Bari

Bari (Italian pronunciation: [ˈbaːri] (listen); Barese: Bare [ˈbæːrə]; Latin: Barium; Ancient Greek: Βάριον, translit. Bárion) is the capital city of the Metropolitan City of Bari and of the Apulia region, on the Adriatic Sea, in southern Italy. It is the second most important economic centre of mainland Southern Italy after Naples and Palermo, a port and university city, as well as the city of Saint Nicholas. The city itself has a population of 326,799, as of 2015, over 116 square kilometres (45 sq mi), while the urban area has 750,000 inhabitants. The metropolitan area has 1.3 million inhabitants.

Bari is made up of four different urban sections. To the north is the closely built old town on the peninsula between two modern harbours, with the Basilica of Saint Nicholas, the Cathedral of San Sabino (1035–1171) and the Hohenstaufen Castle built for Frederick II, which is now also a major nightlife district. To the south is the Murat quarter (erected by Joachim Murat), the modern heart of the city, which is laid out on a rectangular grid-plan with a promenade on the sea and the major shopping district (the via Sparano and via Argiro).

Modern residential zones surrounding the centre of Bari were built during the 1960s and 1970s replacing the old suburbs that had developed along roads splaying outwards from gates in the city walls. In addition, the outer suburbs developed rapidly during the 1990s. The city has a redeveloped airport named after Pope John Paul II, Karol Wojtyła Airport, with connections to several European cities.

Bari
Comune di Bari
A collage of Bari, Top left: Swabian Castle, Top right: Night in Pane e Pomodoro Beach, Bottom left: Ferrarese Square, Bottom upper right: Bari University in Andrea da Bari street, Bottom lower right: View of Punta Perotti seaside area
A collage of Bari, Top left: Swabian Castle, Top right: Night in Pane e Pomodoro Beach, Bottom left: Ferrarese Square, Bottom upper right: Bari University in Andrea da Bari street, Bottom lower right: View of Punta Perotti seaside area
Flag of Bari

Flag
Coat of arms of Bari

Coat of arms
Location of Bari
Bari is located in Italy
Bari
Bari
Location of Bari in Italy
Bari is located in Apulia
Bari
Bari
Bari (Apulia)
Coordinates: 41°07′31″N 16°52′0″E / 41.12528°N 16.86667°ECoordinates: 41°07′31″N 16°52′0″E / 41.12528°N 16.86667°E
CountryItaly
Region Apulia
Metropolitan cityBari (BA)
Government
 • MayorAntonio Decaro (PD)
Area
 • Total117.39 km2 (45.32 sq mi)
Elevation
5 m (16 ft)
Population
(2018-01-01)[2]
 • Total323,370
 • Density2,800/km2 (7,100/sq mi)
Demonym(s)(in Italian)Baresi
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
70121-70132
Dialing code080
ISTAT code072006
Patron saintSaint Nicholas
Saint dayDecember 6
WebsiteOfficial website

History

Ancient

The city was probably founded by the Peucetii.[4] Once it passed under Roman rule in the 3rd century BC, it developed strategic significance as the point of junction between the coast road and the Via Traiana and as a port for eastward trade; a branch road to Tarentum led from Barium. Its harbour, mentioned as early as 181 BC, was probably the principal one of the districts in ancient times, as it is at present, and was the centre of a fishery.[5] The first historical bishop of Bari was Gervasius who was noted at the Council of Sardica in 347. The bishops were dependent on the Patriarch of Constantinople until the 10th century.

Middle Ages

After the devastations of the Gothic Wars, under Longobard rule a set of written regulations was established, the Consuetudines Barenses, which influenced similar written constitutions in other southern cities.Until the arrival of the Normans, Bari continued to be governed by the Longobards and Byzantines, with only occasional interruption.

Throughout this period, and indeed throughout the Middle Ages, Bari served as one of the major slave depots of the Mediterranean, providing a central location for the trade in Slavic slaves. The slaves were mostly captured by Venice from Dalmatia, the Holy Roman Empire from what is now Prussia and Poland, and the Byzantines from elsewhere in the Balkans, and were generally destined for other parts of the Byzantine Empire and (most frequently) the Muslim states surrounding the Mediterranean: the Abbasid Caliphate, the Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba, the Emirate of Sicily, and the Fatimid Caliphate (which relied on Slavs purchased at the Bari market for its legions of Sakalaba Mamluks).[6]

For 20 years, Bari was the centre of the Emirate of Bari; the city was captured by its first emirs Kalfun in 847, who had been part of the mercenary garrison installed there by Radelchis I of Benevento.[7] The city was conquered and the Emirate extinguished in 871, due to the efforts of Emperor Louis II and a Byzantine fleet.[8] Chris Wickham states Louis spent five years campaigning to reduce then occupy Bari, "and then only to a Byzantine/Slav naval blockade"; "Louis took the credit" for the success, adding "at least in Frankish eyes", then concludes by noting that by remaining in southern Italy long after this success, he "achieved the near-impossible: an alliance against him of the Beneventans, Salernitans, Neapolitans and Spoletans; later sources include Sawadān as well."[7] In 885, Bari became the residence of the local Byzantine catapan, or governor. The failed revolt (1009–1011) of the Lombard nobles Melus of Bari and his brother-in-law Dattus, against the Byzantine governorate, though it was firmly repressed at the Battle of Cannae (1018), offered their Norman adventurer allies a first foothold in the region. In 1025, under the Archbishop Byzantius, Bari became attached to the see of Rome and was granted "provincial" status.

