A barnacle is a type of arthropod constituting the infraclass Cirripedia in the subphylum Crustacea, and is hence related to crabs and lobsters. Barnacles are exclusively marine, and tend to live in shallow and tidal waters, typically in erosive settings. They are sessile (nonmobile) suspension feeders, and have four nektonic (active swimming) larval stages. Around 70 barnacle species are currently known. The name "Cirripedia" is Greek, meaning "curl-footed". The study of barnacles is called cirripedology.
Temporal range: Mid Cambrian – recent
Thyrostraca, Cirrhopoda (meaning "curl-footed"), Cirrhipoda, and Cirrhipedia.
Barnacles are encrusters, attaching themselves temporarily to a hard substrate. The most common, "acorn barnacles" (Sessilia), are sessile, growing their shells directly onto the substrate. The order Pedunculata (goose barnacles and others) attach themselves by means of a stalk.
Free-living barnacles are attached to the substratum by cement glands that form the base of the first pair of antennae; in effect, the animal is fixed upside down by means of its forehead. In some barnacles, the cement glands are fixed to a long, muscular stalk, but in most they are part of a flat membrane or calcified plate. A ring of plates surrounds the body, homologous with the carapace of other crustaceans. These consist of the rostrum, two lateral plates, two carinolaterals, and a carina. In sessile barnacles, the apex of the ring of plates is covered by an operculum, which may be recessed into the carapace. The plates are held together by various means, depending on species, in some cases being solidly fused.
Inside the carapace, the animal lies on its stomach, with its limbs projecting downwards. Segmentation is usually indistinct, and the body is more or less evenly divided between the head and thorax, with little, if any, abdomen. Adult barnacles have few appendages on their heads, with only a single, vestigial pair of antennae, attached to the cement gland. The eight pairs of thoracic limbs are referred to as "cirre", which are feathery and very long, being used to filter food, such as plankton, from the water and move it towards the mouth.
Barnacles have no true heart, although a sinus close to the esophagus performs a similar function, with blood being pumped through it by a series of muscles. The blood vascular system is minimal. Similarly, they have no gills, absorbing oxygen from the water through their limbs and the inner membrane of their carapaces. The excretory organs of barnacles are maxillary glands.
The main sense of barnacles appears to be touch, with the hairs on the limbs being especially sensitive. The adult also has three photoreceptors (ocelli), one median and two lateral. These photoreceptors record the stimulus for the barnacle shadow reflex, where a sudden decrease in light causes cessation of the fishing rhythm and closing of the opercular plates. The photoreceptors are likely only capable of sensing the difference between light and dark. This eye is derived from the primary naupliar eye.
Barnacles have two distinct larval stages, the nauplius and the cyprid, before developing into a mature adult.
A fertilised egg hatches into a nauplius: a one-eyed larva comprising a head and a telson, without a thorax or abdomen. This undergoes six moults, passing through five instars, before transforming into the cyprid stage. Nauplii are typically initially brooded by the parent, and released after the first moult as larvae that swim freely using setae.
The cyprid larva is the last larval stage before adulthood. It is not a feeding stage; its role is to find a suitable place to settle, since the adults are sessile. The cyprid stage lasts from days to weeks. It explores potential surfaces with modified antennules; once it has found a potentially suitable spot, it attaches head-first using its antennules and a secreted glycoproteinous substance. Larvae assess surfaces based upon their surface texture, chemistry, relative wettability, color, and the presence or absence and composition of a surface biofilm; swarming species are also more likely to attach near other barnacles. As the larva exhausts its finite energy reserves, it becomes less selective in the sites it selects. It cements itself permanently to the substrate with another proteinaceous compound, and then undergoes metamorphosis into a juvenile barnacle.
Typical acorn barnacles develop six hard calcareous plates to surround and protect their bodies. For the rest of their lives, they are cemented to the substrate, using their feathery legs (cirri) to capture plankton.
Once metamorphosis is over and they have reached their adult form, barnacles continue to grow by adding new material to their heavily calcified plates. These plates are not moulted; however, like all ecdysozoans, the barnacle itself will still moult its cuticle.
