Bardia

Bardia,[2] or El Burdi (Arabic: البردية or البردي‎) is a Mediterranean seaport in the Butnan District of eastern Libya. It is also occasionally called Bórdi Slemán.[3]

Bardia

البردية
Town
The Port of Bardia
The Port of Bardia
Bardia is located in Libya
Bardia
Bardia
Location in Libya
Coordinates: 31°46′N 25°06′E / 31.767°N 25.100°E
Country Libya
RegionCyrenaica
DistrictButnan
Elevation85 ft (26 m)
Population
(2004)[1]
 • Total9,149
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)

History

In Roman times the town was known as Petras Maior.[4]

During World War I, German U-boats made several landings in the port of Bardia in support of the Senussi order during their revolt against British and Italian colonial rule.[5]

During World War II, it was the site of a major Italian fortification, invested by the XXIII Corps under the command of General Annibale Bergonzoli.[6] On 21 June 1940, the town was bombarded by the 7th Cruiser Squadron of the Mediterranean Fleet. The bombardment force consisted of the French battleship Lorraine, British cruisers HMS Orion and HMS Neptune, the Australian cruiser HMAS Sydney, and the destroyers HMS Dainty, Decoy, Hasty, and HMAS Stuart.[7] However the bombardment is reported to have only caused minimal damage. The town was taken during Operation Compass by Commonwealth forces consisting mainly of the Australian 6th Division in fighting over 3–5 January 1941 at the Battle of Bardia.

The Axis later reoccupied the town and set up a prisoner of war camp there. On 2 January 1942, Bardia was re-taken by the South African 2nd Infantry Division, led by 1st Battalion, Royal Durban Light Infantry,[8] supported by the New Zealand Divisional Cavalry Regiment[9] and also the South African 2nd Anti-Aircraft Brigade (Light Anti-Aircraft).[10] The South Africans lost approximately 160 men,[8] and the operation freed about 1,150[8] Allied prisoners of war (including 650 New Zealanders) and took some 8,500 Axis prisoners (German and Italian).[11][8]

Bardia again changed hands in June 1942, being re-occupied by Axis forces for a third time, but was abandoned without contest in November following the Allied victory at El Alamein.[9]

Bardia is the location of a unique mural created during World War II, a favorite site to visit by tourists, known as the Bardia Mural.[12]

A mosque in Bardia1
An old mosque in Bardia

References

  1. ^ a b "Wolfram-Alpha: Making the world's knowledge computable". www.wolframalpha.com. Retrieved 21 April 2018.
  2. ^ Bardīyah (Approved)) at GEOnet Names Server, United States National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
  3. ^ Bórdi Slemán (Variant) at GEOnet Names Server, United States National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
  4. ^ Stern, Robert Cecil (2007) The hunter hunted: submarine versus submarine : encounters from World War I Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, Maryland, note 15 of Chapter 13, page 205, from page 94, ISBN 978-1-59114-379-6
  5. ^ Hans Werner Neulen: Feldgrau in Jerusalem. 2. Aufl., Universitas, München 2002, S. 100 ff., ISBN 3-8004-1437-6.
  6. ^ Collier, Richard (1977) The War in the Desert Time-Life Books, Alexandria, Virginia, p. 29, ISBN 0-7835-5721-3 and Time-Life Books (1990) Afrikakorps Time-Life Books, Alexandria, Virginia, p. 15, ISBN 0-8094-6983-9
  7. ^ http://www.sydneymemorial.com/history.htm, and Jürgen Rohwer (2005). Chronology of the War at Sea, 1939–1945: The Naval History of World War Two. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-1-59114-119-8, p.29
  8. ^ a b c d U.S. War Department, WWII (25 July 1942). "The British Capture of Bardia (December 1941 – January 1942): A Successful Infantry-Tank Attack". Lone Sentry. Washington, DC: Military Intelligence Service, Information Bulletin No. 21. p. MID 461. Retrieved 27 December 2014.
  9. ^ a b "Battle of Bardia". Australian Military Units. Australian War Memorial. Retrieved 28 December 2014.
  10. ^ Personal account of battle by Ron Myburgh's (as yet unpublished) memoirs.
  11. ^ Loughman, R. J. M. (1963) "Chapter 9: The Capture of Bardia" Divisional Cavalry War History Branch, New Zealand Department of Internal Affairs, Wellington, New Zealand, pp. 149–168
  12. ^ Simmonds, Donald "Bardiyah (Bardia) Masterpiece"

Further reading

  • Stevens, William George (1962) Bardia to Enfidaville War History Branch, New Zealand Department of Internal Affairs, Wellington, New Zealand, OCLC 4377202; history of New Zealand troops in North Africa in World War II
  • Agar-Hamilton, J. A. I. and L. C. F. Turner. The Sidi Rezegh Battles, 1941. Cape Town: Oxford University Press, 1957.