In 1071, Bari was captured by Robert Guiscard, following a three-year siege. Maio of Bari (died 1160), a Lombard merchant's son, was the third of the great admirals of Norman Sicily. The Basilica di San Nicola was founded in 1087 to receive the relics of this saint, which were surreptitiously brought from Myra in Lycia, in Byzantine territory. The saint began his development from Saint Nicholas of Myra into Saint Nicholas of Bari and began to attract pilgrims, whose encouragement and care became central to the economy of Bari. In 1095 Peter the Hermit preached the first crusade there.[5] In October 1098, Urban II, who had consecrated the Basilica in 1089, convened the Council of Bari, one of a series of synods convoked with the intention of reconciling the Greeks and Latins on the question of the filioque clause in the Creed, which Anselm ably defended, seated at the pope's side. The Greeks were not brought over to the Latin way of thinking, and the Great Schism was inevitable.

A civil war broke out in Bari in 1117 with the murder of the archbishop, Riso. Control of Bari was seized by Grimoald Alferanites, a native Lombard, and he was elected lord in opposition to the Normans. By 1123, he had increased ties with Byzantium and Venice and taken the title gratia Dei et beati Nikolai barensis princeps. Grimoald increased the cult of St Nicholas in his city. He later did homage to Roger II of Sicily, but rebelled and was defeated in 1132.

Bari was occupied by Manuel I Komnenos between 1155 and 1158. In 1246, Bari was sacked and razed to the ground; Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Sicily, repaired the fortress of Baris but it was subsequently destroyed several times. Bari recovered each time.

Early modern period

Isabella d’Aragona, princess of Naples and widow of the Duke Gian Galeazzo Sforza of Milan, enlarged the castle, which she made her residence, 1499–1524. After the death of Queen Bona Sforza, of Poland, Bari came to be included in the Kingdom of Naples and its history contracted to a local one, as malaria became endemic in the region. Bari was awakened from its provincial somnolence by Napoleon's brother-in-law Joachim Murat. As Napoleonic King of Naples, Murat ordered the building in 1808 of a new section of the city, laid out on a rationalist grid plan, which bears his name today as the Murattiano. Under this stimulus, Bari developed into the most important port city of the region. The legacy of Mussolini can be seen in the imposing architecture along the seafront.

World War II

On 11 September 1943, in connection with the Armistice of Cassibile, Bari was taken without resistance by the British 1st Airborne Division, then during October and November 1943, New Zealand troops from the 2nd New Zealand Division assembled in Bari.

The Balkan Air Force supporting the Yugoslav partisans was based at Bari.

The 1943 chemical warfare disaster

Through a tragic coincidence intended by neither of the opposing sides in World War II, Bari gained the unwelcome distinction of being the only European city to experience chemical warfare in the course of that war.

On the night of December 2, 1943, 105 German Junkers Ju 88 bombers attacked the port of Bari, which was a key supply centre for Allied forces fighting their way up the Italian Peninsula. Over 20 Allied ships were sunk in the overcrowded harbour, including the U.S. Liberty ship John Harvey, which was carrying mustard gas; mustard gas was also reported to have been stacked on the quayside awaiting transport (the chemical agent was intended for retaliation if German forces had initiated chemical warfare.) The presence of the gas was highly classified and the U.S. had not informed the British military authorities in the city of its existence. This increased the number of fatalities, since British physicians—who had no idea that they were dealing with the effects of mustard gas—prescribed treatment proper for those suffering from exposure and immersion, which proved fatal in many cases. Because rescuers were unaware they were dealing with gas casualties, many additional casualties were caused among the rescuers, through contact with the contaminated skin and clothing of those more directly exposed to the gas.

Following the attack, the harbor was closed for operations for three weeks and it did not return to full capacity until February 1944.

A member of U.S. General Dwight D. Eisenhower's medical staff, Stewart F. Alexander, was dispatched to Bari following the raid. Alexander had trained at the Army's Edgewood Arsenal in New Jersey, and was familiar with some of the effects of mustard gas. Although he was not informed of the cargo carried by the John Harvey, and most victims suffered atypical symptoms caused by exposure to mustard diluted in water and oil (as opposed to airborne), Alexander rapidly concluded that mustard gas was present. Although he could not get any acknowledgement of this from the chain of command, Alexander convinced medical staffs to treat patients for mustard exposure and saved many lives as a result. He also preserved many tissue samples from autopsied victims at Bari. After World War II, these samples would result in the development of an early form of chemotherapy based on mustard, Mustine.[9]

On the orders of Allied leaders Franklin D. Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, and Eisenhower, records were destroyed and the whole affair was kept secret for many years after the war. The U.S. records of the attack were declassified in 1959, but the episode remained obscure until 1967, when writer Glenn B. Infield exposed the story in his book Disaster at Bari.[9] Additionally, there is considerable dispute as to the exact number of fatalities. In one account: "[S]ixty-nine deaths were attributed in whole or in part to the mustard gas, most of them American merchant seamen".[10] Others put the count as high as "more than one thousand Allied servicemen and more than one thousand Italian civilians".[11]

Part of the confusion and controversy derives from the fact that the German attack, which became nicknamed "The Little Pearl Harbor" after the Japanese air attack on the American naval base in Hawaii, was highly destructive in itself, apart from the effects of the gas. Attribution of the causes of death to the gas, as distinct from the direct effects of the German attack, has proved far from easy.

The affair is the subject of two books: Disaster at Bari, by Glenn B. Infield, and Nightmare in Bari: The World War II Liberty Ship Poison Gas Disaster and Coverup, by Gerald Reminick.

In 1988 through the efforts of Nick T. Spark, U.S. Senators Dennis DeConcini and Bill Bradley, Dr. Stewart Alexander received recognition from the Surgeon General of the United States Army for his actions during the Bari disaster.[12]

Charles Henderson explosion

The port of Bari was again struck by disaster on 9 April 1945 when the Liberty ship Charles Henderson exploded in the harbour while offloading 2000 tons of aerial bombs (half of that amount had been offloaded when the explosion occurred). Three hundred and sixty people were killed and 1730 were wounded. The harbour was again rendered nonoperational, this time for a month.

