Barbie is a fashion doll manufactured by the American toy company Mattel, Inc. and launched in March 1959. American businesswoman Ruth Handler is credited with the creation of the doll using a German doll called Bild Lilli as her inspiration.

Barbie is the figurehead of a brand of Mattel dolls and accessories, including other family members and collectible dolls. Barbie has been an important part of the toy fashion doll market for over fifty years, and has been the subject of numerous controversies and lawsuits, often involving parodies of the doll and her lifestyle.

Mattel has sold over a billion Barbie dolls, making it the company's largest and most profitable line. However, sales have declined sharply since 2014.[1] The doll transformed the toy business in affluent communities worldwide by becoming a vehicle for the sale of related merchandise (accessories, clothes, friends of Barbie, etc.). She had a significant impact on social values by conveying characteristics of female independence, and with her multitude of accessories, an idealized upscale life-style that can be shared with affluent friends.[2] Starting in 1987, Barbie has expanded into a media franchise, including animated films, television specials, video games, and music.

Barbie Logo
First appearanceMarch 9, 1959
Created byRuth Handler
OccupationSee: Barbie's careers
FamilySee: List of Barbie's friends and family


The first Barbie doll was introduced in both blonde and brunette in March 1959.

Ruth Handler watched her daughter Barbara play with paper dolls, and noticed that she often enjoyed giving them adult roles. At the time, most children's toy dolls were representations of infants. Realizing that there could be a gap in the market, Handler suggested the idea of an adult-bodied doll to her husband Elliot, a co-founder of the Mattel toy company. He was unenthusiastic about the idea, as were Mattel's directors.

During a trip to Europe in 1956 with her children Barbara and Kenneth, Ruth Handler came across a German toy doll called Bild Lilli.[3] The adult-figured doll was exactly what Handler had in mind, so she purchased three of them. She gave one to her daughter and took the others back to Mattel. The Lilli doll was based on a popular character appearing in a comic strip drawn by Reinhard Beuthin for the newspaper Bild. Lilli was a blonde bombshell, a working girl who knew what she wanted and was not above using men to get it. The Lilli doll was first sold in Germany in 1955, and although it was initially sold to adults, it became popular with children who enjoyed dressing her up in outfits that were available separately[4].

Upon her return to the United States, Handler redesigned the doll (with help from engineer Jack Ryan) and the doll was given a new name, Barbie, after Handler's daughter Barbara. The doll made its debut at the American International Toy Fair in New York on March 9, 1959.[5] This date is also used as Barbie's official birthday.

The first Barbie doll wore a black and white zebra striped swimsuit and signature topknot ponytail, and was available as either a blonde or brunette. The doll was marketed as a "Teen-age Fashion Model," with her clothes created by Mattel fashion designer Charlotte Johnson. The first Barbie dolls were manufactured in Japan, with their clothes hand-stitched by Japanese homeworkers. Around 350,000 Barbie dolls were sold during the first year of production.

Louis Marx and Company sued Mattel in March 1961. After licensing Lilli, they claimed that Mattel had “infringed on Greiner & Hausser's patent for Bild-Lilli’s hip joint, and also claimed that Barbie was "a direct take-off and copy" of Bild-Lilli. The company additionally claimed that Mattel "falsely and misleadingly represented itself as having originated the design". Mattel counter-claimed and the case was settled out of court in 1963. In 1964, Mattel bought Greiner & Hausser's copyright and patent rights for the Bild-Lilli doll for $21,600.[6][7]

Ruth Handler believed that it was important for Barbie to have an adult appearance, and early market research showed that some parents were unhappy about the doll's chest, which had distinct breasts. Barbie's appearance has been changed many times, most notably in 1971 when the doll's eyes were adjusted to look forwards rather than having the demure sideways glance of the original model.

Barbie was one of the first toys to have a marketing strategy based extensively on television advertising, which has been copied widely by other toys. It is estimated that over a billion Barbie dolls have been sold worldwide in over 150 countries, with Mattel claiming that three Barbie dolls are sold every second.[8]

The standard range of Barbie dolls and related accessories are manufactured to approximately 1/6 scale, which is also known as playscale.[9] The standard dolls are approximately 11½ inches tall.

Media franchise

Barbie products include not only the range of dolls with their clothes and accessories, but also a large range of Barbie branded goods such as books, apparel, cosmetics, and video games. Barbie has had a media franchise starting in 1987, when she began appearing in a series of animated films.

Barbie's direct-to-DVD animated films have sold more than 27 million units worldwide, as of 2006.[10] In addition, the brand has had two television specials, Barbie and the Rockers: Out of This World and Barbie and the Sensations: Rockin' Back to Earth, as well as a hit song, "Barbie Girl" (1997) by Aqua. She is also a supporting character in the Pixar films Toy Story 2 and Toy Story 3.

