a Halley-type comet with (20 years < period < 200 years).The comet, also designated P/2006 M3, was discovered by Edward Emerson Barnard on June 24, 1889, and was re-discovered after 116 years. On July 19, 2006, 177P came within 0.36 AU of the Earth. From late July through September 2006 it was brighter than expected at 8th magnitude in the constellations Hercules and then Draco. Perihelion was August 28, 2006.

Of Barnard's other two periodic comets, the first, D/1884 O1 (Barnard 1) was last seen on November 20, 1884, and is thought to have disintegrated. The last, 206P/Barnard-Boattini marked the beginning of a new era in cometary astronomy, as it was the first to be discovered by photography. It was a lost comet after 1892, until accidentally rediscovered on October 7, 2008, by Andrea Boattini.

206P/Barnard–Boattini

206P/Barnard–Boattini was the first comet to be discovered by photographic means. The American astronomer Edward Emerson Barnard did so on the night of October 13, 1892.

After this apparition this comet was lost and was thus designated D/1892 T1.

Ľuboš Neslušan (Astronomical Institute of the Slovak Academy of Sciences) suggests that 14P/Wolf and this comet are siblings which stem from a common parent comet.This comet was rediscovered on October 7, 2008 by Andrea Boattini in the course of the Mt. Lemmon Survey. It was initially credited to Boattini before it was identified as Comet Barnard 3. The comet passed 0.1904 AU (28,480,000 km; 17,700,000 mi) from Earth on October 21, 2008. The comet has made 20 revolutions since 1892 and passed within 0.3–0.4 AU of Jupiter in 1922, 1934 and 2005.It was not seen during the 2014 perihelion passage because when the faint comet was at the brightest it was only 75 degrees from the Sun. It has not been seen since January 2009. The comet passed 0.1303 AU (19,490,000 km; 12,110,000 mi) from Jupiter on July 9, 2017.The comet has an Earth-MOID of 0.018 AU (2,700,000 km; 1,700,000 mi).

Aneurin Barnard

Aneurin Barnard (; born 8 May 1987) is a Welsh stage and screen actor. He is best known for his roles as Davey in Hunky Dory, Claude in The Truth About Emanuel, Robert "Bobby" Willis Jr. in Cilla and King Richard III in The White Queen. He played the French soldier Gibson in Christopher Nolan's action-thriller Dunkirk (2017).

Barnard (Martian crater)

Barnard is a crater on Mars named after American astronomer Edward Emerson Barnard.

Barnard (lunar crater)

Barnard is a lunar impact crater that is located near the eastern limb of the Moon. It is attached to the southeast rim of the large crater Humboldt, and Abel lies directly to the south. To the northeast is the crater Curie, while to the southeast is the Mare Australe.

The formation has been reshaped and distorted by nearby impacts. The interior is irregular, with an intrusion into the southwest rim and rugged formations particularly in the southern half. A matched pair of small craterlets lies near the center of the interior floor.

Barnard Castle

Barnard Castle is a market town in Teesdale, County Durham, England. It is named after the castle around which it was built. It is the main settlement in the Teesdale area, and is a popular tourist destination. The Bowes Museum has the best collection of European fine and decorative arts in the North of England, housed in a "magnificent" 19th-century French-style chateau. Its most famous exhibit is the 18th-century Silver Swan automaton, though art includes work by Goya and El Greco.

Barnard Castle sits on the north bank of the River Tees, opposite Startforth and 21 miles (34 km) south-west of the county town of Durham. Nearby towns include Bishop Auckland to the north-east, Darlington to the east and Richmond in North Yorkshire to the south-east.

Barnard Castle's largest single employer is GlaxoSmithKline which has a manufacturing facility on the outskirts of town.

Barnard College

Barnard College is a private women's liberal arts college located in Manhattan, New York City. Founded in 1889 by Annie Nathan Meyer, who named it after Columbia University's 10th president, Frederick Barnard, it is one of the oldest women's colleges in the world. The acceptance rate of the Class of 2023 was 11.3%, the most selective and diverse class in the college's 129-year history.