Bari explosion view from Barracks crop sm

April 9, 1945 – View from the barracks. Photo by WOJG Hubert Platt Henderson who was stationed at Bari as the Director of the 773rd Band

Bari Explosion 1

April 9, 1945 – Photo by WOJG Hubert Platt Henderson who was stationed at Bari as the Director of the 773rd Band

Italy 4 Bari Explosion front b

April 9, 1945 – Photo by WOJG Hubert Platt Henderson who was stationed at Bari as the Director of the 773rd Band

Geography

Bari is the largest urban and metro area on the Adriatic. It is located in Southern Italy, at a more northerly latitude than Naples, further south than Rome.

Climate

Bari has a Mediterranean climate (Köppen: Csa) with mild winters and hot, dry summers.

Quarters

Quarters of Bari
Municipality Quarters
I Palese Macchie & Santo Spirito-Catino-San Pio
II San Paolo & Stanic
III Picone & Poggiofranco
IV Carbonara-Santa Rita, Ceglie del Campo & Loseto
V Japigia, Torre a Mare & San Giorgio
VI Carrassi, San Pasquale & Mungivacca
VII Madonnella
VIII Libertà & Marconi-San Girolamo-Fesca
IX Murat & San Nicola

Shown above are the nine governmental community boards (Municipalities) of Bari: these are further divided into twenty neighbourhoods or "quartiere" as they are known.[15]

Architectural landmarks

Bari perotti vista
Bari (Lungomare Perotti, old town view).
Bari teatro piccinni
The Teatro Piccinni in Bari
The port of Bari, Italy (L. Massoptier)
A view of the old port of Bari
  • Teatro Margherita.
  • Teatro Piccinni.
  • Orto Botanico dell'Università di Bari, a botanical garden.
  • Santa Chiara, once church of the Teutonic Knights (as Santa maria degli Alemanni) and now houses a museum. It was restored in 1539.
  • The Acquedotto Pugliese
  • The medieval church of San Marco dei Veneziani, with a rose window in the façade.
  • Conservatory of Bari
  • San Giorgio degli Armeni.
  • Santa Teresa dei Maschi, the main Baroque church in the city (1690–1696).
  • Pane e Pomodoro Beach is the main beach within reach of the city. Its reputation has for several years suffered from the apparent presence of asbestos from nearby industrial plants.
  • Bari features two sea harbours: the Old Port and the New Port, constructed in 1850.

Basilica of Saint Nicholas

Bari Basilica San Nicola
St. Nicholas Basilica

The Basilica di San Nicola (Saint Nicholas) was founded in 1087 to receive the relics of this saint, which were brought from Myra in Lycia, and now lie beneath the altar in the crypt, where are buried the Topins, which are a legacy of old thieves converted to good faith. The church is one of the four Palatine churches of Apulia (the others being the cathedrals of Acquaviva delle Fonti and Altamura, and the church of Monte Sant'Angelo sul Gargano).[5]

Bari Cathedral

Bari Cathedral, dedicated to Saint Sabinus of Canosa (San Sabino), was begun in Byzantine style in 1034, but was destroyed in the sack of the city of 1156. A new building was thus built between 1170 and 1178, partially inspired by that of San Nicola. Of the original edifice, only traces of the pavement are today visible in the transept.

An example of Apulian Romanesque architecture, the church has a simple Romanesque façade with three portals; in the upper part is a rose window decorated with monstruous and fantasy figures. The interior has a nave and two aisles, divided by sixteen columns with arcades. The crypt houses the relics of Saint Sabinus and the icon of the Madonna Odigitria.

The interior and the façade were redecorated in Baroque style during the 18th century, but these additions were removed in a 1950s restoration.

Petruzzelli Theatre

The Petruzzelli Theatre, founded in 1903, hosted different forms of live entertainment, or nineteenth century “Politeama”. The theatre was all but destroyed in a fire on October 27, 1991. It was reopened in October 2009, after 18 years.

Swabian Castle

Puglia Bari2
Swabian Castle
Bari BW 2016-10-19 12-32-30
Swabian Castle
Castle and Old Town of Bari - September 2017
The Old Town as seen from the Swabian Castle

The Norman-Hohenstaufen Castle, widely known as the Castello Svevo (Swabian Castle), was built by Roger II of Sicily around 1131. Destroyed in 1156, it was rebuilt by Frederick II of Hohenstaufen. The castle now serves as a gallery for a variety of temporary exhibitions in the city.

Pinacoteca Provinciale di Bari

The Pinacoteca Provinciale di Bari (Provincial Picture Gallery of Bari) is the most important art gallery in Apulia. It was first established in 1928 and contains many paintings from the 15th century up to the days of contemporary art.

The Russian Church

The Russian Church, in the Carrassi district of Bari, was built in the early 20th century to welcome Russian pilgrims who came to the city to visit the church of Saint Nicholas in the old city where the relics of the saint remain.

The city council and Italian national government were recently involved in a trade-off with the Putin government in Moscow, exchanging the piece of land on which the church stands, for, albeit indirectly, a military barracks near Bari's central railway station.

Barivecchia

Barivecchia, or Old Bari, is a sprawl of streets and passageways making up the section of the city to the north of the modern Murat area. Barivecchia was until fairly recently considered a no-go area by many of Bari's residents due to the high levels of petty crime. A large-scale redevelopment plan began with a new sewerage system, followed by the development of the two main squares, Piazza Mercantile and Piazza Ferrarese.

Demographics

As of 2015, there were 326,344 people residing in Bari (about 1.6 million live in the greater Bari area), located in the province of Bari, Puglia, of whom 47.9% were male and 52.1% were female.[16] As of 2007, minors (children ages 18 and younger) totaled 17.90 percent of the population compared to pensioners who number 19.08 percent. This compares with the Italian average of 18.06 percent (minors) and 19.94 percent (pensioners). The average age of Bari residents is 42 compared to the Italian average of 42. In the five years between 2002 and 2007, the population of Bari grew by 2.69 percent, while Italy as a whole grew by 3.56 percent.[17] The current birth rate of Bari is 8.67 births per 1,000 inhabitants compared to the Italian average of 9.45 births.