Legacy and influence

Barbie has become a cultural icon and has been given honors that are rare in the toy world. In 1974, a section of Times Square in New York City was renamed Barbie Boulevard for a week. The Musée des Arts Décoratifs, Paris at the Louvre held a Barbie exhibit in 2016. The exhibit featured 700 Barbie dolls over two floors as well as works by contemporary artists and documents (newspapers, photos, video) that contextualize Barbie.[11]

In 1986, the artist Andy Warhol created a painting of Barbie. The painting sold at auction at Christie's, London for $1.1 million. In 2015, The Andy Warhol Foundation then teamed up with Mattel to create an Andy Warhol Barbie.[12][13]

Outsider artist Al Carbee took thousands of photographs of Barbie and created countless collages and dioramas featuring Barbie in various settings.[14] Carbee was the subject of the feature-length documentary Magical Universe. Carbee's collage art was presented in the 2016 Barbie exhibit at the Musée des Arts Décoratifs, Paris in the section about visuals artists who have been inspired by Barbie.[15]

In 2013, in Taiwan, the first Barbie-themed restaurant called "Barbie Café" opened under the Sinlaku group.[16]

The Economist has emphasized the importance of Barbie to children's imagination:

From her early days as a teenage fashion model, Barbie has appeared as an astronaut, surgeon, Olympic athlete, downhill skier, aerobics instructor, TV news reporter, vet, rock star, doctor, army officer, air force pilot, summit diplomat, rap musician, presidential candidate (party undefined), baseball player, scuba diver, lifeguard, fire-fighter, engineer, dentist, and many more....When Barbie first burst into the toy shops, just as the 1960s were breaking, the doll market consisted mostly of babies, designed for girls to cradle, rock and feed. By creating a doll with adult features, Mattel enabled girls to become anything they want.[17]

50th anniversary

In 2009, Barbie celebrated her 50th birthday. The celebrations included a runway show in New York for the Mercedes-Benz Fashion Week.[18] The event showcased fashions contributed by fifty well-known haute couturiers including Diane von Fürstenberg, Vera Wang, Calvin Klein, Bob Mackie, and Christian Louboutin.[19][20]

Fictional biography

Barbie's full name is Barbara Millicent Roberts. In a series of novels published by Random House in the 1960s, her parents' names are given as George and Margaret Roberts from the fictional town of Willows, Wisconsin.[21] In the Random House novels, Barbie attended Willows High School; while in the Generation Girl books, published by Golden Books in 1999, she attended the fictional Manhattan International High School in New York City (based on the real-life Stuyvesant High School).[22]

She has an on-off romantic relationship with her boyfriend Ken ("Ken Carson"), who first appeared in 1961. A news release from Mattel in February 2004 announced that Barbie and Ken had decided to split up,[23] but in February 2006, they were hoping to rekindle their relationship after Ken had a makeover.[24]

Barbie has had over 40 pets including cats and dogs, horses, a panda, a lion cub, and a zebra. She has owned a wide range of vehicles, including pink Corvette convertibles, trailers, and Jeeps. She also holds a pilot's license, and operates commercial airliners in addition to serving as a flight attendant. Barbie's careers are designed to show that women can take on a variety of roles in life, and the doll has been sold with a wide range of titles including Miss Astronaut Barbie (1965), Doctor Barbie (1988), and Nascar Barbie (1998).

Mattel has created a range of companions for Barbie, including Hispanic Teresa, Midge, African American Christie, and Steven (Christie's boyfriend). Barbie's siblings and cousins were also created including Skipper, Todd and Stacie (twin brother and sister), Kelly, Krissy, and Francie. Barbie was friendly with Blaine, an Australian surfer, during her split with Ken in 2004.[25]


Body Image

From the start, some have complained that "the blonde, plastic doll conveyed an unrealistic body image to girls."[26]

Criticisms of Barbie are often centered around concerns that children consider Barbie a role model and will attempt to emulate her. One of the most common criticisms of Barbie is that she promotes an unrealistic idea of body image for a young woman, leading to a risk that girls who attempt to emulate her will become anorexic.[27] A standard Barbie doll is 11.5 inches tall, giving a height of 5 feet 9 inches at 1/6 scale. Barbie's vital statistics have been estimated at 36 inches (chest), 18 inches (waist) and 33 inches (hips). According to research by the University Central Hospital in Helsinki, Finland, she would lack the 17 to 22 percent body fat required for a woman to menstruate.[28] In 1963, the outfit "Barbie Baby-Sits" came with a book entitled How to Lose Weight which advised: "Don't eat!".[29] The same book was included in another ensemble called "Slumber Party" in 1965 along with a pink bathroom scale permanently set at 110 lbs.,[29] which would be around 35 lbs. underweight for a woman 5 feet 9 inches tall.[30] Mattel said that the waist of the Barbie doll was made small because the waistbands of her clothes, along with their seams, snaps, and zippers, added bulk to her figure.[31] In 1997, Barbie's body mold was redesigned and given a wider waist, with Mattel saying that this would make the doll better suited to contemporary fashion designs.[32][33] In 2016, Mattel introduced a range of new body types: 'tall', 'petite', and 'curvy'. 'Curvy Barbie' received a great deal of media attention[34][35][36] and even made the cover of Time magazine with the headline 'Now Can We Stop Talking About My Body?'.[37] Despite the curvy doll's body shape being equivalent to a US size 4 in clothing,[38] many children regard her as 'fat'.[39][40]

Barbie's waist has been widened in more recent versions of the doll.
How to lose weight II
Back cover of the vintage booklet entitled How to Lose Weight, stating "Don't Eat!".
Barbie bathroom scale
Bathroom scale from 1965, permanently set at 110 lbs.
Oreo Fun Barbie from 1997 became controversial after a negative interpretation of the doll's name.