Coordinates: 31°46′N 25°06′E / 31.767°N 25.100°E

2nd Infantry Division (South Africa)

The South African 2nd Infantry Division was an infantry division of the army of the Union of South Africa during World War II. The division was formed on 23 October 1940 and served in the Western Desert Campaign and was captured (save for one brigade) by German and Italian forces at Tobruk on 21 June 1942. The remaining brigade was re-allocated to the South African 1st Infantry Division.

55th Infantry Division Savona

The 55th Infantry Division Savona was a North African type auto-transportable Infantry Division of the Italian Army during World War II. It was formed in April 1939 in Salerno and was destroyed 17 January 1942 at Naqb al Ḩalfāyah. Its men were drafted from Naples, Salerno and their surroundings. The Savona was classified as an auto-transportable division, meaning staff and equipment could be transported on cars and trucks, although not simultaneously.

62nd Infantry Division Marmarica

The 62nd Infantry Division Marmarica was an auto-transportable Infantry Division of the Italian Army during World War II. IT was formed 9 May 1937 in Derna, Libya and was destroyed 5 January 1941 in Bardia. The Marmarica was classified as an auto-transportable division, meaning staff and equipment could be transported on cars and trucks, although not simultaneously.

63rd Infantry Division Cirene

The 63rd Infantry Division Cirene was an auto-transportable infantry division of the Italian Army during World War II. The Cirene Division was formed 1 October 1937 in Marj and destroyed 5 January 1941 in Bardia. (Operation Compass) in January 1941. The Cirene was classified as an auto-transportable division, meaning staff and equipment could be transported on cars and trucks, although not simultaneously.

64th Infantry Division Catanzaro

The 64th Infantry Division Catanzaro was an auto-transportable Infantry Division of the Italian Army during World War II. The Catanzaro Division was created 3 June 1940 in Acroma, Libya and was destroyed 5 January 1941 in Bardia. The Catanzaro was classified as an auto-transportable division, meaning staff and equipment could be transported on cars and trucks, although not simultaneously.

Banke National Park

Banke National Park is located in the Mid-Western Region, Nepal and was established in 2010 as Nepal’s tenth national park after its recognition as a "Gift to the Earth". The protected area covers an area of 550 km2 (210 sq mi) with most parts falling on the Churia range. The park is surrounded by a buffer zone of 344 km2 (133 sq mi) in the districts of Banke, Salyan and Dang.Together with the neighboring Bardia National Park, the coherent protected area of 1,518 km2 (586 sq mi) represents the Tiger Conservation Unit (TCU) Bardia-Banke.

Bardia, New South Wales

Bardia is a suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia located 44 kilometres (27 mi) south-west of the Sydney central business district, in the local government areas of the City of Campbelltown

and City of Liverpool. It is part of the Macarthur region. Bardia was gazetted as a suburb on 18 December 2009.

Bardia (Nepal)

Bardia is a geographic region in the Democratic Republic of Nepal.

Bardia comprises a portion of the Terai, or lowland hills and valleys of southern Nepal. The Terai is over 1,000 feet (300 m) in elevation, and extends all along the Indian border. The Terai once supported a healthy wildlife population in a habitat of 25 foot (8 m) high elephant grass and dense hardwood forests, but had very few people, due to virulent malarial mosquitos.

The Bardia National Park is the largest and most undisturbed protected area of the Terai region of Nepal.

Bardia Mural

The Bardia Mural was created in a building on a clifftop overlooking the bay in Bardia, Libya, during World War II by John Frederick Brill just prior to his death at the age of 22. It depicts a collage of images that range from the horrors of war shown by skulls to the memories of home, shown by wine, women and song.

The mural still exists and can still be visited. It has, however, been defaced and its state has declined with a large crack in the wall on which it was created. Much of the lower part of the mural is lost.