Most barnacles are hermaphroditic, although a few species are gonochoric or androdioecious. The ovaries are located in the base or stalk, and may extend into the mantle, while the testes are towards the back of the head, often extending into the thorax. Typically, recently moulted hermaphroditic individuals are receptive as females. Self-fertilization, although theoretically possible, has been experimentally shown to be rare in barnacles.
The sessile lifestyle of barnacles makes sexual reproduction difficult, as the organisms cannot leave their shells to mate. To facilitate genetic transfer between isolated individuals, barnacles have extraordinarily long penises. Barnacles probably have the largest penis to body size ratio of the animal kingdom.
Barnacles can also reproduce through a method called spermcasting, in which the male barnacle releases his sperm into the water and females pick it up and fertilise their eggs.
The Rhizocephala superorder used to be considered hermaphroditic, but it turned out that its males inject themselves into the female's body, degrading to the condition of nothing more than sperm-producing cells.
Most barnacles are suspension feeders; they dwell continually in their shells, which are usually constructed of six plates, and reach into the water column with modified legs. These feathery appendages beat rhythmically to draw plankton and detritus into the shell for consumption.
Although they have been found at water depths to 600 m (2,000 ft), most barnacles inhabit shallow waters, with 75% of species living in water depths less than 100 m (300 ft), and 25% inhabiting the intertidal zone. Within the intertidal zone, different species of barnacles live in very tightly constrained locations, allowing the exact height of an assemblage above or below sea level to be precisely determined.
Since the intertidal zone periodically desiccates, barnacles are well adapted against water loss. Their calcite shells are impermeable, and they possess two plates which they can slide across their apertures when not feeding. These plates also protect against predation.
Barnacles are displaced by limpets and mussels, which compete for space. They also have numerous predators. They employ two strategies to overwhelm their competitors: "swamping" and fast growth. In the swamping strategy, vast numbers of barnacles settle in the same place at once, covering a large patch of substrate, allowing at least some to survive in the balance of probabilities. Fast growth allows the suspension feeders to access higher levels of the water column than their competitors, and to be large enough to resist displacement; species employing this response, such as the aptly named Megabalanus, can reach 7 cm (3 in) in length; other species may grow larger still (Austromegabalanus psittacus).
Competitors may include other barnacles, and disputed evidence indicates balanoid barnacles competitively displaced chthalamoid barnacles. Balanoids gained their advantage over the chthalamoids in the Oligocene, when they evolved tubular skeletons, which provide better anchorage to the substrate, and allow them to grow faster, undercutting, crushing, and smothering chthalamoids.
Among the most common predators on barnacles are whelks. They are able to grind through the calcareous exoskeletons of barnacles and feed on the softer inside parts. Mussels also prey on barnacle larvae. Another predator on barnacles is the starfish species Pisaster ochraceus.
The anatomy of parasitic barnacles is generally simpler than that of their free-living relatives. They have no carapace or limbs, having only unsegmented sac-like bodies. Such barnacles feed by extending thread-like rhizomes of living cells into their hosts' bodies from their points of attachment.
Barnacles were originally classified by Linnaeus and Cuvier as Mollusca, but in 1830 John Vaughan Thompson published observations showing the metamorphosis of the nauplius and cypris larvae into adult barnacles, and noted how these larvae were similar to those of crustaceans. In 1834 Hermann Burmeister published further information, reinterpreting these findings. The effect was to move barnacles from the phylum of Mollusca to Articulata, showing naturalists that detailed study was needed to reevaluate their taxonomy.
Charles Darwin took up this challenge in 1846, and developed his initial interest into a major study published as a series of monographs in 1851 and 1854. Darwin undertook this study, at the suggestion of his friend Joseph Dalton Hooker, to thoroughly understand at least one species before making the generalisations needed for his theory of evolution by natural selection.