Complaints also point to a lack of diversity in the line.[41] Mattel responded to these criticisms. Starting in 1980, it produced Hispanic dolls, and later came models from across the globe. For example, in 2007, it introduced "Cinco de Mayo Barbie" wearing a ruffled red, white, and green dress (echoing the Mexican flag). Hispanic magazine reports that:

[O]ne of the most dramatic developments in Barbie's history came when she embraced multi-culturalism and was released in a wide variety of native costumes, hair colors and skin tones to more closely resemble the girls who idolized her. Among these were Cinco De Mayo Barbie, Spanish Barbie, Peruvian Barbie, Mexican Barbie and Puerto Rican Barbie. She also has had close Hispanic friends, such as Teresa.[42]

"Colored Francie" made her debut in 1967, and she is sometimes described as the first African American Barbie doll. However, she was produced using the existing head molds for the white Francie doll and lacked African characteristics other than a dark skin. The first African American doll in the Barbie range is usually regarded as Christie, who made her debut in 1968.[43][44] Black Barbie was launched in 1980 but still had Caucasian features. In 1990, Mattel created a focus group with African American children and parents, early childhood specialists, and clinical psychologist, Darlene Powell Hudson. Instead of using the same molds for the Caucasian Barbies, new ones were created. In addition, facial features, skin tones, hair texture, and names were all altered. The body shapes looked different, but the proportions were the same to ensure clothing and accessories were interchangeable.[45] In September 2009, Mattel introduced the So In Style range, which was intended to create a more realistic depiction of African American people than previous dolls.[46] In 2016, Mattel expanded this line to include seven skin tones, twenty-two eye colors, and twenty-four hairstyles. Part of the reason for this change was due to declining sales.[47]

Mattel teamed up with Nabisco to launch a cross-promotion of Barbie with Oreo cookies. Oreo Fun Barbie was marketed as someone with whom young girls could play after class and share "America's favorite cookie." As had become the custom, Mattel manufactured both a white and a black version. Critics argued that in the African American community, Oreo is a derogatory term meaning that the person is "black on the outside and white on the inside," like the chocolate sandwich cookie itself. The doll was unsuccessful and Mattel recalled the unsold stock, making it sought after by collectors.[48]

In May 1997, Mattel introduced Share a Smile Becky, a doll in a pink wheelchair. Kjersti Johnson, a 17-year-old high school student in Tacoma, Washington with cerebral palsy, pointed out that the doll would not fit into the elevator of Barbie's $100 Dream House. Mattel announced that it would redesign the house in the future to accommodate the doll.[49][50]

Bad Influence Concerns

In July 1992, Mattel released Teen Talk Barbie, which spoke a number of phrases including "Will we ever have enough clothes?", "I love shopping!", and "Wanna have a pizza party?" Each doll was programmed to say four out of 270 possible phrases, so that no two given dolls were likely to be the same. One of these 270 phrases was "Math class is tough!". Although only about 1.5% of all the dolls sold said the phrase, it led to criticism from the American Association of University Women. In October 1992, Mattel announced that Teen Talk Barbie would no longer say the phrase, and offered a swap to anyone who owned a doll that did.[51]

In September 2003, the Middle Eastern country of Saudi Arabia outlawed the sale of Barbie dolls, saying that she did not conform to the ideals of Islam. The Committee for the Promotion of Virtue and the Prevention of Vice stated "Jewish Barbie dolls, with their revealing clothes and shameful postures, accessories and tools are a symbol of decadence to the perverted West. Let us beware of her dangers and be careful."[52] In Middle Eastern countries, there is an alternative doll called Fulla, which is equivalent to Barbie but is designed specifically to accommodate an Islamic community. Fulla is not manufactured by the Mattel Corporation (although Mattel still licenses Fulla dolls and franchises for sale in some countries), and the "Jewish" Barbie dolls are still available in other Muslim-majority countries including Egypt.[53] In Iran, Sara and Dara dolls, introduced in March 2002, are available as an alternative to Barbie, even though they have not been as successful as Barbie.[54]

In April 2009, the launch of a Totally Tattoos Barbie with a range of tattoos that could be applied to the doll, including a lower-back tattoo, led to controversy. Mattel's promotional material read "Customize the fashions and apply the fun temporary tattoos on you too", but Ed Mayo, chief executive of Consumer Focus, argued that children might want to get tattooed themselves.[55]

In November 2014, Mattel received criticism over the book I Can Be a Computer Engineer, which depicted Barbie as being inept at computers and requiring that her two male friends complete all of the necessary tasks to restore two laptops after she downloads a virus onto both of them.[56] Critics complained that the book was sexist, as other books in the I Can Be... series depicted Barbie as someone who was competent in those jobs and did not require outside assistance from others.[57] Mattel later removed the book from sale on Amazon in response to the criticism.[58]