As of April 2009, renovation work had been started by Italian artists who have filled the cracks and replaced broken plaster. Parts of the mural have been cleaned removing graffiti and restoring some of the 'blackness' of the paint.

A photograph of John Brill painting his mother can be seen here.

Bardiya National Park

Bardiya National Park (Nepali: बर्दिया राष्ट्रिय निकुञ्ज; Bardiya Rastriya Nikunja.ogg ), also spelled Bardia, is a protected area in Nepal that was established in 1988 as Royal Bardia National Park. Covering an area of 968 km2 (374 sq mi) it is the largest and most undisturbed national park in Nepal's Terai, adjoining the eastern bank of the Karnali River and bisected by the Babai River in the Bardiya District. Its northern limits are demarcated by the crest of the Siwalik Hills. The Nepalgunj-Surkhet highway partly forms the southern boundary, but seriously disrupts the protected area. Natural boundaries to human settlements are formed in the west by the Geruwa, a branch of the Karnali River, and in the southeast by the Babai River.Together with the neighboring Banke National Park, the coherent protected area of 1,437 km2 (555 sq mi) represents the Tiger Conservation Unit (TCU) Bardia-Banke that extends over 2,231 km2 (861 sq mi) of alluvial grasslands and subtropical moist deciduous forests.

Battle of Bardia

The Battle of Bardia was fought over three days between 3 and 5 January 1941, as part of Operation Compass, the first military operation of the Western Desert Campaign of the Second World War. It was the first battle of the war in which an Australian Army formation took part, the first to be commanded by an Australian general and the first to be planned by an Australian staff. Major General Iven Mackay's 6th Division assaulted the strongly held Italian fortress of Bardia, Libya, assisted by air support and naval gunfire, and under the cover of an artillery barrage. The 16th Infantry Brigade attacked at dawn from the west, where the defences were known to be weak. Sappers blew gaps in the barbed wire with Bangalore torpedoes and filled in and broke down the sides of the anti-tank ditch with picks and shovels. This allowed the infantry and 23 Matilda II tanks of the 7th Royal Tank Regiment to enter the fortress and capture all their objectives, along with 8,000 prisoners.

In the second phase of the operation, the 17th Infantry Brigade exploited the breach made in the perimeter, and pressed south as far as a secondary line of defences known as the Switch Line. On the second day, the 16th Infantry Brigade captured the township of Bardia, cutting the fortress in two. Thousands of prisoners were taken, and the Italian garrison now held out only in the northern and southernmost parts of the fortress. On the third day, the 19th Infantry Brigade advanced south from Bardia, supported by artillery and the Matilda tanks, now reduced in number to just six. Its advance allowed the 17th Infantry Brigade to make progress as well, and the two brigades reduced the southern sector of the fortress. Meanwhile, the Italian garrisons in the north surrendered to the 16th Infantry Brigade and the Support Group of the British 7th Armoured Division outside the fortress. In all, some 36,000 Italian prisoners were taken.

The victory at Bardia enabled the Allied forces to continue the advance into Libya and ultimately capture almost all of Cyrenaica. In turn this would lead to German intervention in the fighting in North Africa, changing the nature of the war in that theatre.

Bengal florican

The Bengal florican (Houbaropsis bengalensis), also called Bengal bustard, is a bustard species native to the Indian subcontinent, Cambodia and Vietnam. It is listed as Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List because fewer than 1,000 individuals were estimated to be alive as of 2017.

It is the only member of the genus Houbaropsis.

Electoral district of Macquarie Fields

Macquarie Fields is an electoral district of the Legislative Assembly in the Australian state of New South Wales, located in the outer south-western suburbs of Sydney. It is currently represented by Anoulack Chanthivong of the Labor Party.

It currently includes the suburbs of Bardia, Bow Bowing, Casula, Cross Roads, Denham Court, Edmondson Park, Eschol Park, Glenfield, Ingleburn, Kearns, Kentlyn, Leppington, Leumeah, Long Point, Macquarie Fields, Macquarie Links, Minto, Minto Heights, Raby, St Andrews and Varroville.

HMS Ladybird (1916)

HMS Ladybird was an Insect-class gunboat of the Royal Navy, launched in 1916. This class are also referred to as "large China gunboats". Originally built to patrol the River Danube during the First World War, she sailed for China from Malta in February 1927 to serve on the Yangtze River.