As of 2015, 3.8% of the population was foreign residents.[18]

Residents by Region Residents by Nationality
Central / Eastern Europe 2,047
European Union 1,983
Western Asia 1,948
South / Central Asia 1,732
East Africa 1,486
East Asia 1,343
West Africa 1,000
North Africa 492
South / Central America 368
North America 54
South / Central Africa 22
Georgia 1,664
Albania 1,390
Romania 1,171
Bangladesh 828
China 731
Mauritius 689
Philippines 561
Nigeria 474
Pakistan 353
India 300
Somalia 291

Migration

According to an urban migration study in Bari, return migration gain to urban areas is higher than migration loss from urban areas. People migrating from urban destinations tend to migrate to different places in comparison to people migrating from rural areas. These findings are based on the background and behavior of a sample of 211 return migrants to Bari, Italy. Bari is a port city, making it historically important because of its strong trade links with Greece, North Africa, and the eastern Mediterranean. Bari's economic structure is based on industry, commerce, services, and administration. Around two-thirds of the city's employment is in the tertiary sector with its port, commerce, and administrative functions. The highest percentage of Bari's working population is employed in services, with 45.6%. From 1958 to 1982, around 20% of migrants left Bari for other Italian communes, while around 17% or migrants came to Bari from other Italian communes. Under 2% of migrants left Bari to go abroad and came to the city from abroad.[19]

Culture

Fiera del Levante

The Fiera del Levante, held in September in the Fiera site on the west side of Bari city center, focuses on agriculture and industry, There is also a "Fair of Nations" which displays handcrafted and locally produced goods from all over the world.

Cuisine and gastronomy

Orecchiette al Pomodoro
A dish of orecchiette.

Bari's cuisine is based on three typical agricultural products found within the surrounding region of Apulia, namely wheat, olive oil and wine. The local cuisine is also enriched by the wide variety of fruit and vegetables produced locally. Local flour is used in homemade bread and pasta production including, most notably, the famous orecchiette ear-shaped pasta, recchietelle or strascinate, chiancarelle (orecchiette of different sizes) and cavatelli.

Homemade dough is also used for baked calzoni stuffed with onions, anchovies, capers and olives; fried panzerotti with mozzarella, simple focaccia alla barese with tomatoes, little savoury taralli, friselle and sgagliozze, fried slices of polenta, all make up the Bari culinary repertoire.

Vegetable minestrone, chick peas, broad beans, chicory, celery and fennel are also often served as first courses or side dishes.

Meat dishes and the local Barese ragù often include lamb and pork.

Pasta al forno, a baked pasta dish, is very popular in Bari and was historically a Sunday dish, or a dish used at the start of Lent when all the rich ingredients such as eggs and pork had to be used for religious reasons. The recipe commonly consists of penne or similar tubular pasta shapes, a tomato sauce, small beef and pork meatballs and halved hard-boiled eggs. The pasta is then topped with mozzarella or similar cheese and then baked in the oven to make the dish have its trademark crispy texture.

Fresh fish and seafood are often eaten raw. Octopus, sea urchins and mussels feature heavily. Perhaps Bari's most famous dish is the oven-baked patate, riso e cozze (potatoes with rice and mussels).

Bari and the whole Apulian region have a range of wines, including Primitivo, Castel del Monte, and Muscat, notably Moscato di Trani.

Language

The dialect of Bari belongs to the upper-southern Italo-Romance family, and currently coexists with Italian; generally these are used in different contexts.

Notable people

Sport

Local football club F.C. Bari 1908, currently competing in Serie D (as of the 2018-2019 season), plays in the Stadio San Nicola, an architecturally innovative 58,000-seater stadium purpose-built for the 1990 FIFA World Cup. The stadium also hosted the 1991 European Cup Final.

Economy and infrastructure

Transport

Bari Central Station
Bari Central Station

Bari has its own airport, Bari Karol Wojtyła Airport, which is located 8 km (5.0 mi) northwest of the centre of Bari. It is connected to the centre by train services from Bari Aeroporto railway station.

Bari Central Station lies on the Adriatic railway and has connection to cities such as Rome, Milan, Bologna, Turin and Venice. Another mainline is connection southwards by the Bari-Taranto railway. Regional services also operate to Foggia, Barletta, Brindisi, Lecce, Taranto and other towns and villages in the Apulia region.

Bari has an old fishery port (Porto Vecchio) and a so called new port in the north, as well as some marinas. The Port of Bari is an important cargo transport hub to S.E.Europe. Various passenger transport lines include some seasonal ferry lines to Albania, Montenegro or Dubrovnik. Bari-Igoumenitsa is a popular ferry line to Greece, some cruise ships anchor in Bari too.

Public transportation statistics

The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Bari, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 57 minutes. 11% of public transit riders ride for more than 2 hours every day. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 18 minutes, while 40% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 4.2 km (2.6 mi), while 2% travel for over 12 km (7.5 mi) in a single direction.[20]

International relations

Twin towns—Sister cities

Bari is twinned with:

In popular culture

The Guido Guerrieri novels by Gianrico Carofiglio are set in Bari, where Guerrieri is a criminal lawyer, and include many descriptions of the town.

Bari is one of the primary settings of the detective novel The Black Mountain by Rex Stout. It is the characters' point of embarkation to Communist Yugoslavia.

In the 1995 film The Bridges of Madison County, Italian housewife Francesca Johnson (Meryl Streep), is mentioned as being from Bari and growing up in Naples.