Safety Concerns

In March 2000, stories appeared in the media claiming that the hard vinyl used in vintage Barbie dolls could leak toxic chemicals, causing danger to children playing with them. The claim was described as an overreaction by Joseph Prohaska, a professor at the University of Minnesota Duluth. A modern Barbie doll has a body made from ABS plastic, while the head is made from soft PVC.[59][60]

In July 2010, Mattel released "Barbie Video Girl", a Barbie doll with a pinhole video camera in its chest, enabling clips of up to 30 minutes to be recorded, viewed, and uploaded to a computer via a USB cable. On November 30, 2010, the FBI issued a warning in a private memo that the doll could be used to produce child pornography, although it stated publicly that there was "no reported evidence that the doll had been used in any way other than intended."[61][62]

In March 2015, concerns were raised about a version of the doll called "Hello Barbie", which can hold conversations with a child using speech recognition technology. The doll transmits data back to a service called ToyTalk, which according to Forbes, has a terms of service and privacy policy that allow it to “share audio recordings with third party vendors who assist us with speech recognition,” and states that “recordings and photos may also be used for research and development purposes, such as to improve speech recognition technology and artificial intelligence algorithms and create better entertainment experiences.”[63]

Parodies and lawsuits

Barbie has frequently been the target of parody:

  • Mattel sued artist Tom Forsythe over a series of photographs called Food Chain Barbie in which Barbie winds up in a blender.[64][65][66] Mattel lost the lawsuit and was forced to pay Forsythe's legal costs.[64]
  • In 2011, Greenpeace parodied Barbie,[67] calling on Mattel to adopt a policy for its paper purchases that would protect the rainforest. According to Phil Radford, Greenpeace Executive Director, the organization's “forensic testing and global research show how Mattel products are using mixed tropical hardwood from Asia Pulp and Paper, a company that is ripping down the paradise forests of Indonesia… Sumatran tigers, elephants and orangutans are being pushed to the brink of extinction because Mattel simply isn’t interested in the origins of Barbie’s pink box.”[68] Four months later, Mattel adopted a paper sustainability policy.[69]
  • Mattel filed a lawsuit in 2004 in the U.S. against Barbara Anderson-Walley, a Canadian business owner whose nickname is Barbie, over her website, which sells fetish clothing.[70][71] The lawsuit was dismissed.[64]
  • The Tonight Show with Jay Leno displayed a "Barbie Crystal Meth Lab".
  • Saturday Night Live aired a parody of the Barbie commercials featuring "Gangsta Bitch Barbie" and "Tupac Ken".[72] In 2002, the show also aired a skit, which starred Britney Spears as Barbie's sister Skipper.[73]
  • In November 2002, a New York judge refused an injunction against the British-based artist Susanne Pitt, who had produced a "Dungeon Barbie" doll in bondage clothing.[74]
  • Aqua's song "Barbie Girl" was the subject of the lawsuit Mattel v. MCA Records, which Mattel lost in 2002, with Judge Alex Kozinski saying that the song was a "parody and a social commentary".[75][76]
  • Two commercials by automobile company Nissan featuring dolls similar to Barbie and Ken was the subject of another lawsuit in 1997. In the first commercial, a female doll is lured into a car by a doll resembling G.I. Joe to the dismay of a Ken-like doll, accompanied by Van Halen's "You Really Got Me".[77] In the second commercial, the "Barbie" doll is saved by the "G.I. Joe" doll after she is accidentally knocked into a swimming pool by the "Ken" doll to Kiss's "Dr. Love".[78] The makers of the commercial said that the dolls' names were Roxanne, Nick, and Tad. Mattel claimed that the commercial did "irreparable damage" to its products,[79][80] but settled.[81]
  • In 1993, a group calling itself the Barbie Liberation Organization secretly modified a group of Barbie dolls by implanting voice boxes from G.I. Joe dolls, then returning the Barbies to the toy stores from where they were purchased.[82][83]
  • Malibu Stacy from The Simpsons episode "Lisa vs. Malibu Stacy" (1994).


Mattel estimates that there are well over 100,000 avid Barbie collectors. Ninety percent are women, at an average age of 40, purchasing more than twenty Barbie dolls each year. Forty-five percent of them spend upwards of $1000 a year. Vintage Barbie dolls from the early years are the most valuable at auction, and while the original Barbie was sold for $3.00 in 1959, a mint boxed Barbie from 1959 sold for $3552.50 on eBay in October 2004.[84] On September 26, 2006, a Barbie doll set a world record at auction of £9,000 sterling (US$17,000) at Christie's in London. The doll was a Barbie in Midnight Red from 1965 and was part of a private collection of 4,000 Barbie dolls being sold by two Dutch women, Ietje Raebel and her daughter Marina.[85]

In recent years, Mattel has sold a wide range of Barbie dolls aimed specifically at collectors, including porcelain versions, vintage reproductions, and depictions of Barbie as a range of characters from film and television series such as The Munsters and Star Trek.[86][87] There are also collector's edition dolls depicting Barbie dolls with a range of different ethnic identities.[88] In 2004, Mattel introduced the Color Tier system for its collector's edition Barbie dolls including pink, silver, gold, and platinum, depending on how many of the dolls are produced.[89]