Jackal's horn

The Jackal's Horn is a boney cone-shaped excrescence which can occasionally grow on the skulls of golden jackals. It is associated with magical powers in South Asia. This horn usually measures half an inch in length, and is concealed by fur.

In the 1800s, the natives of Sri Lanka called this growth narric-comboo, and both Tamil and Sinhalese people traditionally believe it to be a potent amulet which can grant wishes and reappear to its owner at its own accord when lost. Some Sinhalese believe that the horn can grant the holder invulnerability in any lawsuit.According to healers and witch doctors in Nepal, a jackal horn can be used to win in gambling bouts, and ward off evil spirits. The Tharu people of Bardia (Nepal) believe that jackal horns are retractible, and only protrude when jackals howl in chorus. A hunter who manages to extract the horn will place it in a silver casket of vermilion powder, which is thought to give the object sustenance. The Tharu believe that the horn can grant the owner the ability to see in the dark and seduce women.In some areas, the horn is called Seear Singhi or "Geedhar Singhi" the word "Geedhar" is the Urdu translation of Jackle and (the root words being the Persian "seah" meaning black, and "Singh" which means horn in Hindi and Urdu) and is tied to the necks of children. The horn is sometimes traded by low caste people, though it is thought that they are in fact pieces of deer antlers sold to the credulous.In Bengal, it is believed that when placed within a safe, jackal horns can increase the amount of money within three-fold. Some criminal elements of the Bengal Sansi will use fake jackal horns to lull unwitting people into trusting them, and will offer to place these horns into their victim's safe in order to discover its location.

Operation Compass

Operation Compass (also la battaglia della Marmarica) was the first large Allied military operation of the Western Desert Campaign (1940–1943) during the Second World War. British and other Commonwealth and Allied forces attacked Italian forces in western Egypt and Cyrenaica, the eastern province of Libya, from December 1940 to February 1941. The Western Desert Force (Lieutenant-General Richard O'Connor) with about 36,000 men, advanced from Mersa Matruh in Egypt on a five-day raid against the Italian positions of the 10th Army (Marshal Rodolfo Graziani), which had about 150,000 men in fortified posts around Sidi Barrani in Egypt and in Cyrenaica.

The 10th Army was swiftly defeated and the British continued the operation, pursuing the remnants of the 10th Army to Beda Fomm and El Agheila on the Gulf of Sirte. The British took over 138,000 Italian and Libyan prisoners, hundreds of tanks, and more than 1,000 guns and aircraft, against British losses of 1,900 men killed and wounded, about 10 per cent of the infantry. The British were unable to continue beyond El Agheila, due to broken down and worn out vehicles and the diversion, beginning in March 1941, of the best-equipped units to the Greek Campaign in Operation Lustre.

Operation Crusader

Operation Crusader was a military operation during the Second World War by the British Eighth Army against the Axis forces in North Africa between 18 November and 30 December 1941. The operation was intended to relieve the 1941 Siege of Tobruk; the Eighth Army tried to destroy the Axis armoured force before advancing its infantry. The plan failed when, after a number of inconclusive engagements, the British 7th Armoured Division was defeated by the Afrika Korps at Sidi Rezegh.

Lieutenant General Erwin Rommel ordered German armoured divisions to the Axis fortress positions on the Egyptian border but failed to find the main body of the Allied infantry, which had bypassed the fortresses and headed for Tobruk. Rommel had to withdraw from the frontier to Tobruk and achieved some tactical success in costly fighting. The need to preserve his remaining forces from destruction prompted Rommel to withdraw his army to the defensive line at Gazala, west of Tobruk and then all the way back to El Agheila. It was the first victory over the German ground forces by British forces in the war.

Raid on Bardia

The Raid on Bardia was an amphibious landing at the coastal town of Bardia in North Africa by British Commandos over the night of 19/20 April 1941 during the Second World War. The raid was carried out by No. 7 Commando also known as A Battalion Layforce together with a small detachment from the Royal Tank Regiment supported by five navy ships and a submarine. The raid—which destroyed an Italian artillery battery and a supply dump—was deemed a success despite the loss of 71 men. The more lasting strategic effect of the raid was the diversion of a German armoured brigade from the front line to provide rear area security.

Via della Vittoria

The Via della Vittoria was a military road between Bardia in Italian Libya and Sidi Barrani in western Egypt.

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