Bargylia

Bargylia (/ˌbɑːrˈdʒɪliə/; Ancient Greek: Βαργυλία), was a city on the coast of ancient Caria in southwestern Anatolia (modern-day Turkey) between Iasos and Myndus. Bargylia's location corresponds to the modern Turkish town of Boğaziçi in Muğla Province.

Fluted columns at Bargylia
The remains of fluted columns in Bargylia.

The city was said to have been founded by Bellerophon in honour of his companion Bargylos (Greek: Βάργυλος), who had been killed by a kick from the winged horse Pegasus. Near Bargylia was the Temple of Artemis Cindyas. Strabo reports the local belief that rain would fall around the temple but never touch it.[1] Artemis Cindyas and Pegasus appear on coinage of Bargylia.

In 201/200 BC during the Cretan War King Philip V of Macedon wintered his fleet in Bargylia when he was blockaded by the Pergamene and Rhodian fleets.[2]

Protarchus the Epicurean philosopher, the mentor of Demetrius Lacon, was a native of Bargylia.

Ancient wall at Bargylia
The ruins of a containing or defensive wall at Bargylia.

On a headland next to the harbour at Bargylia there once stood a large tomb monument. Dating from the Hellenistic period (between 200-150 BC), the monument was dedicated to the sea monster Scylla. The over life-size figure of Scylla, along with a group of deferential and expectant hounds, was originally located at the apex of the building. The remains of this sculptural group, along with other parts of the stone structure, can be found in the British Museum's collection.[3]

There are currently reasonably extensive ruins at Bargylia, including the remnants of a temple, a theatre, a large defensive wall and a palaestra.

Bargylia
Bargylia is located in Turkey
Bargylia
Shown within Turkey
LocationMuğla Province, Turkey
Coordinates37°12′00″N 27°34′32″E / 37.2000°N 27.5755°ECoordinates: 37°12′00″N 27°34′32″E / 37.2000°N 27.5755°E
TypeSettlement

Visit to Bargylia by Freya Stark

The travel writer Freya Stark visited Bargylia when she was touring Caria in the 1950s. Below is an extract from an account of her travels that was published in The Geographical Journal.[4]

Even more remote, more uninhabited and more deeply forgotten is Bargylia, in which Philip V of Macedon spent a winter fighting, and Rome first gave its freedom to a city of Asia. It is difficult to find, though only half an hour's sail from Gullük, up an inlet that opens among hills. Not a house was in sight when we sailed here nor any sign of animal life except some cattle grazing, and two boats fishing in the sound.

The water grew too shallow for the Elfin, and the dinghy landed us in swamp among rushes as sharp and painful as miniature javelins. From tussock to tussock we gained the city's slopes. Stone or marble showed it here and there, blanketed in grass among the yellow iris, with white columns laid on their sides by the Byzantines and used for a foundation.

A Yurük came up with friendly manners to offer the hospitality of his tent. No one, said he, came to Bargylia, except the sister of the member for Milas, a good young archaeologist, who had looked – he waved his hand over the prostrate temples, odeon, stoa, fluted columns, that lay as if asleep under the grass. The Elfin's engine was now beginning to splutter as she drew towards us, leaving a furrow in the sound scarcely bigger than that of the centuries before her; and we coasted south till the night came upon us in a landlocked bay, so still that one felt one could weigh the darkness, as if it lay soft and heavy in one's hand.

Proposed Selling of Bargylia

According to the country’s major newspaper Hürriyet, City of Bargylia is on sale for the trifle of 22 million Turkish liras (around eight million euros).

According to Hürriyet, a news[5] Ancient Greek City of Bargylia in Turkey on Sale for Eight Million Euros dated on 13 January 2015 states Construction in first degree Archaeological site is not allowable as per Judicial system of Turkey, therefore advertisement highlights that no excavations have been performed on it till date, so the new owner(s) can enjoy an amphitheater hinted to be underground, an area that is believed to belong to the city’s Temple, the remains of a Roman bath and a necropolis from the Byzantine era.

Turkish archaeologists have called the country’s Ministry of Culture and Tourism several times to expropriate numerous archaeological sites such as the one in Bargylia in order to ensure their protection on their behalf, due to the state’s inability to guarantee the security. Binnur Celebi, a senior member of the Archaeologists Association said, “Unfortunately, due to an insufficient budget, archaeological sites are only expropriated during excavations or urban projects," and warned that some owners may not understand the historical value their site’s status, aiming to open them for construction. He added, "Private ownership of such sites is obstructing archaeological work. However, the person or persons who acquire those sites can absolutely not conduct any construction activities."

The agent promoting the ancient city’s sale, Halil Okan Tavasli, said that it has already attracted a considerable number of potential buyers but no agreement has been signed up to the date of 20 January 2015.