In March 2018, in time for International Women's Day, Mattel unveiled the "Barbie Celebrates Role Models" campaign with a line of 17 dolls, informally known as "sheroes", from diverse backgrounds "to showcase examples of extraordinary women"[90][91]. Mattel developed this collection in response to mothers concerned about their daughters having positive female role models[90]. Dolls in this collection include Frida Kahlo, Patti Jenkins, Chloe Kim, Nicola Adams, Ibtihaj Muhammad, Bindi Irwin, Amelia Earhart, Misty Copeland, Helene Darroze, Katherine Johnson, Sara Gama, Martyna Wojciechowska, Gabby Douglas, Guan Xiaotong, Ava Duvernay, Yuan Yuan Tan, and Leyla Piedayesh.[90]

Competition from Bratz dolls

In June 2001, MGA Entertainment launched the Bratz series of dolls, a move that gave Barbie her first serious competition in the fashion doll market. In 2004, sales figures showed that Bratz dolls were outselling Barbie dolls in the United Kingdom, although Mattel maintained that in terms of the number of dolls, clothes, and accessories sold, Barbie remained the leading brand.[92] In 2005, figures showed that sales of Barbie dolls had fallen by 30% in the United States, and by 18% worldwide, with much of the drop being attributed to the popularity of Bratz dolls.[93]

In December 2006, Mattel sued MGA Entertainment for $500 million, alleging that Bratz creator Carter Bryant was working for Mattel when he developed the idea for Bratz.[94] On July 17, 2008, a federal jury agreed that the Bratz line was created by Carter Bryant while he was working for Mattel and that MGA and its Chief Executive Officer Isaac Larian were liable for converting Mattel property for their own use and intentionally interfering with the contractual duties owed by Bryant to Mattel.[95] On August 26, the jury found that Mattel would have to be paid $100 million in damages. On December 3, 2008, U.S. District Judge Stephen Larson banned MGA from selling Bratz. He allowed the company to continue selling the dolls until the winter holiday season ended.[96][97] On appeal, a stay was granted by the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit; the Court also overturned the District Court's original ruling for Mattel, where MGA Entertainment was ordered to forfeit the entire Bratz brand.[98][99]

Mattel Inc. and MGA Entertainment Inc. returned to court on January 18, 2011 to renew their battle over who owns Bratz, which this time includes accusations from both companies that the other side stole trade secrets.[100] On April 21, 2011, a federal jury returned a verdict supporting MGA.[101] On August 5, 2011, Mattel was also ordered to pay MGA $310 million for attorney fees, stealing trade secrets, and false claims rather than the $88.5 million issued in April.[102]

In August 2009, MGA introduced a range of dolls called Moxie Girlz, intended as a replacement for Bratz dolls.[103]

Barbie syndrome

"Barbie syndrome" is a term that has been used to depict the desire to have a physical appearance and lifestyle representative of the Barbie doll. It is most often associated with pre-teenage and adolescent females but is applicable to any age group or gender. A person with Barbie syndrome attempts to emulate the doll's physical appearance, even though the doll has unattainable body proportions.[104] This syndrome is seen as a form of body dysmorphic disorder and results in various eating disorders as well as an obsession with cosmetic surgery.[105]

Ukrainian model Valeria Lukyanova has received attention from the press, due in part to her appearance having been modified based on the physique of Barbie.[106][107][108] She stated that she has only had breast implants and relies heavily on make up and contacts to alter her appearance.[109][110] Similarly, Lacey Wildd, an American reality television personality frequently referred to as "Million Dollar Barbie" has also undergone 12 breast augmentation surgeries to become "the extreme Barbie".[111]

Rodrigo Alves, the "Human Ken Doll", has undergone over £373,000 worth of cosmetic procedures to match the appearance of Barbie's male counterpart.These procedures have included multiple nose jobs, six pack ab implants, a buttock lift, and hair and chest implants.[112] Sporting the same nickname, Justin Jedlica, the American businessman, has also received multiple cosmetic surgeries to enhance his Ken-like appearance.

In 2006, researchers Helga Dittmar, Emma Halliwell, and Suzanne Ive conducted an experiment testing how dolls, including Barbie, effect self-image in young girls. Dittmar, Halliwell, and Ive gave picture books to girls age 5–8, one with photos of Barbie and the other with photos of Emme, a doll with more realistic physical features. The girls were then asked about their ideal body size. Their research found that the girls who were exposed to the images of Barbie had significantly lower self-esteem than the girls who had photos of Emme.[113]