Some authorities regard the Cirripedia as a full class or subclass, and the orders listed above are sometimes treated as superorders. In 2001, Martin and Davis placed Cirripedia as an infraclass of Thecostraca and divided it into six orders:
Infraclass Cirripedia Burmeister, 1834
The geological history of barnacles can be traced back to animals such as Priscansermarinus from the Middle Cambrian (on the order of ), although they do not become common as skeletal remains in the fossil record until the Neogene (last 20 million years). In part, their poor skeletal preservation is due to their restriction to high-energy environments, which tend to be erosional – therefore it is more common for their shells to be ground up by wave action than for them to reach a depositional setting. Trace fossils of acrothoracican barnacle borings (Rogerella) are common in the fossil record from the Devonian to the recent.
Barnacles can play an important role in estimating paleo-water depths. The degree of disarticluation of fossils suggests the distance they have been transported, and since many species have narrow ranges of water depths, it can be assumed that the animals lived in shallow water and broke up as they were washed down-slope. The completeness of fossils, and nature of damage, can thus be used to constrain the tectonic history of regions.
Barnacles are of economic consequence, as they often attach themselves to synthetic structures, sometimes to the structure's detriment. Particularly in the case of ships, they are classified as fouling organisms. The amount and size of barnacles that cover ships can negatively impact their efficiency.
The stable isotope signals in the layers of barnacle shells can potentially be used as a forensic tracking method for whales, loggerhead turtles and marine debris, such as shipwrecks or a flaperon suspected to be from Malaysia Airlines Flight 370.
Some barnacles are considered edible by humans, including Japanese goose barnacles (e.g. Capitulum mitella), and goose barnacles (e.g. Pollicipes pollicipes), a delicacy in Spain and Portugal. The resemblance of this barnacle's fleshy stalk to a goose's neck gave rise, in ancient times, to the notion that geese literally grew from the barnacle. Indeed, the word "barnacle" originally referred to a species of goose, the barnacle goose Branta leucopsis, whose eggs and young were rarely seen by humans because it breeds in the remote Arctic.
Austromegabalanus psittacus, the giant barnacle or piccolo as it is known in Spanish, is a species of large barnacle native to the coasts of southern Peru, entire Chile and southern Argentina. It inhabits the littoral and intertidal zones of rocky shores and normally grows up to 30 centimetres (12 in) tall with a mineralized shell composed of calcite. The picoroco barnacle is used in Chilean cuisine and is one of the ingredients in curanto.Balanus
Balanus is a genus of barnacles in the family Balanidae of the subphylum Crustacea.
This genus is known in the fossil record from the Jurassic to the Quaternary periods (age range: from 189.6 to 0.0 million years ago.). Fossil shells within this genus have been found all over the world.Barnacle Bill (1941 film)
Barnacle Bill is a 1941 feature film starring Wallace Beery. The screen comedy was directed by Richard Thorpe. Barnacle Bill was the second of seven MGM films pairing Beery and character actress Marjorie Main.Barnacle Bill (1957 film)
Barnacle Bill (released in the US as All at Sea) is a 1957 Ealing Studios comedy film, starring Alec Guinness. He plays an unsuccessful Royal Navy officer, and six of his maritime ancestors. This was the final Ealing comedy as well as the last film Guinness made for Ealing Studios, although some sources list Davy (film) as the final Ealing comedy. By coincidence, his first Ealing success was Kind Hearts and Coronets (1949), in which he also played multiple roles. The film was written by the screenwriter of Passport to Pimlico.Barnacle Bill (Martian rock)
Barnacle Bill is a 40-centimetre (16 in) rock on Mars in Ares Vallis. It was the first rock on Mars analyzed by the Sojourner rover using its Alpha Proton X-ray Spectrometer. The encounter occurred during Sol 3 of the Mars Pathfinder mission on the surface of Mars and took ten hours to complete.
Early analysis of data sent from Sojourner led scientists to speculate that the rock was andesite.