The college was founded as a response to Columbia's refusal to admit women into their institution. Despite Barnard being legally and financially separate from Columbia University, it issues US$5.0 million annually to maintain itself as an affiliate college of the university. Students share pre-selected classes, clubs, Greek life, sports teams, buildings and more with Columbia University.

Barnard offers Bachelor of Arts degree programs in about 50 areas of study. Students may also pursue elements of their education at greater Columbia University, the Juilliard School, the Manhattan School of Music, and The Jewish Theological Seminary, which are also based in New York City. Its 4-acre (1.6 ha) campus is located in the Upper Manhattan neighborhood of Morningside Heights, stretching along Broadway between 116th and 120th Streets. It is directly across from Columbia's main campus and near several other academic institutions. The college is a member of the Seven Sisters, an association of seven prominent women's liberal arts colleges.

Barnard Hughes

Bernard Aloysius Kiernan "Barnard" Hughes (July 16, 1915 – July 11, 2006) was an American actor of television, theater and film. Hughes became famous for a variety of roles; his most-notable roles came after middle age, and he was often cast as a dithering authority figure or grandfatherly elder.

Barnard Island Group National Park

The Barnard Island Group is a protected area in the Cassowary Coast Region, Queensland, Australia.

Barnard River

Barnard River, a perennial river of the Manning River catchment, is located in the Northern Tablelands and Mid North Coast districts of New South Wales, Australia.

Charles S. Roberts

Charles Swann Roberts (February 3, 1930 – August 20, 2010, Baltimore, Maryland) was a wargame designer, railroad historian, and businessman. He is renowned as "The Father of Board Wargaming", having created the first modern wargame (a boardgame) in 1952, and the first wargaming company in 1954. He is also the author of a series of books on railroad history, published by the small publishing firm, Barnard, Roberts, and Company, Inc.

Chelsea Peretti

Chelsea Peretti (born February 20, 1978) is an American comedian, actress, and writer. She is best known for portraying Gina Linetti in the police comedy series Brooklyn Nine-Nine.

Christiaan Barnard

Christiaan Neethling Barnard (8 November 1922 – 2 September 2001) was a South African cardiac surgeon who performed the world's first highly-publicized heart transplant and the first one in which the patient regained consciousness. On 3 December 1967, Barnard transplanted the heart of accident-victim Denise Darvall into the chest of 54-year-old Louis Washkansky, with Washkansky regaining full consciousness and being able to easily talk with his wife, before dying 18 days later of pneumonia. The anti-rejection drugs that suppressed his immune system were a major contributing factor. Barnard had told Mr. and Mrs. Washkansky that the operation had an 80% chance of success, a claim which has been criticised as misleading. Barnard's second transplant patient Philip Blaiberg, whose operation was performed at the beginning of 1968, lived for a year and a half and was able to go home from the hospital.Born in Beaufort West, Cape Province, Barnard studied medicine and practised for several years in his native South Africa. As a young doctor experimenting on dogs, Barnard developed a remedy for the infant defect of intestinal atresia. His technique saved the lives of ten babies in Cape Town and was adopted by surgeons in Britain and the United States. In 1955, he travelled to the United States and was initially assigned further gastrointestinal work by Owen Harding Wangensteen. He was introduced to the heart-lung machine, and Barnard was allowed to transfer to the service run by open heart surgery pioneer Walt Lillehei. Upon returning to South Africa in 1958, Barnard was appointed head of the Department of Experimental Surgery at the Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town.He retired as Head of the Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery in Cape Town in 1983 after developing rheumatoid arthritis in his hands which ended his surgical career. He became interested in anti-aging research, and in 1986 his reputation suffered when he promoted Glycel, an expensive "anti-aging" skin cream, whose approval was withdrawn by the United States Food and Drug Administration soon thereafter. During his remaining years, he established the Christiaan Barnard Foundation, dedicated to helping underprivileged children throughout the world. He died in 2001 at the age of 78 after an asthma attack.

Elizabeth Barnard

Elizabeth, Lady Barnard (formerly Nash, née Hall) (baptised 21 February 1608 – 17 February 1670) was the granddaughter of the English poet and playwright William Shakespeare. Despite two marriages, she had no children, and was his last surviving descendant.