See also


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  2. ^ Don Richard Cox, "Barbie and her playmates." Journal of Popular Culture 11.2 (1977): 303-307.
  3. ^ In an interview with M.G.Lord, the author of Forever Barbie, Ruth Handler said that she saw the doll in Lucerne, Switzerland. However, the book points out that on other occasions Handler said that she saw the doll in Zurich or Vienna.
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  28. ^ What would a real life Barbie look like? BBC News, March 6, 2009
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  30. ^ M.G. Lord, Forever Barbie, Chapter 11 ISBN 0-8027-7694-9
  31. ^ Elliott, Stuart (October 21, 2010). "Barbie (Doll) – Times Topics". The New York Times. Retrieved February 16, 2012.
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  33. ^ Winterman, Denise (March 6, 2009). "What would a real life Barbie look like?". BBC News. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
  34. ^ Bates, Claire (2016-03-03). "How does 'Curvy Barbie' compare with an average woman?". BBC News. Retrieved 2018-04-19.
  35. ^ Cartner-Morley, Jess (2016-01-28). "Curvy Barbie: is it the end of the road for the thigh gap?". the Guardian. Retrieved 2018-04-19.
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Further reading

  • Best, Joel. "Too Much Fun: Toys as Social Problems and the Interpretation of Culture," Symbolic Interaction 21#2 (1998), pp. 197–212. DOI: 10.1525/si.1998.21.2.197 in JSTOR
  • Cox, Don Richard. "Barbie and her playmates." Journal of Popular Culture 11#2 (1977): 303-307.
  • Forman-Brunell, Miriam. "Barbie in" LIFE": The Life of Barbie." Journal of the History of Childhood and Youth 2#3 (2009): 303-311. online
  • Gerber, Robin (2009). Barbie and Ruth: The Story of the World's Most Famous Doll and the Woman Who Created Her. Collins Business. ISBN 978-0-06-134131-1.
  • Karniol, Rachel, Tamara Stuemler‐Cohen, and Yael Lahav‐Gur. "Who Likes Bratz? The Impact of Girls’ Age and Gender Role Orientation on Preferences for Barbie Versus Bratz." Psychology & Marketing 29#11 (2012): 897-906.
  • Knaak, Silke, "German Fashion Dolls of the 50&60". Paperback
  • Lord, M. G. (2004). Forever Barbie: the unauthorized biography of a real doll. New York: Walker & Co. ISBN 978-0-8027-7694-5.
  • Plumb, Suzie, ed. (2005). Guys 'n' Dolls: Art, Science, Fashion and Relationships. Royal Pavilion, Art Gallery & Museums. ISBN 0-948723-57-2.
  • Rogers, Mary Ann (1999). Barbie culture. London: SAGE Publications. ISBN 0-7619-5888-6.
  • Sherman, Aurora M., and Eileen L. Zurbriggen. "'Boys can be anything': Effect of Barbie play on girls’ career cognitions." Sex roles 70.5-6 (2014): 195-208. online
  • Singleton, Bridget (2000). The Art of Barbie. London: Vision On. ISBN 0-9537479-2-1.
  • BillyBoy* (1987). Barbie: Her Life & Times. Crown. ISBN 978-0-517-59063-8.

External links

Aqua (band)

Aqua is a Danish-Norwegian dance group, best known for their 1997 breakthrough single "Barbie Girl". The group formed in 1989 and achieved huge success around the globe in the late 1990s and early 2000s. The group released three albums: Aquarium in 1997, Aquarius in 2000 and Megalomania in 2011. The group sold an estimated 33 million albums and singles, making them the most profitable Danish band ever.In their prime, Aqua's singles managed to chart top ten in a number of countries where European pop acts would not normally succeed, including the United States, Canada, Brazil, Australia, and Japan. The group managed to top the UK Singles Chart with three of their singles. The group also caused controversy with the double entendres in their "Barbie Girl" single, with the Barbie doll makers Mattel filing a lawsuit against the group. The lawsuit was finally dismissed by a judge in 2002, who ruled "The parties are advised to chill."The band's members are vocalists Lene Nystrøm and René Dif, keyboardist Søren Rasted, and guitarist Claus Norreen. During their split, Nystrøm, Dif and Rasted all achieved solo chart success, and Norreen continued in the music industry remixing other artists' material. At a press event on 26 October 2007, the group announced a reunion tour, as well as the release of a compilation album featuring new material. Their third album, Megalomania, was released on 3 October 2011.

Barbie (film series)

Barbie is a fashion doll manufactured by the American toy company Mattel, Inc. who has been a computer animated virtual actress starring in direct-to-video animated films. Although Barbie has appeared in miniseries and short films since 1987, the series officially began in 2001 with Barbie in the Nutcracker which is tagged as "(Barbie) Starring in Her First (Feature-length) Movie". It is followed by a total of thirty-five films while the series is on hiatus as of 2017. Other appearances of Barbie as a character in other films including Mattel's My Scene line as well as the Toy Story film series are not considered part of the franchise. Created by Mattel Creations (formerly Mattel Entertainment), the first ten films sold 40 million DVD and VHS units worldwide by 2007, grossing over $700 million in sales. As of 2013, the series has sold over 110 million DVD units worldwide.The Barbie films and their plot lines center on Barbie as a singular CGI actress, and often frame Barbie as a modern girl telling the story to a younger friend while simultaneously starring in the film. Scholars examining how the Barbie films differ from Disney and other princess narratives have concluded that Mattel intentionally attempted to remediate its brand based on feminist criticisms through story-telling in the films. Barbie is always placed as the central heroine of the story, with male characters and romantic interests serving as secondary to the plot.