The name was inspired in mission scientists by barnacle-like structures on the rock that appeared in transmitted photos.Barnacle goose
The barnacle goose (Branta leucopsis) belongs to the genus Branta of black geese, which contains species with largely black plumage, distinguishing them from the grey Anser species. Despite its superficial similarity to the brant goose, genetic analysis has shown it is an eastern derivative of the cackling goose lineage.Gary Barnacle
Gary Barnacle (born 1959, Dover, England) is an English saxophonist, flautist, brass instrument arranger, composer and producer, primarily noted for session work, live work including various Princes Trust Concerts at Wembley Arena, the Royal Albert Hall and the National Exhibition Centre (NEC) in Birmingham, plus the Nelson Mandela 70th Birthday Tribute at Wembley Stadium in 1988, and television/video appearances, during the 1980s and 1990s, with many popular music acts, including The Clash, The Ruts, Level 42, Visage, Paul Hardcastle, Kim Wilde, Holly Johnson, Marilyn, Derek B, Eternal, Soul II Soul, Jamiroquai, Jimmy Ray, Tina Turner, General Public, Soft Cell, Elvis Costello, Del Amitri, Shed Seven, T'Pau, Roger Daltrey, David Bowie, The Big Dish, The Cross, Pet Shop Boys, Stock Aitken Waterman and Paul McCartney, among others. He was also in an electropop duo called Leisure Process from 1982–83, with ex-Positive Noise singer, Ross Middleton.Goose barnacle
Goose barnacles (order Pedunculata), also called stalked barnacles or gooseneck barnacles, are filter-feeding crustaceans that live attached to hard surfaces of rocks and flotsam in the ocean intertidal zone.List of SpongeBob SquarePants episodes
SpongeBob SquarePants is an American animated television series created by marine biologist and animator, Stephen Hillenburg for Nickelodeon. The series is set in the fictional underwater city of Bikini Bottom, and centers on the adventures and endeavors of SpongeBob SquarePants, an over-optimistic sea sponge that annoys other characters. Many of the ideas for the show originated in an unpublished, educational comic book titled The Intertidal Zone, which Hillenburg created in the mid-1980s. He began developing SpongeBob SquarePants into a television series in 1996 after the cancellation of Rocko's Modern Life, another Nickelodeon television series that Hillenburg previously directed.Since its debut on May 1, 1999, SpongeBob SquarePants has broadcast 251 episodes, and its twelfth season premiered on November 11, 2018. The SpongeBob SquarePants Movie, a feature-length film, was released in theaters on November 19, 2004 and grossed over US$140 million worldwide. Atlantis SquarePantis, a television film guest starring David Bowie, debuted as part of the fifth season. In 2009, Nickelodeon celebrated the show's tenth anniversary with Square Roots: The Story of SpongeBob SquarePants and SpongeBob's Truth or Square. The SpongeBob Movie: Sponge Out of Water, a stand-alone sequel, was released in theaters on February 6, 2015 and grossed over US$324 million worldwide.Episodes of SpongeBob SquarePants have been nominated for a variety of different awards, including 17 Annie Awards (with six wins), 17 Golden Reel Awards (with eight wins), 15 Emmy Awards (with one win), 16 Kids' Choice Awards (with 15 wins), and four BAFTA Children's Awards (with two wins). Several compilation DVDs have been released. In addition, the first ten seasons have been released on DVD, and are available for Regions 1, 2 and 4 as of October 15, 2019.List of SpongeBob SquarePants merchandise
This is a list of SpongeBob SquarePants merchandise, including home videos and DVDs, CDs, video games, books, and toys.Mermaid Man and Barnacle Boy
Mermaid Man and Barnacle Boy are fictional characters in the American animated television series SpongeBob SquarePants. They were respectively voiced by guest stars Ernest Borgnine and Tim Conway, who both previously starred in the 1960s sitcom McHale's Navy. Mermaid Man and Barnacle Boy first appeared in the eponymous season one episode that premiered on August 21, 1999, and have since been featured as recurring characters. Following Borgnine's death in 2012, Mermaid Man and Barnacle Boy were reduced to non-speaking roles.
Mermaid Man and Barnacle Boy are two elderly superheroes who live in a retirement home and are stars of SpongeBob and Patrick's favorite television show. Mermaid Man appears to suffer from memory loss and yells a prolonged "evil!" whenever he hears the word, while Barnacle Boy seems to be the more sensible and more irritable of the two. They are among the few humans who can breathe underwater and speak to the inhabitants of Bikini Bottom.Nora Barnacle
Nora Barnacle (21 March 1884 – 10 April 1951) was the muse and wife of Irish author James Joyce.