In 2018, newspaper reported that since no buyer was found the price has been dropped to £5.6 million.[6]

References

  1. ^ Strabo 14.2.21
  2. ^ Polybius 17.2
  3. ^ British Museum Collection
  4. ^ The Geographical Journal, Vol. 124, No. 1 (March 1958), pp. 30-34.
  5. ^ Ancient Aeagen city with sea view for sale by real estate agency
  6. ^ Ancient Greek city of Bargylia on the market for £5.6m
Alexander (grandson of Seleucus I Nicator)

Alexander (Greek: Ἀλέξανδρος; flourished 3rd century BC) was a Greek nobleman of Anatolia and served as a Seleucid official.Alexander was the first son born to Achaeus by an unnamed Greek mother. His father Achaeus was a wealthy nobleman who owned estates in Anatolia. His family had power in Anatolia with strong royal connections. Alexander had three siblings, two sisters, Antiochis and Laodice I, and a brother Andromachus. His father Achaeus was the second son of King Seleucus I Nicator and his first wife Apama I.According to surviving inscriptions, Alexander was already active and held high positions under his paternal uncle Antiochus I Soter. A surviving decree at Bargylia honoring a judge from Teos mentions Alexander as having been ‘left in charge’ by Antiochus I Soter, meaning that Alexander was some sort of governor in the Caria region. The surviving decree at Bargylia dates from 270–261 BC.During the reign of his paternal cousin and brother-in-law Antiochus II Theos, Alexander was a very powerful figure in Anatolia. Between 261–244 BC in Magnesia ad Sipylum, he is noted in writing a letter about land allotments granted to soldiers and he was honored at Tralles.In the year 240 BC Alexander was still loyal to his nephew Seleucus II Callinicus, as he was the governor of Lydia, based at Sardis. In the civil war between Seleucus II Callinicus and his brother Antiochus Hierax, Alexander supported his second nephew, and held Sardis against attacks by Seleucus II.After the end of the civil war, nothing is known on Alexander. His namesake was his great-nephew Seleucus III Ceraunus, whose name was Alexander until he succeeded his father Seleucus II Callinicus as King in 225 BC.

Ariassus

Ariassus or Ariassos (Ancient Greek: Άριασσός) was a town in Pisidia, Asia Minor built on a steep hillside about 50 kilometres inland from Attaleia (modern Antalya).

Boğaziçi

Boğaziçi can mean:

Boğaziçi (Istanbul), those parts of Istanbul with a view of the Bosphorus

Boğaziçi, Milas, a fishing village on the shore of Lake Tuzla, and site of the ancient city of Bargylia

Boğaziçi, Gaziantep, a town in Islahiye district of Gaziantep Province

Boğaziçi, Milas

Boğaziçi is a working fishing village on the shore of Lake Tuzla in the Milas district of Muğla Province, Turkey. Today a number of fish restaurants line the shoreline.

In ancient times this was the site of the ancient Carian city of Bargylia. Bargylia was said to have been founded by Bellerophon in honour of his companion Bargylos, who had been killed by a kick from Pegasus. Ruins of the ancient city of Bargylia, including a Roman temple can be seen scattered around the locality.

Boğaziçi is located only 10 minutes from Milas-Bodrum Airport and is home to the resort of Lakeside Garden which is the base for bird watchers who descend on the area to see greater flamingos flock to the protected Lake Tuzla during the winter months.

Caloe

Caloe was a town in the Roman province of Asia. It is mentioned as Kaloe or Keloue in 3rd-century inscriptions, as Kalose in Hierocles's Synecdemos (660), and as Kalloe, Kaloe, and Kolone in Parthey's Notitiæ episcopatuum, in which it figures from the 6th to the 12fth or 13th century.

Caria

Caria (; from Greek: Καρία, Karia, Turkish: Karya) was a region of western Anatolia extending along the coast from mid-Ionia (Mycale) south to Lycia and east to Phrygia. The Ionian and Dorian Greeks colonized the west of it and joined the Carian population in forming Greek-dominated states there. The inhabitants of Caria, known as Carians, had arrived there before the Ionian and Dorian Greeks. They were described by Herodotus as being of Minoan Greek descent, while the Carians themselves maintained that they were Anatolian mainlanders intensely engaged in seafaring and were akin to the Mysians and the Lydians. The Carians did speak an Anatolian language, known as Carian, which does not necessarily reflect their geographic origin, as Anatolian once may have been widespread. Also closely associated with the Carians were the Leleges, which could be an earlier name for Carians or for a people who had preceded them in the region and continued to exist as part of their society in a reputedly second-class status.