Barbie Dreams

"Barbie Dreams" is a song recorded by American rapper Nicki Minaj for her fourth studio album Queen (2018). It was released on August 14, 2018, to radio stations through Young Money Entertainment and Cash Money Records as the third single from the album. The song was written by Minaj, Rashad "Ringo" Smith, duo Mel and Mus consisting of Melvin Hough II and Rivelino Raoul Wouter, Christopher Smith, James Brown, and Fred Wesley; while its production was done by Ringo, and Mel and Mus.

Commercially, the song peaked at number 18 on the Billboard Hot 100 and entered the charts of Australia, Canada, and the United Kingdom. For promotion, Minaj debuted the track on Queen Radio show on Beats 1, and continued with a live performance of the song at the 2018 MTV Video Music Awards.

Barbie Forteza

Barbara "Barbie" Ambas Forteza (born July 31, 1997) is a Filipina commercial model and actress.

Barbie Girl

"Barbie Girl" is a song by the Danish-Norwegian dance-pop group Aqua. It was released in May 1997 as the third single from the group's debut studio album, Aquarium (1997). The song was written by Søren Rasted, Claus Norreen, René Dif, and Lene Nystrøm, and was produced by Johnny Jam, Delgado, Rasted, and Norreen. It was written after Rasted saw an exhibit on kitsch culture in Denmark that featured Barbie dolls.The song topped the charts worldwide, particularly in European countries such as the UK, where it was a number-one hit for three weeks. It was also on top of the charts in Australia for the same length of time, and debuted and peaked at number 7 on the US Billboard Hot 100 on 6 September 1997, where it remains Aqua's biggest hit single, and their only one to reach the top 20 of the Billboard Hot 100. It is Aqua's most popular work.

The song was performed as the interval act in the Eurovision Song Contest 2001, and became the subject of the controversial lawsuit Mattel v. MCA Records.

Barbie Hsu

Barbie Hsu (Chinese: 徐熙媛; pinyin: Xú Xīyuán; born 6 October 1976) is a Taiwanese actress, singer, and television host.

Barbie and the Three Musketeers

Barbie and the Three Musketeers is a 2009 direct-to-DVD computer-animated fantasy film and the 16th entry in the Barbie film series. This is the final entry in the second-generation Barbie films. It was released on September 15, 2009. The film features the voice of Kelly Sheridan as Corrine d'Artagnan (played by Barbie), and is based on The Three Musketeers by Alexander Dumas.

Barbie as Rapunzel

Barbie as Rapunzel is a 2002 American - Canadian direct-to-DVD computer-animated fairytale film directed by Owen Hurley. It is the 2nd entry in the Barbie film series, and features the voice of Kelly Sheridan as Barbie. The film is adapted from the Brothers Grimm fairy tale "Rapunzel". This was the first Barbie direct-to-video release to be distributed by Right Entertainment in the UK.

Barbie as the Island Princess

Barbie as the Island Princess is a 2007 American - Canadian direct-to-video computer animated Barbie film. It is part of the Barbie film series, a series of CGI Barbie films, the second to be a musical, and the first movie of Barbie animated under the name of Rainmaker Animation though it was animated by the old Mainframe Animators only. The film features the voice of Kelly Sheridan, who has been voicing the female protagonist in all the CGI Barbie movies to date, as Rosella.The score for this film was composed by Arnie Roth. Songs for the film were written by Megan Cavallari, Amy Powers and Executive Producer Rob Hudnut.

Barbie in the 12 Dancing Princesses

Barbie in the 12 Dancing Princesses is a 2006 direct-to-video computer-animated dance film directed by Greg Richardson and loosely based on the Brothers Grimm's "The Twelve Dancing Princesses". It is 9th entry in the Barbie film series and features the voice of Kelly Sheridan as the Barbie protagonist. It was released on September 19, 2006 and is the first Barbie film to be distributed by Universal Studios (now Universal Pictures).

Music for the film was composed by Arnie Roth. "Shine", the end title song written by Roth, Amy Powers and Rob Hudnut, was nominated for a 2007 Emmy Award.

Barbie in the Nutcracker

Barbie in the Nutcracker is a 2001 American - Canadian direct-to-DVD computer-animated film directed by Owen Hurley. It was the first Barbie film since the 1987 series, Barbie and the Rockers: Out of This World. It is also the first in the CGI second-generation Barbie film series, all of which feature the voice of Kelly Sheridan as the Barbie protagonist. The film is loosely adapted from E. T. A. Hoffmann's The Nutcracker and the Mouse King and music based from Tchaikovsky's ballet The Nutcracker. The film sold more than 3.4 million units on DVD by 2002, and grossed $150 million in total sales.

Edgar Valdez Villarreal

Edgar Valdez Villarreal (born August 11, 1973), also known as La Barbie ("The Barbie"), is a Mexican-American drug lord and a lieutenant of the Beltrán Leyva Cartel, a criminal group based in Sinaloa.