Barnacle and Joyce had their first romantic assignation on a date celebrated worldwide as the "Bloomsday" of his modernist novel Ulysses, a book that she did not, however, enjoy. Their sexually explicit letters have aroused much curiosity, especially as Joyce normally disapproved of coarse language, and they fetch high prices at auction.
Barnacle was played by Susan Lynch in the 1999 bio-pic Nora.Pete Barnacle
Pete Barnacle is a drummer who has played for various bands including Gillan, Girl, Broken Home, Spear of Destiny, Theatre of Hate, Yngwie Malmsteen (on the 1990 Eclipse World Tour), Sheer Greed, and Soldiers of Fortune. Barnacle now lives in Japan, teaching English, and occasionally working as a drummer.Sessilia
Sessilia is an order of barnacles, comprising the barnacles without stalks, or acorn barnacles. They form a monophyletic group and are probably derived from stalked barnacles. The order is divided into three suborders. The Brachylepadomorpha contain a single family, Neobrachylepadidae, while the Verrucomorpha contain two families, Verrucidae and Neoverrucidae. The remaining 12 families are in the suborder Balanomorpha.SpongeBob SquarePants (season 1)
The first season of the American animated television series SpongeBob SquarePants, created by former marine biologist and animator Stephen Hillenburg, aired from May 1, 1999 to April 8, 2000, and consists of 20 episodes (41 segments). Its first season originally broadcast on Nickelodeon. The series chronicles the exploits and adventures of the title character and his various friends in the fictional underwater city of Bikini Bottom. The show features the voices of Tom Kenny, Bill Fagerbakke, Rodger Bumpass, Clancy Brown, Mr. Lawrence, Jill Talley, Carolyn Lawrence, Mary Jo Catlett, and Lori Alan. Among the first guest stars to appear on the show were Ernest Borgnine and Tim Conway voicing the superhero characters of Mermaid Man and Barnacle Boy, respectively.
Hillenburg initially conceived the show in 1984 and began to work on it shortly after the cancellation of Rocko's Modern Life in 1996. To voice the character of SpongeBob, Hillenburg approached Tom Kenny, who had worked with him on Rocko's Modern Life. The show was originally to be called SpongeBoy Ahoy!, but the name SpongeBoy was already in use for a mop product. Upon finding it out, Hillenburg decided to use the name "SpongeBob". He chose "SquarePants" as a family name as it referred to the character's square shape and it had a "nice ring to it".Several compilation DVDs that contained episodes from the season were released. The SpongeBob SquarePants: The Complete 1st Season DVD was released in Region 1 on October 28, 2003, Region 2 on November 7, 2005, and Region 4 on November 30, 2006. The pilot episode, "Help Wanted", was not included on the DVD due to copyright issues with the song "Living in the Sunlight" by Tiny Tim, which appears in the episode, but was later released as a bonus feature on various series DVDs, including that of the third season. The season received positive reviews from media critics upon release.SpongeBob SquarePants (season 3)
The third season of the American animated television series SpongeBob SquarePants, created by Stephen Hillenburg, aired on Nickelodeon from October 5, 2001 to October 11, 2004, and consists of 20 episodes (37 segments). The series chronicles the exploits and adventures of the title character and his various friends in the fictional underwater city of Bikini Bottom. The season was executive produced by series creator Hillenburg, who also acted as the showrunner. Hillenburg halted production on the show to work on the 2004 film adaptation of the series, The SpongeBob SquarePants Movie. After production on the film, Hillenburg resigned from the show as its showrunner, and appointed staff writer Paul Tibbitt to overtake the position. Season 3 was originally set to end the series after the release of the film, but the success prevented the series from ending, leading to a fourth season.