Caryanda

Caryanda or Karyanda (Ancient Greek: Καρύανδα) was a city on the coast of ancient Caria in southwestern Anatolia. Stephanus of Byzantium describes it as a city and harbour (λίμην) near Myndus and Cos. But λιμήν, in the text of Stephanus, is an emendation or alteration: the manuscripts have λίμνη ('lake'). Strabo places Caryanda between Myndus and Bargylia, and he describes it, according to the common text, as "a lake, and island of the same name with it;" and thus the texts of Stephanus, who has got his information from Strabo, agree with the texts of Strabo. Pliny simply mentions the island Caryanda with a town; but he is in that passage only enumerating islands. In another passage he mentions Caryanda as a place on the mainland, and Pomponius Mela does also. Scylax of Caryanda, one of the most famous mariners and explorers of ancient times, was a native of Caryanda. He lived in the late 6th and early 5th centuries BCE and served the Persian king Darius I.Originally, Caryanda was located on an island of the same name, but was relocated to a site on a bay on the north coast of the Bodrum Peninsula near Göl, in what is today the Turkish tourist resort town of Turkbuku. Caryanda was approximately 19 km north of the Dorian Greek city of Halicarnassus, the dominant city of the peninsula.

Caryanda was a member of the Athenian dominated Delian League during the 5th century BCE.

Cestrus

Cestrus was a city in the Roman province of Isauria, in Asia Minor. Its placing within Isauria is given by Hierocles, Georgius Cyprius, and Parthey's (Notitiae episcopatuum). While recognizing what the ancient sources said, Lequien supposed that the town, whose site has not been identified, took its name from the River Cestros and was thus in Pamphylia. Following Lequien's hypothesis, the 19th-century annual publication Gerarchia cattolica identified the town with "Ak-Sou", which Sophrone Pétridès called an odd mistake, since this is the name of the River Cestros, not of a city.

Cindye

Cindye or Kindye (Ancient Greek: Κίνδυη) was a town of ancient Caria, near Bargylia. Herodotus notes Cindye as the hometown of Pixodarus, a Carian who, in assembly, proposed that one should fight against the Persians so that they had the Maeander River behind them, so that by not being able to flee, they would be forced to fight with greater courage than usual. However, his proposal was rejected. Cindye was a member of the Delian League since it appears in tribute records of Athens between the years 453/2 and 440/39 BCE. Strabo states that it was near Bargylia, and had a temple of Artemis Cindyeade but in his time Cindye no longer existed. Polybius also mentions this temple of Artemis saying that, although the image of the goddess was in the open air, there was a belief among some that it never got wet even if it rained or snowed.Its site is located near Sırtmaç, Asiatic Turkey.

Cotenna

Cotenna was a city in the Roman province of Pamphylia I in Asia Minor. It corresponds to modern Gödene, near Konya, Turkey.

Docimium

Docimium, Docimia or Docimeium (Greek: Δοκίμια and Δοκίμειον) was an ancient city of Phrygia, Asia Minor where there were famous marble quarries.

Drizipara

Drizipara (or Druzipara, Drousipara. Drusipara) now Karıştıran (Büyükkarıştıran) in Lüleburgaz district was a city and a residential episcopal see in the Roman province of Europa in the civil diocese of Thrace. It is now a titular see of the Catholic Church.

Hisarlik

Hisarlik (Turkish: Hisarlık, "Place of Fortresses"), often spelled Hissarlik, is the modern name for an ancient city in modern day located in what is now Turkey (historically Anatolia) near to the modern city of Çanakkale. The unoccupied archaeological site lies approximately 6.5 km from the Aegean Sea and about the same distance from the Dardanelles. The archaeological site of Hisarlik is known in archaeological circles as a tell. A tell is an artificial hill, built up over centuries and millennia of occupation from its original site on a bedrock knob.

It is believed by many scholars to be the site of ancient Troy, also known as Ilion.

Lyrbe

Lyrbe (spelled Lyrba in the 1910 Catholic Encyclopedia; Ancient Greek: Λύρβη) was a city and episcopal see in the Roman province of Pamphylia Prima and is now a titular see.

Metapterini

The Metapterini are a tribe of thread-legged bugs, assassin bugs of subfamily Emesinae.

Pareronia tritaea

Pareronia tritaea is a butterfly of the family Pieridae. It is found in Indonesia (including Sulawesi) and the Philippines.

Stratonicea (Lydia)

Stratonicea – (Greek: Στρατoνικεια, or Στρατονίκεια) also transliterated as Stratoniceia and Stratonikeia, earlier Indi, and later for a time Hadrianapolis – was an ancient city in the valley of the Caicus river, between Germe and Acrasus, in Lydia, Anatolia; its site is currently near the village of Siledik, in the district of Kırkağaç, Manisa Province, in the Aegean Region of Turkey.

Tyana

Tyana (Ancient Greek: Τύανα; Hittite Tuwanuwa) was an ancient city in the Anatolian region of Cappadocia, in modern Kemerhisar, Niğde Province, Central Anatolia, Turkey. It was the capital of a Luwian-speaking Neo-Hittite kingdom in the 1st millennium BC.

Üçayaklı ruins

The Üçayaklı ruins are in Mersin Province, Turkey.

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