Gallery

Castello normanno-svevo (Bari) 2017
Izlošci zbirke u Bariju
Bari u rujnu
Palazzo del Governo (Bari)
Spomenik u talijanskom gradu Bariju
Palazzo delle Finanze (Bari)
Katedrala sv. Sabina
Katedrala sv. Sabina, Bari, Apulija
U Bazilici svetog Nikole u Bariju 2017
Nadvratnik crkve u Bariju
U Bariju u crkvi 2017
Crkva, Bari 2017
Muzej sv. Nikole
U Bariju gradu

See also

References

  1. ^ "Superficie di Comuni Province e Regioni italiane al 9 ottobre 2011". Istat. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  2. ^ "Popolazione Residente al 1° Gennaio 2018". Istat. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  3. ^ 'City' population (i.e. that of the comune or municipality) from Monthly demographic balance: January–April 2009, ISTAT.
  4. ^ Pagano, Alessandro (2012). "History of Bari – Ancient and Mediaeval times". esebari.it. Retrieved 8 February 2013.
  5. ^ a b c  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Bari" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 3 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 400.
  6. ^ The Cartoon History of the Universe III – From the Rise of Arabia to the Renaissance (Volumes 14–19). Doubleday. 2002. ISBN 0-393-32403-6.
  7. ^ a b Chris Wickham (1981). Early Medieval Italy: Central Power and Local Society 400–1000. Totowa: Barnes and Noble. pp. 62, 154. ISBN 978-0-389-20217-2.
  8. ^ Hilmar C. Krueger (1955). "The Italian Cities and the Arabs before 1095". In Kenneth Meyer Setton; Marshall W. Baldwin. A History of the Crusades: The First Hundred Years. Vol. I. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 48.
  9. ^ a b Glenn Infield (1976). Disaster at Bari. ISBN 978-0-450-02659-1..
  10. ^ "US Naval Historical Center report". Archived from the original on January 12, 2008.
  11. ^ Amazon book summary of Gerald Reminick (2001). Nightmare in Bari: The World War II Liberty Ship Poison Gas Disaster and Coverup. Glencannon Press. ISBN 978-1-889-90121-3.
  12. ^ "Tucson Senior Helps Retired Doctor Receive Military Honor". Mohave Daily Miner. Kingman, Arizona. May 20, 1988. p. B8 – via Google News.
  13. ^ "Bari/Palese (BA) 44 m. s.l.m. (a.s.l.)" (PDF). Servizio Meteorologico. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 October 2016. Retrieved 7 September 2013.
  14. ^ "Stazione 270 Bari, medie mensili periodo 61 – 90". Servizio Meteorologico. Archived from the original on 14 May 2013. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
  15. ^ "Quartieri". Palapa.it. 8 January 2008. Archived from the original on 13 August 2013. Retrieved 31 October 2008.
  16. ^ "Popolazione Bari 2001-2015". Comuni-Italiani.it (in Italian). Retrieved 2018-03-13.
  17. ^ "Statistiche demografiche ISTAT". Demo.istat.it. Archived from the original on 26 April 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-05.
  18. ^ "Cittadini Stranieri - Bari" [Foreigners - Bari]. Comuni-Italiani.it (in Italian). Retrieved 2018-03-13.
  19. ^ King, Russel; Strachan, Alan; Mortimer, Jill (June 1985). "The Urban Dimension of European Return Migration: The Case of Bari, Southern Italy". Urban Studies. 22 (3): 219–235. JSTOR 43192080.
  20. ^ "Facts and usage statistics about public transit in Bari, Italy". moovit insights. Moovit Public Transit Index. Retrieved March 24, 2018. CC-BY icon.svg Material was copied from this source, which is available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
  21. ^ Градови партнери [City of Banja Luka – Partner cities]. Administrative Office of the City of Banja Luka (in Serbian). Archived from the original on 2011-09-17. Retrieved 2013-08-09.
  22. ^ "Batumi – Twin Towns & Sister Cities". Batumi City Hall. Archived from the original on 2012-05-04. Retrieved 2013-08-10.
  23. ^ "Guangzhou Sister Cities". Guangzhou Foreign Affairs Office. Archived from the original on 2012-10-24. Retrieved 2013-07-21.
  24. ^ "Twin-cities of Azerbaijan". Azerbaijans.com. Retrieved 2013-08-09.
  25. ^ "Kontakty partnerskie Miasta Szczecin". Urząd Miasta Szczecin (in Polish). Archived from the original on 2012-08-18. Retrieved 2013-07-29.
  26. ^ CSI-Piemonte, Laboratorio di Accessibilità e User innovation del. "COMUNE DI MONTE SANT'ANGELO- In evidenza". www.montesantangelo.it.

Further reading

  • Glenn B. Infield. 1973. Disaster at Bari. Ace Books. New York, N.Y.
  • Vito Antonio Melchiorre. 2001. Note storiche su Bari.

External links

1991 European Cup Final

The 1991 European Cup Final was a football match held at the Stadio San Nicola in Bari, Italy, on 29 May 1991, that saw Red Star Belgrade of Yugoslavia defeat Marseille of France in a penalty shoot-out. After normal time and extra time could not separate the two sides, the match was to be decided on penalty kicks. Manuel Amoros's miss for the French side proved crucial, as Red Star held their nerve to win their first European Cup.

Bari, Somalia

Bari (Somali: Bari, Arabic: باري‎) is an administrative region (gobol) in northeastern Somalia.

Bari, West Azerbaijan

Bari (Persian: باري‎, also Romanized as Bārī and Bary; also known as Bāre and Bāreh) is a village in Anzal-e Shomali Rural District, Anzal District, Urmia County, West Azerbaijan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 168, in 53 families.