Elizabeth was closely associated with the Royalist cause during the English Civil War. Both her husbands were dedicated supporters of Charles I.

John Barnard

John Barnard (born 4 May 1946, Wembley, London) is a race car designer and is working with Terence Woodgate designing high specification carbon fibre furniture. Barnard is credited with the introduction of two new designs into Formula 1: the carbon fibre composite chassis first seen in 1981 with McLaren, and the semi-automatic gearbox which he introduced with Ferrari in 1989.

Lance Barnard

Lance Herbert Barnard AO (1 May 1919 – 6 August 1997) was an Australian politician and diplomat. He was a member of the House of Representatives from 1954 to 1975, representing the Labor Party, and served as the party's deputy leader from 1967 to 1974. In the Whitlam Government, he was deputy prime minister from 1972 to 1974. After leaving politics he served as Ambassador to Norway, Finland, and Sweden from 1975 to 1978.

Marius Barnard (tennis)

Marius Barnard (born 20 January 1969) is a retired South African professional tennis player, who primarily played in doubles matches. Barnard was born in Cape Town, South Africa.

Neal D. Barnard

Neal D. Barnard, M.D., F.A.C.C., is an American author, clinical researcher, and founding president of the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM).

Rutherford B. Hayes

Rutherford Birchard Hayes (October 4, 1822 – January 17, 1893) was the 19th president of the United States from 1877 to 1881, having served also as an American representative and governor of Ohio. Hayes was a lawyer and staunch abolitionist who defended refugee slaves in court proceedings in the antebellum years. During the American Civil War, he was seriously wounded while fighting in the Union Army.

He was nominated as the Republican candidate for the presidency in 1876 and elected through the Compromise of 1877 that officially ended the Reconstruction Era by leaving the South to govern itself. In office he withdrew military troops from the South, ending Army support for Republican state governments in the South and the efforts of African-American freedmen to establish their families as free citizens. He promoted civil service reform, and attempted to reconcile the divisions left over from the Civil War and Reconstruction.

Hayes, an attorney in Ohio, served as city solicitor of Cincinnati from 1858 to 1861. When the Civil War began, he left a fledgling political career to join the Union Army as an officer. Hayes was wounded five times, most seriously at the Battle of South Mountain. He earned a reputation for bravery in combat and was promoted to the rank of brevet major general. After the war, he served in the Congress from 1865 to 1867 as a Republican. Hayes left Congress to run for governor of Ohio and was elected to two consecutive terms, from 1868 to 1872. Later he served a third two-year term, from 1876 to 1877.

In 1876, Hayes was elected president in one of the most contentious elections in national history. He lost the popular vote to Democrat Samuel J. Tilden but he won an intensely disputed electoral college vote after a Congressional commission awarded him twenty contested electoral votes. The result was the Compromise of 1877, in which the Democrats acquiesced to Hayes's election on the condition that he withdraw remaining U.S. troops protecting Republican office holders in the South, thus officially ending the Reconstruction era.

Hayes believed in meritocratic government and equal treatment without regard to race. He ordered federal troops to guard federal buildings and in so doing restore order from the Great Railroad Strike of 1877. He implemented modest civil service reforms that laid the groundwork for further reform in the 1880s and 1890s. He vetoed the Bland–Allison Act, which would have put silver money into circulation and raised nominal prices, insisting that maintenance of the gold standard was essential to economic recovery. His policy toward Western Indians anticipated the assimilationist program of the Dawes Act of 1887.

Hayes kept his pledge not to run for re-election, retired to his home in Ohio, and became an advocate of social and educational reform. Biographer Ari Hoogenboom said his greatest achievement was to restore popular faith in the presidency and to reverse the deterioration of executive power that had set in after the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. Although supporters have praised his commitment to civil service reform and defense of civil rights, Hayes is generally ranked as average or slightly below average by historians and scholars.

William O. Barnard

William Oscar Barnard (October 25, 1852 – April 8, 1939) was a U.S. Representative from Indiana.

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