Valdez worked for several years as a cartel lieutenant before rising to a leadership position in an enforcement squad called Los Negros. Following the death of cartel boss Arturo Beltrán Leyva in late 2009, Valdez fought a bloody and protracted gang war for control of the cartel resulting in over 150 deaths. He employed techniques such as videotaped torture and decapitation.On August 30, 2010, he was arrested by Mexican Federal Police at a rural house near Mexico City. His gang, known as Los Negros, collapsed by 2011. He is serving a 49-year sentence in a US federal prison.

Kelly Sheridan

Kelly Sheridan is a Canadian voice actress best known for being the voice for Barbie in the Barbie film series from 2001 to 2010 and from 2012 to 2015. She had also voiced in numerous cartoons and English-language dubs of Japanese anime, including as: Sango in the English dub of the anime series InuYasha, Diana Lombard in Martin Mystery, Theresa in Class of the Titans and Starlight Glimmer in My Little Pony: Friendship is Magic. She had been a member of Genus Theatre Company since August 2005.

Ken (doll)

Kenneth Sean "Ken" Carson is a fashion doll introduced by Mattel in 1961 as the fictional counterpart of Barbie, who was introduced two years earlier. Similar to his female counterpart, Ken has a fashionable line of clothing and accessories. In the Barbie mythos, Ken met Barbie on the set of a TV commercial in 1961, although Mattel has never specified the precise nature of their relationship. Since his debut, Ken has held at least 40 occupations. He was invented by Elliot Handler.

Klaus Barbie

Nikolaus "Klaus" Barbie (25 October 1913 – 25 September 1991) was an SS and Gestapo functionary during the Nazi era. He was known as the "Butcher of Lyon" for having personally tortured French prisoners of the Gestapo while stationed in Lyon, France. After the war, United States intelligence services employed him for his anti-Marxist efforts and also helped him escape to Bolivia, in South America.The West German Intelligence Service later recruited him. Barbie is suspected of having had a hand in the Bolivian coup d'état orchestrated by Luis García Meza Tejada in 1980. After the fall of the dictatorship, Barbie no longer had the protection of the government in La Paz and in 1983 was extradited to France, where he was convicted of crimes against humanity. He died of cancer in prison on 25 September 1991.

List of Barbie's friends and family

This is a list of Barbie's friends and family.


Mattel, Inc. () is an American multinational toy manufacturing company founded in 1945 with headquarters in El Segundo, California. The products and brands it produces include Fisher-Price, Barbie, Monster High, Ever After High, Polly Pocket, Hot Wheels and Matchbox, Masters of the Universe, American Girl, board games, and WWE. In the early 1980s, Mattel produced video game systems, under its own brands and under license from Nintendo. The company has presence in 40 countries and territories and sells products in more than 150 countries. The company operates through three business segments: North America, international, and American Girl. It is the world's second largest toy maker in terms of revenue, after The Lego Group. In 2014, it ranked #403 on the Fortune 500 list. On January 17, 2017, Mattel named former Google executive Margo Georgiadis as CEO. Georgiadis stepped down as CEO of Mattel on April 19, 2018. Her last day was on April 26, 2018. Ynon Kreiz is now the new CEO of Mattel.The name Mattel is a portmanteau of Harold "Matt" Matson and Elliot Handler, the company's founders.

Nicki Minaj

Onika Tanya Maraj (born December 8, 1982), known professionally as Nicki Minaj (), is an American rapper, singer-songwriter, actress, and model. Born in Saint James, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago and raised in Queens, New York City, she gained public recognition after releasing the mixtapes Playtime Is Over (2007), Sucka Free (2008), and Beam Me Up Scotty (2009).

After signing with Young Money Entertainment in 2009, Minaj released her first studio album, Pink Friday (2010), which peaked at number one on the US Billboard 200 and was ultimately certified triple platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA). Her sophomore album, Pink Friday: Roman Reloaded, was released in 2012 and debuted at number one in several countries. Minaj made her film debut in the 2012 animated film Ice Age: Continental Drift. In 2013, she was a judge on the twelfth season of American Idol. Minaj's third studio album, The Pinkprint, was released in 2014. She subsequently played supporting roles in the films The Other Woman (2014) and Barbershop: The Next Cut (2016). Her fourth studio album, Queen, was released in 2018.

Early in her career, Minaj was known for her colorful costumes and wigs. Her rapping is distinctive for its fast flow and the use of alter egos and accents, primarily British cockney. Minaj was the first female artist included on MTV's annual Hottest MC List. In 2016, Minaj was included on the annual Time 100 list of the most influential people in the world. As a lead artist, she has earned four top-five entries on the Billboard Hot 100: "Super Bass" in 2011, "Starships" in 2012, and "Bang Bang" and "Anaconda", both in 2014. She has accumulated the most Billboard Hot 100 entries among women of all genres.Minaj has been called one of the most influential female rap artists of all time. Throughout her career, she has received numerous accolades, including six American Music Awards, 11 BET Awards, four MTV Video Music Awards, four Billboard Music Awards, a Billboard Women in Music Rising Star Award, and 10 Grammy Award nominations. Minaj has sold 20 million singles as a lead artist, 60 million singles as a featured artist, and over five million albums worldwide, making her one of the world's best-selling music artists..

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