Bari Karol Wojtyła Airport

Bari Karol Wojtyła Airport (Italian: Aeroporto di Bari-Karol Wojtyła) (IATA: BRI, ICAO: LIBD) is an airport serving the city of Bari in Italy. It is approximately 8 km (5.0 mi) northwest from the town centre. Named after Pope John Paul II, who was born Karol Wojtyła, the airport is also known as Palese Airport (Italian: Aeroporto di Palese) after a nearby neighbourhood. The airport handled 3,958,815 passengers in 2015.

Bari language

Bari is the Nilotic language of the Karo people, spoken over large areas of Central Equatoria state in South Sudan, across the northwest corner of Uganda, and into the Democratic Republic of Congo.

Bari is spoken by several distinct tribes: the Bari people themselves, the Pojulu, Kakwa, Nyangwara, Mundari, and Kuku. Each has its own dialect. The language is therefore sometimes called Karo or Kutuk ('mother tongue') rather than Bari.

Dialects are:

Bari proper (Beri)

Pöjulu (Pajulu, Fadjulu, Fajelu, Madi)

Kakwa (Kakua, Kwakwak) [radio broadcasts in Uganda]

Nyangbara (Nyangwara, Nyambara)

Mandari (Mondari, Mundari, Chir, Kir, Shir)

Kuku

Nyepu (Nyefu, Nyepo, Nypho, Ngyepu)

Ligo (Liggo).Bari is a tone language. It has vowel harmony, subject–verb–object word order, and agglutinative verbal morphology with some suppletion. A very competent dictionary and grammar were published in the 1930s, but are very difficult to find today. More recently, a dissertation has been published on Bari tonal phonology, and another dissertation on Bari syntax is available.

Baritone saxophone

The baritone saxophone or "bari sax" is one of the larger members of the saxophone family, only being smaller than the bass, contrabass and subcontrabass saxophones. It is the lowest-pitched saxophone in common use. The baritone saxophone uses a mouthpiece, reed, and ligature in order to produce sound. It is larger than the tenor, alto and soprano saxophones, which are the other commonly found members of the family. The baritone saxophone is commonly used in classical music such as concert band, chamber music, military bands, jazz (such as big bands and jazz combos). It also is occasionally employed in marching bands, though less frequently than other saxophones due to its size and weight.

Jorasanko Thakur Bari

Jorasanko Thakur Bari (Bengali: House of the Thakurs (anglicised to Tagore) in Jorasanko, north of Kolkata, West Bengal, India, is the ancestral home of the Tagore family. It is currently located on the Rabindra Bharati University campus at 6/4 Dwarakanath Tagore Lane Jorasanko, Kolkata 700007. It is the house in which the poet and first non-European Nobel laureate, Rabindranath Tagore was born. It is also the place where he spent most of his childhood and died on 7 August 1941.

Leonardo Bonucci

Leonardo Bonucci (Italian pronunciation: [leoˈnardo boˈnuttʃi]; born 1 May 1987) is an Italian professional footballer who plays as a centre-back for Serie A club Juventus and the Italy national team.After beginning his career with Inter Milan in 2005, Bonucci spent the next few seasons on loan at Treviso and Pisa, before moving to Bari in 2009. His technique, ball-playing ability and defensive performances alongside fellow Italian centre-back Andrea Ranocchia earned him a move to Juventus the following season, where he later became a key member of the club's three-man defensive line, alongside Giorgio Chiellini and Andrea Barzagli, establishing himself as one of the best defenders in world football. He went on to win six consecutive Serie A titles with the team between 2012 and 2017. In 2017, he moved to A.C. Milan, and one season later returned to Juventus.

At international level, Bonucci has represented Italy at two FIFA World Cups (2010 and 2014), two European Championships (2012 and 2016), and a FIFA Confederations Cup (2013), winning a runners-up medal at Euro 2012, and a third-place medal at the 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup.

Bonucci has also won several individual honours for his performances: he was named to the UEFA Europa League Squad of the season during the 2013–14 and 2017–18 seasons, and is a three-time member of the Serie A Team of the Year. He was named the Serie A Footballer of the Year in 2016, and was also included in the UEFA Team of the Year in the same season. In 2017, he was also included in the FIFA FIFPro World XI and the IFFHS Men's World Team, as well as the 2016–17 UEFA Champions League Team of the Season and the 2016–17 ESM Team of the Year.

List of Serie B champions and promotions

This article is a list of Serie B champions and promotions since its establishment – including the competition under previous names.

List of foreign Serie B players

This is a list of foreign players in Serie B of the Italian football league system. The following players:

have played at least one Serie B game for the respective club;

have not been capped for the Italian national team on any level, independently from the birthplace, except for players born in San Marino and active in the Italian national team before the first official match of the Sammarinese national team played on November 14, 1990 and players of Italian formation born abroad from Italian parents;

have been born in Italy and were capped by a foreign national team. This includes players who have dual citizenship with Italy.These are all the teams that have had at least a foreign player while playing in a Serie A season and in bold are the ones currently playing for the 2018–19 season :

AlbinoLeffe, Alessandria, Alzano Virescit, Ancona, Arezzo, Ascoli, Atalanta, Avellino, Bari, Benevento, Bologna, Brescia, Cagliari, Carpi, Castel di Sangro, Catania, Catanzaro, Cesena, Chievo, Cittadella, Como, Cosenza, Crema, Cremonese, Crotone, Empoli, Entella, Fanfulla Lodi, Fermana, Fidelis Andria, Fiorentina, Foggia, Frosinone, Gallipoli, Genoa, Gubbio, Juve Stabia, Juventus, Lanciano, Latina, Lazio, Lecce, Lecco, Legnano, Licata, Livorno, Lucchese, Maceratese, Mantova, Messina, Milan, Modena, Napoli, Nocerina, Novara, Padova, Palermo, Parma, Perugia, Pescara, Portogruaro, Piacenza, Pisa, Pistoiese, Pro Patria, Pro Vercelli, Reggiana, Reggina, Rimini, Roma, Salernitana, Sampdoria, Sassuolo, Siena, SPAL, Spezia, Taranto, Ternana, Torino, Trapani, Treviso, Triestina, Udinese, Varese, Venezia, Verona, Vicenza, Voghera.