The season received critical acclaim from media critics and fans. During its run, SpongeBob SquarePants became (and remains) the highest rated children's show on cable, with over 50 million viewers a month. The show received several recognitions, including its nomination at the Primetime Emmy Awards for Outstanding Children's Program. The episodes "New Student Starfish" and "Clams" were nominated for Outstanding Animated Program (for Programming Less Than One Hour) category, while the entry "SpongeBob B.C. (Ugh)" won the same category. The season was also the first time the show received a nomination at the Kids' Choice Awards and won. It won the 2003 Kids' Choice Awards for Favorite Cartoon, and also won the following year's Kids' Choice Award for the same category. Celebrities—including Justin Timberlake, Kelly Osbourne, Britney Spears, Bruce Willis, Noel Gallagher, rapper Dr. Dre, and Mike Myers—have been reported to be fans of the show.Several compilation DVDs that contained episodes from the season were released. The SpongeBob SquarePants: The Complete 3rd Season DVD was released in Region 1 on September 27, 2005, Region 2 on December 3, 2007, and Region 4 on November 8, 2007.SpongeBob SquarePants (season 4)
The fourth season of the American animated television series SpongeBob SquarePants, created by former marine biologist and animator Stephen Hillenburg, aired on Nickelodeon from May 6, 2005 to July 24, 2007, and contained 20 episodes (38 segments), beginning with the episode "Fear of a Krabby Patty"/"Shell of a Man". The series chronicles the exploits and adventures of the title character and his various friends in the fictional underwater city of Bikini Bottom. The season was executive produced by series creator Hillenburg, while writer Paul Tibbitt acted as the supervising producer and showrunner. The show underwent a hiatus on television as Hillenburg halted the production in 2002 to work on the film adaptation of the series, The SpongeBob SquarePants Movie. Once the film was finalized and the previous season had completed broadcast on television, Hillenburg wanted to end the show, but the success of the series led to more episodes, so Tibbitt took over Hillenburg's position as showrunner and began working on a fourth season for broadcast in 2005. Hillenburg remained with the show, but in a smaller advisory role in which he reviewed each episode and offered suggestions to the show's production crew.
The show itself received several recognition, including the three Kids' Choice Awards for Favorite Cartoon from 2005 to 2007. "Fear of a Krabby Patty" and "Shell of a Man" were nominated at the 57th Primetime Emmy Awards for Outstanding Animated Program (for Programming Less Than One Hour). It also received a nomination for "Bummer Vacation" and "Wigstruck" at the 59th Primetime Emmy Awards for the same category.
Several compilation DVDs that contained episodes from the season were released. The SpongeBob SquarePants: Season 4, Volume 1 and 2 DVDs were released in Region 1 on September 12, 2006 and January 9, 2007, respectively, while the complete set was released in Region 2 on November 3, 2008 and Region 4 on November 7, 2008. On November 13, 2012, The Complete Fourth Season DVD was released in Region 1.The Barnacle Historic State Park
The Barnacle Historic State Park is a 5-acre (2.0 ha) Florida State Park in the Coconut Grove neighborhood of Miami, Florida at 3485 Main Highway.
Built in 1891, it is the oldest house in its original location in Miami-Dade County. The Barnacle was the home of Ralph Middleton Munroe, one of Coconut Grove's founders, as well as founder and Commodore of the Biscayne Bay Yacht Club. He was also a leading designer of sailing yachts. The Florida Park Service acquired the remaining 5 acres (20,000 m2) of Munroe's original 40-acre (160,000 m2) homesite from his descendants in 1973.
The Barnacle Historic State Park is served by the Miami Metrorail at the Douglas Road and the Coconut Grove stations.Visage (band)
Visage were a British synthpop band, formed in London in 1978. The band became closely linked to the burgeoning New Romantic fashion movement of the early 1980s, and are best known for their hit "Fade to Grey" which was released in late 1980. In the UK, the band achieved two Top 20 albums (Visage and The Anvil) and five Top 30 singles before the commercial failure of their third album (Beat Boy) led to their break-up in 1985.
The band has seen various line-up changes over the years, all fronted by vocalist Steve Strange, who resurrected the band name in the 2000s. In 2013, the most recent line-up of the band released Hearts and Knives, the first new Visage album in 29 years. The band's fifth and final album, Demons to Diamonds, was released in 2015, nine months after Strange had died following a heart attack.
Extant Arthropoda classes by subphylum