These are the only teams that have participated in Serie A but have not had a foreign player: Acireale, Alba Roma, Barletta, Biellese, Bolzano, Brindisi, Campobasso, Carrarese Calcio, Casale, Cavese, Centese, Derthona, Fiumana, Forlì, Magenta, Massese

In bold are the players that have played at least one game in the 2018–19 season.

List of railway stations in Apulia

This is the list of the railway stations in Apulia owned by Rete Ferroviaria Italiana, a branch of the Italian state company Ferrovie dello Stato.

Majha

The Majha (Punjabi: ਮਾਝਾ (Gurmukhi), ماجھا (Shahmukhi); Mājhā) region is recognized as the region that is located at the center of the historical Punjab region, that is northward from the right banks of river Beas, and extends up to river Jhelum at its northmost. People of the Majha region are given the demonym "Mājhi". The Majhi dialect of Punjabi language is the main language of this region, which is also the standard dialect of the Punjabi language. The most populous city in the area is Lahore on the Pakistani side of the border.

During the partition of India in 1947, the Majha region of Punjab got split into India and Pakistan when the Indian Punjab and Pakistani Punjab were formed. The Majha region of Indian State of Punjab covers the area between Beas and Ravi rivers, including the area on the north of Sutlej, after the confluence of Beas and Sutlej at Harike in Tarn Taran district, extending up to the Ravi river, which is all part of the Majha region in India. This region contains thirteen districts of the Pakistani province of Punjab and four districts of Indian state of Punjab - Amritsar, Tarn Taran, Gurdaspur, and Pathankot.

The people of the Majha region have been historically known to be fierce and stubborn fighters and in lieu of this, the Majha region is called the "Sword Arm of the Country", due to it contributing disproportionately to the Officer as well as Orderly ranks of the Army. The Sikh Empire was founded in the Majha region which is also referred to as "the cradle of the brave Sikhs."

North Eastern Province (Kenya)

The North Eastern Province (Somali: Gobolka Woqooyi Bari) is one of the former provinces in Kenya. It has a land area of 127,358.5 km², with its capital at Garissa. Previously known as the Northern Frontier District (NFD), the territory was carved out of the Jubaland region of present-day southern Somalia during the colonial period. It is and has historically been exclusively inhabited by ethnic Somalis.

Province of Bari

The Province of Bari (Italian: Provincia di Bari) was a province in the Apulia region of Italy. Its capital was the city of Bari.

It has an area of 5,138 km2 (1,984 sq mi), and a total population of 1,594,109 (2005). On 1 January 2015 it was replaced by the Metropolitan City of Bari.

S.S.C. Bari

Società Sportiva Calcio Bari, commonly referred to as Bari, is an Italian football club founded in 1908 and based in Bari, Apulia. The club spent many seasons bouncing between the top two divisions in Italian football, Serie A and Serie B. From the 2018–19 season they play in Serie D.

Saint Nicholas

Saint Nicholas of Myra (traditionally 15 March 270 – 6 December 342), also known as Nicholas of Bari, was an early Christian bishop of the ancient Greek maritime city of Myra in Asia Minor (Ancient Greek: Μύρα, modern-day Demre, Turkey) during the time of the Roman Empire. He is revered by many Christians as a saint. Because of the many miracles attributed to his intercession, he is also known as Nicholas the Wonderworker. Saint Nicholas is the patron saint of sailors, merchants, archers, repentant thieves, children, brewers, pawnbrokers, and students in various cities and countries around Europe. His reputation evolved among the faithful, as was common for early Christian saints, and his legendary habit of secret gift-giving gave rise to the traditional model of Santa Claus ("Saint Nick") through Sinterklaas.

Very little is known about the historical Saint Nicholas. The earliest accounts of his life were written centuries after his death and contain many legendary elaborations. He is said to have been born in the Greek seaport of Patara, Lycia in Asia Minor to wealthy Christian parents. In one of the earliest attested and most famous incidents from his life, he is said to have rescued three girls from being forced into prostitution by dropping a sack of gold coins through the window of their house each night for three nights so their father could pay a dowry for each of them. Other early stories tell of him calming a storm at sea, saving three innocent soldiers from wrongful execution, and chopping down a tree possessed by a demon. In his youth, he is said to have made a pilgrimage to Egypt and the Palestine area. Shortly after his return, he became Bishop of Myra. He was later cast into prison during the persecution of Diocletian, but was released after the accession of Constantine. An early list makes him an attendee at the First Council of Nicaea in 325, but he is never mentioned in any writings by people who were actually at the council. Late, unsubstantiated legends claim that he was temporarily defrocked and imprisoned during the Council for slapping the heretic Arius. Another famous late legend tells how he resurrected three children, who had been murdered and pickled in brine by a butcher planning to sell them as pork during a famine.

Fewer than 200 years after Nicholas's death, the St. Nicholas Church was built in Myra under the orders of Theodosius II over the site of the church, where he had served as bishop and Nicholas's remains were moved to a sarcophagus in that church. In 1087, while the Greek Christian inhabitants of the region were subjugated by the newly arrived Muslim Seljuk Turks, and soon after their church was declared to be in schism by the Catholic church, a group of merchants from the Italian city of Bari removed the major bones of Nicholas's skeleton from his sarcophagus in the church without authorization and brought them to their hometown, where they are now enshrined in the Basilica di San Nicola. The remaining bone fragments from the sarcophagus were later removed by Venetian sailors and taken to Venice during the First Crusade. His relics in Bari are said to exude a miraculous watery substance known as "manna" or "myrrh", which some members of the faithful regard as possessing supernatural powers.

Sang Bari

Sang Bari (Persian: سنگ بري‎, also Romanized as Sang Barī) is a village in Saghder Rural District, Jebalbarez District, Jiroft County, Kerman Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its existence was noted, but its population was not reported.

Serie B

Serie B (Italian pronunciation: [ˈsɛːrje ˈbi]), currently named Serie BKT for sponsorship reasons, is the second-highest division in the Italian football league system after the Serie A. It is currently contested by 19 teams, however usually consists of 22 teams, and is organized by the Lega Serie B since July 2010, after the split of Lega Calcio that previously took care of both the Serie A and Serie B. Common nicknames for the league are campionato cadetto and cadetteria, as cadetto is the Italian for junior or cadet.

Serie B was composed of 20 teams until the 2002–03 season. It was enlarged to 24 teams for the 2003–04 season due to legal problems relating to Calcio Catania relegation. The league reverted to 22 teams for the 2004–05 season, while Serie A expanded from 18 to 20 teams.

During the regular season, each team plays 42 games – two games against every opponent. In Italian football, a true round-robin format is used. In the first half of the season, called andata, each team plays once against all its opponents, a total of 21 games. In the second half of the season, called ritorno, each team will play the same teams in exactly the same order, the only difference being that a home game played in the first half will be an away game with that same team in the second half, and vice versa.

Since the 2006–07 season, the Serie B champion is awarded the cup Ali della Vittoria (Wings of Victory). The trophy is 63 cm high and weighs 5 kg. Its structure represents the wings of the goddess Nike, the goddess of victory, holding a cup similar to an olympic flame.

Serie B matches are usually played on Saturday. After one year where all games were played on Saturday, the league is again scheduling one game that is played on Friday called anticipo (the advanced game) and one game that is played on Monday called posticipo (the post-dated game). The league also plays on several Tuesdays to fit in all 42 games. The league also plays on Sunday if Serie A is off.

University of Bari

The University of Bari Aldo Moro (Italian: Università degli Studi di Bari Aldo Moro) is a higher education institution in Bari, Apulia, in Southern Italy.

The University of Bari was founded in 1925. It is a state-supported university which is divided into 12 faculties. Each faculty has its own set of departments that focus on the arts sciences, mathematics, social sciences, literature, medicine, law, and education.

The university offers various courses for undergraduate, graduate and post-graduate students. Aside from teaching, the university is also focused on scientific research at the doctorate level. The University of Bari research centres are highly-interactive, having connections among different departments, universities, and other research centres.

The University of Bari is one of the most prestigious universities in Southern Italy and it is one of the largest universities in Italy, with a student population of around 60,000.

A recent name change refers to the statesman Aldo Moro (1916-1978), a student of law there until 1939 who then served as ordinary professor of philosophy of Law and Colonial Policy (1941) and of Criminal Law (1942).

The University has been awarded the following ranking positions:

ranked 359 by the Center for World University Rankings (CWUR) (2016)

ranked 437 by the CWTS Leiden Ranking (2016)

ranked 401-500, Times Higher Education (THE) World University Ranking (2016)

ranked over 500th position by Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) (2016)

ranked over 700th position by QS World University Rankings (2016)The University is one of the 48 Italian higher education institutions in the CWUR list of the top 1000 universities in the world for 2016. Moreover, it has been ranked between 151st and 200th in the world for Physics by Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) - Shanghai Jiao Tong University (2015).

Climate data for Bari Karol Wojtyła Airport
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 24.0
(75.2)
24.0
(75.2)
27.2
(81.0)
32.6
(90.7)
39.1
(102.4)
41.4
(106.5)
43.3
(109.9)
44.8
(112.6)
39.0
(102.2)
35.2
(95.4)
26.8
(80.2)
23.0
(73.4)
44.8
(112.6)
Average high °C (°F) 12.6
(54.7)
12.9
(55.2)
15.0
(59.0)
18.0
(64.4)
22.8
(73.0)
26.8
(80.2)
29.2
(84.6)
29.2
(84.6)
25.9
(78.6)
21.5
(70.7)
16.8
(62.2)
13.9
(57.0)
20.4
(68.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) 8.8
(47.8)
8.9
(48.0)
10.7
(51.3)
13.3
(55.9)
17.8
(64.0)
21.8
(71.2)
24.3
(75.7)
24.3
(75.7)
21.1
(70.0)
17.1
(62.8)
12.7
(54.9)
10.1
(50.2)
15.9
(60.6)
Average low °C (°F) 4.9
(40.8)
4.8
(40.6)
6.3
(43.3)
8.6
(47.5)
12.9
(55.2)
16.7
(62.1)
19.3
(66.7)
19.4
(66.9)
16.3
(61.3)
12.6
(54.7)
8.6
(47.5)
6.2
(43.2)
11.4
(52.5)
Record low °C (°F) −5.9
(21.4)
−3
(27)
−2.4
(27.7)
1.1
(34.0)
5.3
(41.5)
7.8
(46.0)
12.8
(55.0)
12.8
(55.0)
8.4
(47.1)
1.0
(33.8)
0.0
(32.0)
−1.6
(29.1)
−5.9
(21.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 53.7
(2.11)
64.2
(2.53)
42.0
(1.65)
40.5
(1.59)
34.9
(1.37)
23.3
(0.92)
25.4
(1.00)
30.4
(1.20)
59.7
(2.35)
61.5
(2.42)
72.7
(2.86)
54.3
(2.14)
562.6
(22.14)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm) 6.7 7.7 6.8 6.2 5.2 3.7 2.6 3.5 5.0 6.3 7.7 7.1 68.5
Average relative humidity (%) 77 74 72 68 68 65 64 65 68 72 76 78 71
Source #1: Servizio Meteorologico (1971–2000 data)[13]
Source #2: Relative humidity: Servizio Meteorologico (1961–1990 data)[14]
Cities in Italy by population
1,000,000+
500,000+
200,000+
100,000+
Regional capitals of Italy

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